The proofreading stage is intended to improve the flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting of the article. It represents the author's last chance to make substantial changes to the text, since the next stage is restricted to typography and formatting correction. The file to be corrected is in Word or .rtf format and therefore can be easily edited as a text document. Instructions for making corrections are displayed in two different ways. The first is based on the Track Changes functionality of Microsoft Word and requires that both the proofreader, the editor and the author have access to this program. A second system, independent of software, is taken, with their permission, from the Harvard Educational Review. The editor of the magazine can modify these instructions, so that suggestions can be made to improve the process of this magazine.