Mendive. Journal on Education, 21(2), e3070

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

The preparation of primary teachers for the formation of constitutional sentiment


La preparación de los maestros primarios para la formación del sentimiento constitucional


A preparação de professores primários para a formação do sentimento constitucional


Yamina Hernández Pelegrí1
Luis Enrique Martínez Hondares1
Carlos Alberto Rojas González1

1University of Pinar del Río Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca. Cuba.,,


Cite as
Hernández Pelegrí, Y., Martínez Hondares, L., & Rojas González, C. (2023). The preparation of primary teachers for the formation of constitutional sentiment. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 21(2), e3070.


Received: May 18, 2022
Approved: January 26, 2023



The development of the constitutional feeling in the students of the third cycle of primary education constitutes a necessity of the current Cuban society. Contributing to the achievement of this endeavor motivated the socialization of a pedagogical strategy for the preparation of the primary teacher in the formation of said feeling. Various methods were used in this inquiry. As a general method the dialectic-materialist; likewise the methods of the theoretical level, such as the historical-logical, analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction, documentary analysis, systemic-structural functional and modeling; from the empirical level: documentary analysis, observation, interview, consultation with specialists and methodological triangulation; and the statistical-mathematical method. In line with the results obtained, a pedagogical strategy was presented that contributed to the enrichment and clarification of the teacher preparation process in the formation of the constitutional feeling and the pedagogical place it occupies in the third cycle of primary education was specified. Actions were proposed for its implementation in the pedagogical practice of this educational level. Its validity was verified through the expert criteria method and a pre-experiment, the results of which contributed to its improvement.

Keywords: pedagogical strategy; feeling formation; constitutional sentiment; Constitution.


El desarrollo del sentimiento constitucional en los escolares del tercer ciclo de la educación primaria constituye una necesidad de la sociedad cubana actual. Contribuir al logro de este empeño motivó la socialización de una estrategia pedagógica para la preparación del maestro primario en la formación de dicho sentimiento. En esta indagación se utilizaron varios métodos. Como método general el dialéctico-materialista; asimismo los métodos del nivel teórico, tales como el histórico-lógico,análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción, análisis documental, sistémico-estructural funcional y la modelación; del nivel empírico: el análisis documental, la observación, la entrevista, la consulta a especialistas y la triangulación metodológica; y el método estadístico-matemático. En consonancia con los resultados obtenidos se presentó una estrategia pedagógica que contribuyó al enriquecimiento y clarificación del proceso de preparación docente en la formación del sentimiento constitucional y se precisó el lugar pedagógico que ocupa en el tercer ciclo de la educación primaria. Se propusieron acciones para su implementación en la práctica pedagógica de este nivel educativo. Su validez se constató mediante el método de criterio de expertos y un preexperimento, cuyos resultados contribuyeron a su perfeccionamiento.

Palabras clave: estrategia pedagógica; formación de sentimiento; sentimiento constitucional; constitución.


O desenvolvimento do sentimento constitucional nos alunos do terceiro ciclo do ensino primário constitui uma necessidade da sociedade cubana atual. Contribuir para a concretização dessa empreitada motivou a socialização de uma estratégia pedagógica para o preparo do professor primário na formação desse sentimento. Nesta investigação foram utilizados vários métodos: como método geral, o materialista dialético, bem como os métodos do nível teórico, como o histórico-lógico, análise-síntese, indução - dedução, análise documental, estrutural-funcional sistêmica e modelagem; do nível empírico, análise documental, observação, entrevista, consulta a especialistas e triangulação metodológica; e o método estatístico-matemático. Em consonância com os resultados obtidos, apresentou-se uma estratégia pedagógica que contribuiu para o enriquecimento e clarificação do processo de formação do professor na formação do sentimento constitutivo e especificou-se o lugar pedagógico que ocupa no terceiro ciclo do ensino básico. Foram propostas ações para sua implementação na prática pedagógica deste nível educacional. A sua validade foi verificada através do método de critérios periciais e de uma pré-experiência, cujos resultados contribuíram para o seu aperfeiçoamento.

Palavras-chave: estratégia pedagógica; formação de sentimento; sentimento constitucional; constituição.



Contemporary society, characterized by a complex process of changes in the political order, the accelerated scientific-technological progress, the impact of globalization and convulsive scenarios from the social sphere, poses to human beings the need to know, promote and develop education. in tune with the new challenges that are presented to them. Education is a key factor in the development of nations and makes it possible to train new generations to build a better world.

In this historical-concrete reality, the search for new paths that allow the development of sustainable ways of life in response to the challenges posed by contemporary times is urgent, without disdaining the role of science and culture, which are reached through The education. Consequently, a competent education professional is required, capable of facing the surrounding social context and being able to respond to their challenges and demands.

Society, parents and students demand a properly prepared and committed educator, capable of generating changes consistent with the processes that emanate from the country's own development. To achieve the educational objectives, there must be a permanent improvement of the study plans and the preparation of teachers, particularly primary teachers.

The purpose of education for life in society is aimed at turning schoolchildren into citizens capable of knowing and respecting the laws of their country, providing them with basic cognitive, affective and attitudinal tools that allow them to lead a dignified life in relation to their peers. peers and other members of society. For this, it is necessary to gradually contribute to the formation of feelings that express respect for the laws of their native country.

Authors such as Sierra (2004, 2020, 2022), Barba (2019), Bazán (2017), Villabella (2019) have addressed constitutional sentiment from different perspectives. They have provided theoretical and practical contributions, based on the educational realities of each country and agree on the need to promote an intentional constitutional education, which generates the constitutional feeling expressed in respect and attachment to the constitution.

In the particular case of Cuba, it should be noted that the progressive, radical and revolutionary character of the Mambí constitutionalism proves the existence of a high constitutional feeling in our pro-independence heroes. This feeling is ratified in the interest shown that the Republic that was designed adhered to the forms of political organization of the time.

The constitutional feeling was present in the founding fathers of the Nation, among which were Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and Ignacio Agramonte. His work as a jurist and as a man of the time was influenced by two great historical events that occurred in the 18th century: the Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies of North America in 1776 and the French Revolution in 1789, which raised the flags of the freedom, equality and fraternity and became ideals of the libertarian struggles throughout Latin America.

Marti's ideas are a reflection of the constitutional feeling and attachment to justice, "the dignity of man is his independence"; likewise, it emphasizes the need for every man to have the duty to defend and extend freedom. In his warning: "man is more than white, more than mulatto, more than black", he emphasizes that above races are the human spirit that subdues and unifies. These ideas find a special reflection in his libertarian ideal, which leads him to conceive of the need for "the first law of our republic to be the cult of Cubans to the full dignity of man."

The neocolonial period (1902-1959) was characterized by a truly disastrous multi-party system for the political organization of Cuban society, electoral fraud as the scene of the struggle for political power, servility in favor of Yankee interventionism, political assassinations, various manifestations of political and administrative corruption, the lack of democracy in all scenarios, among other evils of capitalist society. This situation originates on the great oppressed masses of the people the weight of exploitation, misery, unemployment, malnutrition, insalubrity, illiteracy, lack of housing; while the country's wealth was enjoyed by the partidocracia and by the national and foreign oligarchy.

The two governments that clearly and starkly violated the Constitution and established a tyranny: that of Gerardo Machado (1926-1933), with the extension of powers; and that of Fulgencio Batista (1952-1959), with his infamous coup, ended up generating radical revolutionary processes that had as their starting point the fight against breaking the law. Popular rejection of the illegitimacy of tyrannical governments is a reflection of constitutional sentiment.

Popular movements, such as the one that occurred in the 1920s and the revolutionary process of the 1930s, were transcendental for the history of the country but lacked revolutionary unity. It was Fidel Castro Ruz who made unity possible, assuming the Martí tradition and the lessons of the long process that we have described with the July 26 Revolutionary Movement, which was recognized by all the forces that confronted Batista and achieved its definitive triumph on July 1. January 1959.

Thus begins a new era of transformation in constitutional matters and a popular call to the need to imbue in the popular construction of a constitution that would respond to the interests conquered, mainly, in January 1959.

In the 21st century, the work of prominent researchers in the educational field in favor of defending the socialist constitution and the revolutionary transformations that occurred in it for the benefit of the people is appreciated. Such is the case of Addine (2002) and Sierra (2020), who from their research advocate the study of the constitution as a key element in citizen education, while directly or indirectly addressing the formation of constitutional sentiment.

Sierra's (2020) appreciations are of vital importance in the study of constitutional sentiment:

   For this reason, it is of interest to emphasize that the Constitution belongs to everyone and for everyone. The democratic space created between 2018 and 2019 must be considered as the point of acceleration of constitutional sentiment in all our people; It has been a very stimulating period for the formation and development of the legal culture of our people from a psychological, political and ideological point of view, which cannot be missed and the school has an essential role in its continuity and deepening. With the Third Improvement of the national education system, the new discipline Education for Citizen Life is introduced and it is up to it to play its preponderant role in this direction so that it stimulates the legal component, declared among the components of the aforementioned improvement, to contribute permanently to the development of legal culture from primary education to pre-university; the initial and permanent training of teachers and professors need these contents and this is considered by Study Plan E in university pedagogical careers (p. 61).

The empirical investigations reflect pedagogical limitations of the theoretical and methodological order that unfavorably influence the preparation of teachers for the formation of constitutional feeling in the third cycle of primary school. Hence, it continues to be a topic susceptible to receiving complementations that help to enrich and clarify this process, in order to improve the theoretical and pedagogical preparation of the teacher, to form the constitutional feeling.

As part of the exploratory study, the results of the development and measurement of the impact of the generalization of the master's thesis "Constitutional sentiment in the training of graduates in primary education. A methodological strategy for its development" were taken into account. In addition, and consecutively, the results of the participation in the research project "Improvement of primary school" (xx-2021), aimed at raising the quality of the teaching-learning process at this educational level.

The information obtained and the results of the theoretical and empirical investigations resulting from the documentary analysis, observation, survey and interview configure the current state of the stimulation of the development of autonomy.

However, observations made to the primary schools of the municipality of Pinar del Río through surveys, interviews with managers, documentary review, inspection visits and methodological help, allowed to specify the weaknesses that characterize the problematic situation of the present investigation, from a critical position.

From the above, the problematic situation given in the contradiction between the current state and the desired state is revealed.

Current status: insufficiencies in the process of preparing the teachers of the third cycle of the municipality of Pinar del Río to form the constitutional sentiment, manifesting this process as spontaneous, unsystemic and poorly coordinated.

Desired state: the need to prepare teachers of the third cycle of primary education, so that they form the constitutional feeling, in accordance with the demands of the current educational model, based on the design of a pedagogical strategy aimed at achieving this end.

From the above, the following scientific problem is derived: how to contribute to strengthen the preparation of teachers of the third cycle of primary education for the formation of constitutional sentiment?

Considering as a starting point the problematic situation and the scientific problem, it was assumed as an object of the investigation: the preparation of the teacher of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of the constitutional feeling.

The general objective of this work is aimed at socializing a pedagogical strategy for the preparation of teachers of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of constitutional sentiment.



The research was descriptive. The study was carried out at the "José Antonio Echeverría" primary school in the municipality of Pinar del Río, in the province itself. We worked with a population made up of 16 teachers, the coordinator of the third cycle and the school principal. Of this population, 100% of the population was used as a sample. Intentionally was the criterion assumed for the selection of the sample.

In carrying out the tasks, research methods were used and the dialectical-materialist method was assumed as the general method. This allowed the study of the object as a process, the determination of its structural components and the dialectical relations between them; also, its contradictions, foundation and integration of the other methods used.

Theoretical level methods were used, which provide an understanding of the facts and phenomena associated with the object of study. The historical-logical method was used, for the explanation of the history of the development of the process under study, the unveiling of its essence, needs and regularities in its historical occurrence. The modeling method, to make the necessary abstractions and base the pedagogical strategy. The systemic-structural method, together with the modeling method, made it easier to determine the components, relationships and functional dynamics.

As procedures, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction and generalization were used, which operate throughout the process of scientific knowledge.

Empirical level methods make it possible to obtain relevant information about the characteristics of the object, obtain and process the data that facilitates a better understanding of it:

Documentary analysis: for the analysis of ministerial resolutions and documents that regulate the methodological and educational work in primary school; in addition to the programs, methodological orientations and lesson plans to determine the precisions that are suggested in said document regarding the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the constitutional feeling.

Interview: to obtain information about the importance of the preparation of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education, for the formation of the constitutional feeling and to know the preparation work received by them and their experiences in this work.

Survey: as part of the initial exploration to determine the preparation that teachers of the third cycle of primary education have for the formation of constitutional sentiment; later, as part of the pre-experiment aimed at corroborating the preparation of teachers before and after applying the pedagogical strategy.

Expert criteria (Delphi method) for the validation of the pedagogical strategy.

Pre-experiment: to evaluate, in pedagogical practice, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

As part of the statistical methods, descriptive and inferential statistics were used, for the processing of information related to the characterization of the current state of the preparation of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education for the formation of the constitutional feeling, the diagnosis and strategy evaluation.



After analyzing the results of the methods, techniques and instruments used in the verification of the problem, we proceeded to execute the methodological triangulation of the interview with the teachers, the observation and the review of documents.

The following results were found:

To evaluate the variable, its dimensions and indicators, the scale was taken into account: Adequate (A), Little Adequate (PA), Not Adequate (NA).

Table 1- Survey







not inappropriate




43.8 (7)

56.2 (9)




43.8 (7)

56.2 (9)


43.8 (7)

56.2 (9)


 Table 2- Review of lesson plans







not inappropriate




18.5 (3)

81.5 (13)




18.5 (3)

81.5 (13)




18.5 (3)

81.5 (13)


 Table 3- Observation of civic education classes







not inappropriate



6.3 (1)

18.7 (3)





12.4 (2)

87.6 (14)



6.3 (1)

12.4 (3)

(75.0 (12)


The results of the diagnostic study allowed us to verify the scientific problem; Thus, the need to base a pedagogical strategy to favor the preparation process of teachers of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of constitutional feeling was justified.

The proposed pedagogical strategy was designed and conceived through the participation of the main actors: managers (director and coordinator of the cycle), teachers of the third cycle of primary education. Their actions are based on a set of scientific ideas:

Philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical foundations that supported the strategy

The pedagogical strategy was based on dialectical and historical materialism; its methodological basis is therefore Marxist-Leninist theory. The knowledge of the theory and the scientific method of the materialist dialectic have been a basic condition to understand and conduct the cognitive process from the educational practice, since it guides the logical path of scientific knowledge in the search for objective truth.

These ideas were shared, since in the elaboration of the pedagogical strategy this path was followed. The analysis carried out made it possible to identify which part of the preparation of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education should be subject to transformation (the preparation of teachers in the formation of the constitutional feeling) and in its abstraction, to identify the contradictions, needs and potentialities that are manifested in it, to be able to develop and apply a pedagogical strategy for the preparation, based on achieving the proposed general objective.

In line with this, it is important to highlight the principles that support and guide the scientific nature of the method that was used in the elaboration of the pedagogical strategy for the preparation of teachers: objectivity, movement, development, universal concatenation, multilateral analysis, flexibility and character. historical-concrete.

These principles are manifested in an interrelated way, when trying to know the essence of the preparation process of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of the constitutional feeling. The correspondence with the specific conditions in which it is produced allowed, from scientific research, to contribute to its transformation with the elaboration and application of a pedagogical strategy for its preparation.

In the elaboration of the proposed pedagogical strategy, the links of interaction and interdependence that exist between the educational institutions were considered, which in a concatenated way allowed to prepare and advise scientifically and methodologically the teachers of primary education.

In correspondence with the above, the strategy considered the social demands related to the work of educational institutions, in order to prepare man for life, to interact with the environment, transform it and transform himself.

Man as an object, and at the same time subject of social relations, and being the product of society, is also the one who produces it. In this dialectic, education constitutes the center of attention, since it is a process through which man prepares for life by assimilating the cultural work that has preceded him, while preparing to continue the creative work in permanent link between theory and practice.

In this sense, the preparation of teachers becomes, in the contemporary context, a social phenomenon. The general nature of this process makes it transcend to other spheres of human development and socially designates the teacher as a first-rate educational agent.

In the educational process, which is carried out in accordance with the educational policy drawn up by the State, different agencies and educational agents intervene who, from their different positions in society, must contribute to the materialization of the programmed result. The school is at the center of that policy; she has the space, time, material, human and financial resources to achieve the objectives of educational policy.

The development of the individual under the influences of education and the environment, due to its social content, behaves as a dialectical unity between the objectification (materialization) and the subjectification (assimilation) of social contents. In this way, individuals become personalities who establish, through their activities and communication, historical-concrete relationships among themselves and with the objects and subjects of culture. Therefore, it is necessary to appreciate the dialectical unity between socialization and individualization.

The general conception of the pedagogical strategy is directed to the transformation of the productive forces (teachers of the third cycle of primary education), in correspondence with the development and transformations given in the sociopolitical order. Hence, the professional challenge of teachers, from the theoretical, the teaching-methodological, the axiological educational, the self-preparation and the investigative; all in favor of solving social problems and demands, presupposing permanent preparation, in order to establish a relationship between the school and society.

The education-society relationship is manifested in the need to train a man at a specific time, in a specific environment and in a certain system of relationships; therefore, this becomes a requirement of the proposal, hence the formative function of the teacher acquires a higher dimension. Education, as a means and product of society, enables its transformation; Thus, society becomes the repository of the entire historical-cultural experience.

The primary school as a social institution, and in it the teacher, plays a dynamic role in the system of educational influences, depending on the preparation for life of the students. It does so from the analysis of social demands and the real possibilities and potential of the student to interact as a member of the social group adjusted to the established legal norms.

It is also based on the fact that any activity that is conceived from the modality of permanent teacher training must serve as a model of action. For this reason, the relationships between the components of the teaching-learning process that facilitates its implementation are taken into account, considering that the educational is achieved through the instructive.

The educational aspect is reached by analyzing the formation of the constitutional feeling as a social product derived from the activity of man destined to regulate and organize its practice through norms that benefit all members of society; therefore, it is necessary to understand, respect and comply with them. Likewise, the necessary understanding, on the part of teachers, of the role that corresponds to them and the responsibility that assists them in the fulfillment of this social purpose as an educational agent of the first order. Hence, in the context of organized preparation, he assumes the responsibility of being the protagonist of the process that he teaches; that is, to feel and foster feelings of attachment to the constitution.

The instructive aspect is related to the treatment of the system of knowledge, skills and habits linked to the teaching-learning process of formation of the constitutional feeling. They are addressed based on the formation of values, convictions, principles, rules of conduct and personal and professional action that reveal feelings of love and respect towards the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba.

In this sense, raising the level of preparation of teachers in the third cycle of primary education and the implementation of the forms of organization planned in the strategy are based on the unity of instruction and education, allowing the development of cognitive abilities. and the formation of convictions simultaneously in said teachers.

To comply with this, the strategy fostered the relationship between theory and practice; since, the theoretical, teaching-methodological and educational-axiological aspects related to the formation of constitutional feeling from the different forms of organization can be used in their own formulation, implementation and evaluation, to respond to the educational needs of schoolchildren.

The pedagogical strategy was based on the historical-cultural approach of LS Vigotsky and is reflected in all the components of its content. It highlights the humanistic and optimistic nature of development, as well as the psychological mechanisms that are present in teaching work. The role of the teacher as a mediator and enhancer of the psychic development of schoolchildren in the third cycle of primary education is also highlighted.

Vygotsky's ideas related to the social situation of development are considered as the starting point for all the dynamic changes that occur, throughout life, in the development of the human psyche and the assumption of this development as a process that moves from the external, social and interpsychological plane to the internal, individual and intrapsychological plane, based on the active and conscious participation of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education during the preparation process. The role of the teacher as a mediator in the psychological development of schoolchildren is the key aspect to take into account in the elaboration of the strategy.

The mediating work of the teacher constituted a significant element in the conformation of the strategy in order to promote leadership, development and its transformation with respect to the preparation for the formation of constitutional sentiment; from reflexive action and innovation practices in continuous updating, so that while they develop, learn and evolve, they transmit knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that must be preserved as a historical-cultural legacy.

The pedagogical strategy was based on the understanding of Pedagogy as a science that integrates the knowledge of other sciences that contribute to the knowledge of man to address the complexity of its object of study: education, in Cuban pedagogical thought, which serves as the basis for professional improvement in the current Educational Revolution. Likewise, in the role of educational practice and its link with theory and in the necessary interaction of instruction, education and development to achieve the preparation of teachers of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of the constitutional feeling of his students.

Great importance was attached to social factors, the interrelation between the affective and the cognitive, the role of experience, communication and activity in the development of personality. In this sense, the principles of pedagogy as a science, proposed by Addine, F. (2002), were considered. It should be noted that these principles are general (feasible to apply at any level of education, grade and subject) and essential (considers the non-personal components of the educational process); In addition, they have a system character . These principles are:

1. The unity of the scientific and ideological character of the pedagogical process.

2. The link between education and life, the social environment and work in the process of personality education.

3. The unity of the instructive, the educational and the developing in the process of personality education.

4. The unity of the affective and the cognitive in the process of personality education.

5. The collective and individual nature of education and respect for the personality of the student.

6. The unity between activity, communication and personality (p. 83).

The aforementioned principles are fully valid in current Cuban pedagogy, which is based both on the theoretical-practical development of knowledge and on the formation and behavioral expression of ethical values, as propitious for the formation of feelings and components, both of the process. formation of the personality of the individual. They are also taken into account in the strategy developed to improve the teacher's work in the educational process, specifically in what refers to the formation of constitutional feeling. Next, they appear interpreted, adequate and dialectically conjugated, according to the objective, the requirements and the characteristics of the strategy.

The unity of the scientific and ideological character of the pedagogical process

Once the problems that affect the proper formation of the constitutional feeling have been identified, the strategy presents a system of actions aimed at teachers knowing and understanding the scope and depth of the constitutional text, the process of forming feelings. In this process, the teacher is transformed through knowledge and contributes to the education of the schoolchildren they attend to train them in respect and adherence to the Constitution of the Republic.

The link between education and life, the social environment and work, in the process of personality education

The strategy instructs the teacher about the pedagogical conceptions that defend and support the need and importance of studying the constitution as a way to preserve the freedom and emancipation of the people, with the purpose of applying it in their daily teaching work. In this way, achieve the improvement of their educational practice through the activities they carry out, aimed at the formation of an integral human being attached to the constitution that the socialist society demands and defends.

The actions designed in the strategy demonstrate to the teacher that only the creative and dynamic application of the theoretical knowledge related to the formative, methodological and ideological needs of their educational context will promote the development of the students, both for the benefit of their individuality and in the projection of it on the social level.

The unity of the instructive, the educational and the developing, in the process of personality education

The strategy conceives that the teacher deepens the knowledge, ethical principles contained in the constitutional text and its laws and educational strategies to form the constitutional feeling. Mastering these aspects will make it easier for you to properly instruct and educate schoolchildren in various knowledge and values; which in turn implies that they grow from the spiritual point of view in their relationship with the way that, as a citizen, they are linked to the constitution. But the teacher also grows when his cultural and moral universe is enriched and his professional activity is perfected.

• The unity of the affective and the cognitive in the process of personality education

The theoretical knowledge of the axiological arsenal contained in the constitution and its laws, based on well-defined ethical-humanist convictions, is not enough to educate the feeling of respect and attachment to it. The strategy, through the workshops, prepares the teacher to transmit it by interacting with the students, so that they participate, release their feelings, think, reflect and manifest their opinion in actions and feel identified with its content. The sensitivity of the teacher plays an important role in this: if he admires and respects the constitution, he feels it as his own, defends it with solid arguments, with passion and vigor, he will be able to deeply touch the participants, make assessments and find the value, the utility and the meaning of the constitutive process that gave rise to the current constitution.

In order for the education of feelings to yield the desired fruits, the affective world and emotions must be considered first and foremost; From here, awareness must be promoted, so that the feeling that is formed is consolidated as a guide for thought and behavior.

The collective and individual nature of education and respect for the personality of the student.

Affinities can be found in the different members of a faculty (political ideology, professional training). Regardless of this, there are also individual differences (personality, cultural level). Thus, the teacher in charge of conducting the actions of the strategy cannot ignore the general features of the group of teachers with whom he works or the specific characteristics of each one of its members, in order to achieve a better assimilation of knowledge and feelings. to form. With the same purpose, the strategy emphasizes that teachers, when planning actions aimed at the formation of constitutional sentiment and the study of the constitutional text and its laws, cannot ignore the collective and personal peculiarities of the schoolchildren under their charge.

A primary factor in the educational process is that the subject on whom it falls manifests itself in accordance with his personality and is not coerced to his detriment, although this does not mean that distortions are overlooked without correcting them educationally.

The unity between activity, communication and personality

The personality of the individual is molded and gradually develops in the activity and in the communicative process.

The prepared strategy attends to the necessary affective and clear intercommunication of teachers and students in the educational process, which will facilitate both the active intervention of the latter and personal entities in said process, as well as the reflection and exchange of opinions within the collective. . Under the direction of the teacher, attentive to ponder successes and correct errors, schoolchildren must develop their own learning in the dialectically linked instructive and educational spheres.

The actions and forms of preparation used are based on the specific learning needs; In this way, the pedagogical influences are directed to the current and future development of each teacher, considering the categories current and proximate development zone. In the same way, the work is directed with the potential of each participant, through the assignment of responsibilities and tasks, in correspondence with them. This is how teaching is conceived as a fundamental source of development.

These premises condition the design of actions aimed at the acquisition, structuring and restructuring of knowledge, skills and values, in correspondence with the detected needs. The latter are considered as a psychological state of lack that is expressed as a demand or request, as they constitute a source of motivation and incentive for the execution of actions. That is why when conceiving the solution proposal, the points of view of each particular teacher are taken into account, in order to attend to diversity.

The mediated nature of the human psyche supports the proposal, due to the important role played by self-regulation in the analysis processes that take place during the course of preparation. Professional exchanges act as mediating agents for the development of the psyche of the subjects, they constitute a propitious scenario to concretize the unity of the affective and the cognitive.

The activity is conceived as the process that mediates the relationship between man, the subject of the activity, and the objects of reality. That is why the conception of the pedagogical strategy is based on a clear vision of the professional activity of teachers of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of constitutional sentiment.

A fundamental element of the (EHC) as a theory of human development is constituted by the conditions in which it occurs. In this sense, it is consistent with the premise that ensures that human development is determined by the conditions in which it occurs. Hence, the particularities of primary school in general and those of the third cycle in particular are taken into account, as well as the interactions that are generated at both levels.

In correspondence with the above, the position of the developer and integrative didactics of Addine, F. (2002) was assumed. Likewise, it agrees with its postulates on the term teaching-learning process, among other denominations, to designate the pedagogical process that is carried out in the school, in a more systematic, planned and specific way, with the participation of the students (teachers). and under the direction of the teacher. In these interactions of a human or cultural nature between the teacher, the students (teachers) and the group, the objectives, contents, methods, means, forms of organization and evaluation intervene, as the fundamental didactic components (Addine, 2002).

The didactic methods and procedures promoted the activity and permanent exchange of teachers, based on teamwork and the socialization of the results of their work in the group. This is a necessary condition for the appropriation of the scientific and professional culture necessary for the preparation in formation of the constitutional feeling.

The system of means that the subject used to achieve the transformations is constituted by the system of actions that he performs in the context of the preparation, the instruments that he uses (ideal or material) and the objectives of the activity that they establish and the relationship between these components. These integrated elements give the activity a certain direction towards the final result.

The processes of search, processing, exposure and application of information to the solution of professional practice problems were permanently assumed, to enhance the development of their cognitive independence. The sources of information include the work with the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, school documents, textbooks and other bibliographies that address the subject. They include the results of doctoral theses and master's degrees, as well as the use of computer resources.

The pedagogical strategy was based on the Valle principles (2007), when referring to the improvement of the directors:

When considering the result of the diagnosis and on its basis, establish the levels of development and the potential of each teacher to promote the formation of the constitutional feeling. In addition, in the solution of tasks and actions that provide attention to individual differences and in the creation of a favorable climate, based on dialogue and trust, where action is taken collectively and individually.

The planned organizational forms and methodological work encourage exchange between teachers, mainly with those who have accumulated the most experience and success regarding the formation of feelings and work with citizen education, particularly with the Constitution. These, in turn, are enriched by the creative work of some new teachers and those with less experience in the pedagogical conception of this process. The context of action of the teachers, as a means for preparation, facilitates the exchange and stimulates the solution of the problems detected.

Problems linked to educational work are built, particularly to the formation of constitutional sentiment. Teachers' results are analyzed and individual experiences are used, solutions are formulated and discussed collectively, and decisions are made responsibly based on solving the detected problem. Likewise, the most effective ways for its solution are selected. The most effective actions are also determined by consensus to improve the work of teachers in this regard.

Discussion of solutions to the problems detected in the formation of constitutional sentiment. Communicative relationships are established between the participants to socialize their criteria, ideas and experiences, based on respect and mutual understanding. The proposed solutions are verified in practice in a preliminary way, through the organizational forms that have been foreseen and through the evaluation of the mastery of the actions of the activities to be developed during the preparation and in the professional work of the teacher.

Being trained in a context that has elapsed in accordance with the constitutionality guarantees that the teacher becomes familiar with the norms that regulate the processes that he will direct later. Self-preparation is essential, since it allows teachers to know, study and delve into the aforementioned norms, according to the social order that corresponds to them.

In addition, it was important to take into account in the preparation of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education in the formation of the constitutional feeling the legal and legal, curricular and didactic foundations. In this sense, the legal and legal foundations are assumed to be the statements made in the PCC documents on the national project, the established legal training documents, on the constitution itself, and so on.

The constitutional text approved and proclaimed on April 10, 2019, legitimizes the legal system that is based on human dignity as a manifestation of an ethical dimension that is expressed in education for citizen life, through the ethical-axiological and humanist approach to which has already been referenced. This reaches its moral dimension in civic practice, with an essential significance for the exercise of virtuous citizenship, since it protects social relations based on the pillars of civic spirit: understanding, cooperation and respect, and in the dialectic of rights and duties.

In Title III "Fundamentals of educational, scientific and cultural policy", in its Article 32, it is specified that "The State guides, encourages and promotes education, science and culture in all its manifestations". Among the postulates established by its educational, scientific and cultural policy is: "c) education promotes knowledge of the history of the nation and develops a high formation of ethical, moral, civic and patriotic values" (Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, p.4).

These postulates provide the design of educational policy with the constitutional foundations that "Because it is a public institution, it requires an understanding of its legal values, of the constitutional axiology that supports its institutional training purposes" (Barba, 2014, p.3). All of them are essential elements to consider in the teacher's preparation for the formation of constitutional feeling.

The principles and values present in the Constitution of the Republic constitute a primary source for its treatment as invariants of knowledge, to face a reality that, from its multiple influences, can threaten education; Ours is a society based on human dignity as "Supreme value that supports the recognition and exercise of the rights and duties enshrined in the Constitution, treaties and laws" (Constitution of the Republic, 2019).

Article 73 of the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that "Education is a right of all people and a responsibility of the State, which guarantees free, affordable and quality education services for comprehensive training, from early childhood to postgraduate university education" (p. 6). To make this right effective, the State: "Establishes a broad system of educational institutions in all types and educational levels, which offers the possibility of studying at any stage of life according to aptitudes, social demands and development needs. economic-social of the country" (Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, p. 6).

In this sense, the preparation of the primary teacher contributes to guaranteeing quality education services at the primary education level. They are an important part of the educational institutions that guarantee the integral formation of children in compliance with the right to education of all people; They are creditors of that social responsibility and they have the duty to fulfill it.

Today, with the Third Improvement of the national education system and Study Plan E, it is a reality that the formation of constitutional feeling has been incorporated as part of education for civic life.

The fact that the formation of constitutional feeling is legitimized as part of education for life implies delving into the particularities of the teacher's preparation in the fulfillment of this social order. It means deepening and perfecting the levels reached in the teaching-methodological and educational-axiological dimensions, which contribute to the fulfillment of this purpose.

This constitutional mandate becomes a requirement of the Ministry of Higher Education for the promotion of its contents and provides education professionals with the necessary and sufficient tools to carry out the processes that allow their fulfillment in the educational institutions of the different subsystems. educational.

The contextualization of these approaches in the pedagogical strategy that is proposed, demonstrates the need to update and improve the knowledge and attitudes of teachers in the third cycle of primary education, depending on the modification and/or enrichment of the didactic components of the curriculum, to respond to the educational needs of schoolchildren at this educational level, in correspondence with the social demands imposed by the process of transforming the learning of the Constitution of the Republic and its laws, based on the development of sentiment constitutional.

From the curricular point of view, to base the pedagogical strategy, the considerations made by Addine, F. (2002), among others, are taken into account when referring that the curriculum is a global educational project that assumes a didactic conceptualization related to the context. historical-social, science and students, a condition that allows it to adapt to social development, the needs of students and the progress of science.

Within the forms of preparation that are proposed in the strategy, the fundamental methods of education in values are intertwined. It is specified that the methods are one of the most controversial issues in relation to education, because they have to do with how.

Thus, we can appreciate the approach to the problem by Báxter, E. (2006). Báxter's proposal includes three types of methods aimed at:

Conscience: they are aimed at persuasion and directly affect the conscience, feelings and will of the students, with the aim of forming positive qualities in them and eradicating the negative ones they may possess. It is necessary to highlight that, from the personal example, both of the adults that surround the student and of notable figures of the past and present, a significant persuasive force emanates that influences conscience and behavior.

The activity: aimed at the activity, they promote the conscious, active and reflective participation of the student in the tasks they face.

Assessment: they favor the possibility for the student to compare, critically and self-critically, what he does with the correct model proposed, both in individual and collective tasks.

Likewise, Báxter points out encouragement and sanction as auxiliary or complementary methods. In the first case, the student is recognized for the positive qualities of his personality in order to encourage and reaffirm them; in the second, they are educationally called to their attention to their deficiencies and errors, so that they become aware of them and intend to amend them in the ways that are indicated.

General objective of the pedagogical strategy: to contribute to the preparation of the teachers of the third cycle of primary education for the formation of the constitutional feeling. (See figure 1)

Fig. 1- Scheme showing the structures of the designed pedagogical strategy

Strategy evaluation

The evaluation was conceived as a systematic process, in which, based on the results of the application of the strategic actions, the efficiency of the pedagogical strategy is valued, with respect to the achievement of the general objective; This allows evaluating, controlling and including modifications in the proposals. In this sense, the achievement of the projected objectives for each specific strategic action is taken into account, in favor of strengthening the process under study.

In the work carried out, qualitatively new elements were contributed, from the conception of the elaborated strategy, which offers new qualities to the interpretation and understanding of the process under study, to the formation of the constitutional feeling, such as:



The proposed pedagogical strategy was theoretically based on the assumptions of the cultural historical approach, regarding its principles (cognitive, affective and evaluative) and in relation to communication and activity.

In the conceptualization of the pedagogical strategy for the preparation of teachers of the third cycle of primary education, the criteria exposed by researchers who, in the field of pedagogical sciences, have provided determining elements on the strategy as a scientific result were taken into account. in different educational contexts; in this sense, the work of Sierra (2004) stands out; Hernández, I., Lay, N., Herrera, H. and Rodríguez, M. (2021), among others.

Sierra (2004) points out that, when planning a strategy in the pedagogical field, the path must be shown in advance to produce transformation in the development and formation of personality (p. 92). He conceives as moments of a pedagogical strategy: the determination of the end; the diagnosis of the subjects and the pedagogical reality; the definition of the theoretical and practical conception of the direction of the pedagogical process and the variants to be used; the selection and planning of the pedagogical alternative; the execution, assessment and self-assessment of the process and its result (p. 101-113).

This definition was assumed for its contribution to the achievement of a systemic and coordinated articulation of the teacher preparation process in the third cycle of primary education.

The work with the formation of constitutional feeling has received a broader treatment in the international arena, in European and Latin American countries such as Spain, Italy, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia and Peru. The investigative work of Bazán (2017) stands out, who makes interpretations of the term and highlights essential features about it.

Bazán (2017) specifies that the term "feel" means being involved in something and ensures that:

   Constitutional sentiment consists in being implicated in the Constitution. We could define it as the intimate adherence to the fundamental norms and institutions of a country, experienced intensely, more or less consciously, because they are estimated (without the need for exact knowledge of their peculiarities and functioning that are good and convenient for integration, maintenance and development of a just coexistence). The intensity of this feeling in a given society is a good criterion to measure its civic maturity and the level of its political culture (p. 11).

The formation of constitutional sentiment in Cuba has not been treated systematically. The work carried out by authors such as Sierra (2014-2020) is recognized, who makes use of this term and highlights the axiological value of the study of the constitutional preamble in achieving this end. Likewise, Barba (2019) refers to constitutional education as the cornerstone from the study of the constitution.

Of high significance is the knowledge of these aspects for a better study and understanding of the constitution. Among them, it stands out that the preamble for the political function that it fulfills in every constitution:

   It summarizes the historical elements that encourage civility and patriotism as fundamental values of each nation, in addition to presenting the principles that guide government action, in correspondence with the type of State and form of government of each country. The preamble constitutes a true symbol insofar as it is an important factor of integration of the nation, at the same time that it contributes to the strengthening of the constitutional feeling. In the preamble of the new Cuban Constitution, the reasons why Cubans give ourselves that constitution are exposed, in it the sovereign will of the nation is proclaimed (Sierra, 2020, p. 50).

The knowledge of the constitution itself and its study is not enough, it requires an understanding and the development of affection towards what is expressed in it, the recognition of what it means as an individual being and as a social entity and in the regulation of these relationships in which it is necessarily involved and has responsibilities. That is, it is necessary to feel represented, protected, benefited by it.

The conceptual clarifications allow researchers to highlight the following as essential features for the process of formation of constitutional sentiment:

By way of conclusion, in the main theoretical-methodological references that support the need to prepare teachers at the primary educational level for the formation of constitutional feeling in their schoolchildren, the axiological and educational potentialities contained in the constitutional text were taken into account, as well as the legacy of the Cuban pedagogical tradition regarding the formation of sentiment and the dialectical-materialist philosophical conception.

The pedagogical strategy socialized in this article had the objective of promoting the preparation of primary teachers in the correct formation of the constitutional feeling of schoolchildren. The improvement courses and workshops that were planned and developed as part of this pedagogical strategy provided teachers with the necessary tools to carry out the work of forming constitutional sentiment, through the understanding and use of the constitutional text and its laws.

The results obtained through the actions developed in the application of the pedagogical strategy allowed us to assess the progress of the indicators contemplated in the respective teaching-methodological and educational-axiological dimensions. This qualitative advance demonstrated the effectiveness of the strategy developed to prepare primary teachers in the formation of constitutional sentiment. The relevance of the pedagogical strategy was confirmed in educational practice.



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Conflict of interests:

The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.


Contribution of the authors:

The authors participated in the design and writing of the work, and analysis of the documents.


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