Mendive. Revista de Educación, April-june 2020; 18(2):412-429

Translated from the original in Spanish

Historical evolution of the pedagogical training of specialists in Human Resources Management


Evolución histórica de la capacitación pedagógica de los especialistas en Gestión de los Recursos Humanos


Evolução histórica da capacitação pedagógica dos especialistas na Gestão dos Recursos Humanos


Jannet Pérez Triquero1, Vadim Aguilar Hernández2

1Instituto Provincial de Estudios Laborales. (IPEL). Pinar del Río. Cuba. ORCID: Correo electrónico:
2Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Monte de Oca". Cuba. ORCID: Correo electrónico:


Received: July 3rd, 2019
Approved: February 28th, 2020



The updating of the Cuban economic and social Model have generated a series of needs associated with the training of specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions for having the social mandate to assess, evaluate and control methodologically the provisions and regulations established by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security in labor and salary policy. A vision of the current situation of the training process is presented in the specialists in Human Resources Management of the work addresses in Pinar del Rio, from the application of a group of methods that were essential, : such as the analysis of documents, the interview and the survey, where theoretical references are revealed from a bibliographic consultation of the bibliography and a group of considerations of different authors is taken into account, based on the dialectic- conjugation of the pedagogical and labor processes under a teaching-learning focus. In this regard, the main objective of the article was to make an approach to the historical evolution of the training process for materialist specialists, the historical-cultural approach, the man-society relationship, general pedagogy and Professional Pedagogy. This study as a valid option to improve the training process of specialists in human resources management of work addresses.

Keywords: training; human resources; work directions; pedagogical professional performance modes.


La actualización del modelo económico y social cubano ha generado una serie de necesidades asociadas a la capacitación de los especialistas en Gestión de los Recursos Humanos de las direcciones de trabajo, por tener el encargo social de asesorar, evaluar y controlar metodológicamente las disposiciones y regulaciones que establece el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social en política laboral y salarial. Se presenta una visión de la situación actual del proceso de capacitación de los especialistas en Gestión de los Recursos Humanos de las direcciones de trabajo en Pinar del Río, a partir de la aplicación de un grupo de métodos que resultaron esenciales como el análisis de documentos, la entrevista y la encuesta, donde se revelan referentes teóricos desde una consulta valorativa de la bibliografía y se tiene en cuenta un grupo de consideraciones de diferentes autores, fundamentados desde la dialéctica-conjugación de los procesos pedagógicos y laborales bajo un enfoque de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En tal sentido, el artículo tuvo como principal objetivo el de realizar un acercamiento a la evolución histórica del proceso de capacitación de los especialistas en gestión de recursos humanos, el enfoque histórico-cultural, la relación hombre-sociedad, la pedagogía general y la Pedagogía Profesional. Se recomienda este estudio como opción válida para perfeccionar el proceso de capacitación de los especialistas en Gestión de los Recursos Humanos de las direcciones de trabajo.

Palabras clave: capacitación; recursos humanos; direcciones de trabajo; modos de actuación profesional pedagógicos.

A actualização do modelo económico e social cubano tem gerado uma série de necessidades associadas à formação de especialistas em gestão de recursos humanos nos departamentos do trabalho, uma vez que estes têm a responsabilidade social de assessorar, avaliar e controlar metodologicamente as disposições e regulamentos estabelecidos pelo Ministério do Trabalho e da Segurança Social em matéria de política laboral e salarial. É apresentada uma visão da situação atual do processo de formação dos especialistas em Gestão de Recursos Humanos das direções de trabalho em Pinar del Río, com base na aplicação de um conjunto de métodos que se revelaram essenciais como a análise de documentos, a entrevista e o levantamento, onde são reveladas referências teóricas a partir de uma consulta avaliativa da bibliografia e um conjunto de considerações de diferentes autores, com base na conjugação dialética dos processos pedagógico e de trabalho sob uma abordagem ensino-aprendizagem. Neste sentido, o principal objectivo do artigo foi abordar a evolução histórica do processo de formação de especialistas em gestão de recursos humanos, a abordagem histórico-cultural, a relação entre o homem e a sociedade, a pedagogia geral e a Pedagogia Profissional. Este estudo é recomendado como uma opção válida para melhorar o processo de formação dos especialistas em Gestão de Recursos Humanos das direções de trabalho.

Palavras-chave: capacitação; recursos humanos; orientações de trabalho; modos pedagógicos de atuação profissional.



The historical- concrete conditions in which the world has lived since the beginning of the 21st century are marked by the dynamics of complex processes of transformations or readjustments, especially at the economic, political and social levels. These changes are often associated with the effective realization of a radical remodeling or reform of educational policies and the review of certain important social values on which they are based.

The Cuban state, recognizing this need, educates the new generations, according to the most advanced sciences in the world, with the best traditions of history and culture and, above all, with the possibilities and demands of society and its projections.

However, this goal imposes a great challenge on labor entities to be at the level of the demands of a globalized world, where competition is increasing and information technologies are advancing rapidly.

For the author, work addresses are assumed as labor organizations, key structures for the implementation and monitoring of the provisions and regulations established by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS), labor and wage policy, according Agreement No. 6176 dated November 13, 2007 of the Executive Committee of the Council of Ministers, which approves the Regulations of Local Administrations of Popular Power.

Specialists in Management of Human Resources, by having the social order establishing work addresses, become an unavoidable priority, where Capacitating is vital for the development of professional pedagogical ways in the labor functions that they develop, from a flexible, integrative and contextualized perspective to the Cuban economic - social model.

The issue of training the human resources of labor entities acquires a greater relevance every day; to this end, it is inherent in the national and international context, so it has been addressed by different authors such as: Gámez (2012); Alonso, Gato & Díaz (2016); Infante & Breijo (2017), Barrial & Gato (2017) among others.

As a regularity, all these authors agree to point it out as updating, overcoming, preparation, permanent training or training, depending on the context in which it is studied, as one of the main dissatisfactions that currently takes place in any teaching institution for professional training.

The theoretical inquiries about training constitute a benchmark reference value for this research, providing opportunities to study and systematize the process of improving human resources based on the development of knowledge, skills, habits, skills, attitudes and values, with a formative, permanent, systemic, flexible and contextualized character, in a way that contributes to raising the professional's level of competitiveness.

In this sense, the specialists in human resources management as professionals of the work management have little experience in the work as methodological advisors in the labor entities; as specialists who teach in Technical and Professional Education (ETP) and as tutors of the practices that are carried out in labor entities, functions instituted in the collaboration agreement of the MTSS and the Ministry of Education (MINED), on the relations of cooperation formation skilled workforce in specialties Management of the Human capital.

In particular, this need becomes an insufficiency that must be met, from a pedagogical process responsible for modifying, perfecting the basic tasks of educating and instructing, with a level of skills, abilities and attitudes with which professionals express their development. In labor functions; with a concrete and generalizing historical character in the process of professional education training, this by its nature is creative

Consistent with the previous ideas, the Provincial Institute of labor research (IPEL), as a teaching institution, assumes the training of specialists in Management of Human Resources addresses work as an educational process for achieving integral and humanistic education, guided towards a change in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the trainer, which allows to increase the effectiveness of the professional work.

These problems have been tested from the initial scan performed at addresses in Pinar de Rio, with the use of empirical methods, and the experience of the authors with more than 10 years of teaching. This, from the theoretical study done has allowed determining a group of existing strengths and weaknesses in the training process of the specialists in Human Resources Management for the development of pedagogical professional action modes in their work functions. Among the main strengths are: the recognition of the managers of the need that specialists in Human Resources Management have for training for the development of pedagogical modes of action in their work functions; the possibility offered by the IPEL to facilitate the training to the specialists in Human Resources Management of the work addresses in Pinar del Río; redesigning the training strategy addresses work, including related job functions specialists topics in Management of Human Resources to develop modes of performance teaching and the experience of the faculty of teachers in the IPEL.

The research was explanatory and followed the interpretative approach. It was developed in the 11 work directions in Pinar del Río, selecting 50 human resources specialists; In addition, 10 cadres of work direction were included in the population. It is set as main objective to make an approach to the historical evolution of the process of training of specialists in Management of the Human Resources.

As part of the search for information they were consulted several official documents of the MINED, Ministry of the work and Social Security, doctoral theses and reports from the provincial leadership of the ETP. The essential methods used were document analysis, interview and survey. Although the greatest information was obtained from the revolutionary period, it was considered necessary to begin with a brief analysis of what happened since the nineteenth century in relation to the subject studied.



The training of specialists in Management of Human Resources of the work directions in Pinar de Rio

The new century is characterized by the influx, increasingly, of companies and institutions of various kinds, which, consequently, influences the need for competent professionals who meet the demands of the labor market in the current millennium.

Cuba, in particular, under the influence of the institutions that support it, is immersed in a process of perfecting the economic model that demands the updating and deepening of professional contents of labor resources, where the training process assumes an important role. The importance is given in the purpose of directing the institutions towards the achievement of their objectives, where the professional is the center and articulating element of the professional process, so that the efficiency of the institutions will depend directly on an adequate training of their personnel attending to their role.

The dynamics of the current social historical context demand the deepening of the knowledge of the theoretical references that support the training, necessary for this research, subscribed to the Human Resources Management specialists of the work directions, and then create institutional strategies to this labor resource.

In agreement with the object of the present investigation, institutions such as the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) agree that "… the viability of the strategies that promote permanent education is linked to the existence of technical and vocational education programs that do not only aspire to provide scientific knowledge but do so with technical flexibility and betting on the development of a core of basic skills and generic skills necessary for a rapid adaptation to the dynamics of constant professional progress" (CINTERFOR / ILO, 2006 , pp. 41-64).

To that end, professional training was defined in 1993 by the aforementioned organization as "… provide a supplement of theoretical and practical knowledge, in order to increase the versatility and occupational mobility of a worker or improve his performance in the workplace, or obtaining the additional competence required to exercise another occupation similarly or recognized as complementary to the one that has this vision. The training refers to the turned - preparedness through and planned actions aimed at improving the performance of a particular function that may, or may not coincide with the activities to be developed in the workplace.

Undoubtedly, institutional training is considered from the perspective of the demands that the world of work poses to professionals in terms of knowledge, skills, habits, behaviors and values linked to their job functions, for which the specialists in Management must be prepared of the Human Resources of the work directions.

This process in Cuba, according to the regulation for the planning, organization, execution and control of the work of the training and development of the human resources, in the labor entities, is defined as the "set of preparation actions that the directed labor entities develop to improve the skills, qualifications and requalification, to fulfill with quality the functions of the job and achieve the maximum productive or service results. This set of actions allows creating, maintaining and raising the knowledge, skills and attitudes of workers to ensure their successful performance" (MTSS, 2006, p. 1).

It is important to point out that, from the vision of this normative document, the training actions are aimed at giving a prioritized solution to the needs of labor training for recent graduates of Higher Education and Professional Higher Education; training for performance in various trades; preparing workers to reach the formal qualification requirement according to suitability; the elevation of the qualification of the workers within the position and the training in function of the assimilation of new technologies, procedures and systems of work.

The contextualization of training in the business field implies its application in an organized and directed manner, in sequence of actions and operations, with a systemic approach. It is a mode of action whose manifestation expresses the development or professional, both individual and collective; and creating a harmonious environment that increases the motivation for the work of the specialists in Management of Human Resources of business directions.

The analysis of the most relevant aspects pointed out by the aforementioned authors, during the systematization carried out, allowed us to determine some fundamental features that distinguish the content of the term training from others:

- Training is a process.

- It is developed from the workplace.

- It constitutes a response to the current challenges and demands of the professional process.

- It is aimed at solving problems of practice in labor entities, which may be current or prospective.

- It has a formative, permanent, systemic, flexible, contextualized, directed, differentiated character and takes place during professional performance.

- Its purpose is the development of modes of action of the subjects involved, for their professional and human improvement.

- Its objectives are aimed at developing, deepening and updating professional knowledge, skills and values.

The analysis provoked leads to consider the training of specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions as: teaching-learning process that is developed within the framework of an educational institution (school- labor entity) on a permanent basis, systemic, planned and comprehensive, which contributes to the professional development of specialists to develop ways of professional-pedagogical acting in the context of the business directions that meet the individual needs and current and collective interests, and perspective of institutions, required for their professional performance and in accordance with the current requirements of the professional process.

Conducting training activities of specialists in Management of Human Resources of work directions must be analytical, monitoring and continuous improvement, according to the concrete conditions of the diagnosis of the entity; for this should be included in the general plans of the institution and must be assumed by the top management structure.

The analysis of the theoretical considerations around the training of human resources allows the historical trend study of this process in the particular case of the Human Resources Management specialists of the work addresses of the institutions in Cuba and in the province from Pinar del Río, which constitutes a valid starting point to understand the specificities of the preparation of these professionals.

Background and historical evolution of the training process of specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions

The preparation of human resources in Cuba dates from before 1959, because in the prerevolutionary alternative preparation workers developed. This formation was influenced by the thought of illustrious figures. At that time, the main way to acquire preparation was self-education.

The economic and social changes that took place in the country since 1959, with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, meant the establishment of high goals of transformation in the economic structure, social conscience and living conditions of the people.

The achievement of these goals has been supported during the last 50 years in the firm will to carry out a vast program of labor policy that includes the specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions as their main protagonists.

According to authors such as Alonso, Gato & Díaz (2016), training related to the educational sector begins officially and institutionally after the triumph of the Revolution.

While internationally this concept had emerged in the late 50s of the last century, at the national level was not handled and would not be until almost 40 years later; the concept Human Resources prevailed.

Another important element for the study that is carried out, is the fact that the training of specialists has been associated, essentially, with the history of IPEL, so conducting a search on the evolution of this category requires delve into the history of this institution.

Likewise, the absence of a true periodization of this process in Pinar del Río obliges to establish certain historical stages that facilitate the knowledge of the main facts and trends of the object of investigation. In this way, the study has been carried out from the following periods.

Stage from 1971 to 1976

Practically the first decade of the Cuban Revolution, in relation to human resources, was dedicated to the formation of the technical base - material required by the new economic model.

The first indication of the official training of workers, associated with human resources in Pinar del Río, was not related to the specialists who, directly, work in these directions. Although the fact was institutionalized in schools, it was related to the preparation of workers, in 1971, as Lego Judges that formed the Work Councils of the labor entities. At the same time, this school constitutes the genesis of the current IPEL.

The training of these specialists goes to the MTSS when, subordinated to it, in 1974 the Provincial School of Labor Regulation, called the MTSS Training School, is created. The need to organize the Management of Human Resources of labor entities requires the formation of Skilled Workers in Labor Regulation, based on the workers who worked in this work; however, since the author's assessment, the fact should not be considered as training, since the granting of the qualification of Qualified Worker required the expiration of a complete initial training curriculum.

Practically, at this stage it is not yet possible to speak of a proper and consolidated training for specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions; in relation to this, there were only debates of Law 1100 of 1963 on Social Security.

Stage from 1977 to 1989

The need to develop specialists in Management of Human Resources becomes dormant and based training course for Workers (CPT) of qualified workers, is the added training as Technical Means (1977). An important moment was the transfer of the school, in 1977, to the provincial capital with the name of the Provincial Institute of Labor Studies "Eliseo Caamaño Álvarez".

In the new institution continues training skilled workers and the formation of Technical Media labor and wages starts, in coordination with MTSS and MINED under the methodological advice of the provincial departments of Technical and Vocational Education , where IPEL were those responsible for executing said training, through curricula, with established requirements for such teaching.

It is there where, in a decentralized way, the technicians of the delegations are trained in topics related to the work activity, providing information on very specific topics without interrelating them. The insufficiencies in the integration of training contents and their influence in the integral preparation of those involved were evident.

For specialists in Management of Human Resources, during the period 1977 to 1985, the National Center for Training and Development Table (CNFDC), governing body and methodological advice, sent by targeted examinations to different provinces of the country, this was self-taught, without receiving any course, only studying the Law and Resolutions existing at that time.

In 1979, the specialty Health and Safety at Work arises, and in 1982 the specialties complement of Labor Law and Organization of the work and salaries are complemented.

However, it should be noted that not only IPEL developed training in the aforementioned specialties; Parallel to this, in this Period, the school of Training of the Union of Workers of Cuba, and the school of training of the Ministry of Agriculture developed it.

In the year 1988, they were sent technicians at the Institute for the Study of Work of Moscow, to receive courses to training on labor issues, which meant a step forward in preparing human resources.

With the political administrative division, regional delegations disappears and provincial delegations are now called Provincial Directions of work of the Popular Power with a double subordination, administratively to the Popular Power and methodologically to the newly formed State Committee for Labor and Social Security, instituting in each municipality the work directions.

The following job qualifiers are established with the creation of work directions.

Stage from 1990 to 2001

The 1990s are characterized as a historical era, precisely because of the arrival of the special period. One the elements that marked it in 1994 is the dissipation of Middle technician of in the specialty of Human Resources. Since then there has been no regular initial middle level training in the area of Human Resources; decision that respond to the policies of the agency of the administration of the State Council.

Since then, the IPEL modifies its structure and it is only responsible for training cadres, reserves, specialists and workers from the work directions, to work in the area of Human resources, responding to the strategy of the National Center Training and Development Management (CNFDC) and the Provincial Administration Council (CAP).

Consequently, and taking into account the characteristics of the province and the needs to increase the productivity of its productions and services in a special period full of deficiencies , the immediate organization of the system of preparation and improvement of the cadres and reserves , specialists and workers who lead such activities in the territory , of which the IPEL is part.

Given this unexpected situation in the management of the different processes, it became necessary to create modalities in knowledge management with the creation of creative and analytical thinking with a proactive approach to the future, based on the analysis of the consequences of decision making with the aim of safeguarding the principles of the revolution and the conquests achieved by the people, protagonists of these events.

Precisely, to continue the process of training of specialists in Management of Human Resources of the work directions, was the IPEL with management teacher preparation and training the one that made possible, in many needs, to become the managing of man in an effective, efficient and effective culture, of which the historical moment we live today is witness of its results.

It is undeniable then further training of the specialists in management of the Human Resources that perform the work in these directions. Therefore, the need to improve this activity imposes a challenge to the mentioned institute, responsible for a continuous training of the specialists In management of the Human Resources.

Since 2001, it is renamed MTSS, with which it is currently identified.

Stage from 2002 to the present

In 2002, the IPEL is endorsed to teach professional improvement activities and it is then that, by indication of the MTSS, the first diploma called Labor and Salary Policy for Business Improvement is taught; the Human Resources Management specialists from the work directions in the province receive this training action.

It is important to highlight Resolution # 34 of 2005 of the MTSS, which authorizes the institute to provide postgraduate education. From that time on, training activities such as courses, qualifications, postgraduate courses, diplomas, seminars, workshops, conferences, and advice are carried out. To this end, all the programs designed respond to a gradual process of articulating training needs with greater coherence.

Since 2006, an own qualifier of the MTSS is established, which has a broad profile. The previous qualifiers disappear and a new position called Specialist in Human Resources Management is created, whose function is to advise, guide and control the national policies approved by the ministry, in labor matters, comprehensively covering the organization of work and stimulation, safety and health at work, employment and training; hence the differentiated character that the preparation of these specialists must have.

In essence, it is appreciated that the work environment has to create the favorable conditions for specialists in Human Resources Management to apply in practice the knowledge and skills acquired in solving professional problems.

The impetuous development achieved by science, techniques and technology in the contemporary world, makes those who participate in the training process trace precise, solid objectives and in correspondence with the demands of the moment, using effective ways and means for the scope of solutions and satisfaction of needs.

Therefore, it is necessary that these people be highly qualified, because of their abilities, skills, knowledge, skills and their constant and creative activity, depends largely on the development and success of the entity in which they work.

A new function is assigned to the IPEL from the year 2009-2010, given the lack of specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions; is assigned to the MINED the initial formation of middle technicians, this time in the specialty of management of the Human Capital where the MTSS through the IPEL is the advisory body involved in tasks related to planning and utilization this skilled workforce of which it is master. In addition, it participates in the development of strategies and joint actions, in order to achieve the enrollment and graduations in this specialty from the demands, as well as the systematic improvement of validation of the design of the curricula and programs of the specialty; works in the elaboration, revision and evaluation of the current textbooks; updates the teachers of the Polytechnic Institutes, in terms of work, occupational safety and health and social security that is established; collaborates in the proposals of objectives of the final exams and participates in the qualification courts .

Today, the training of labor entities is governed by Decree Law No. 350/2017 of the State Council, which outlines it as "a set of preparation actions, continuous and planned, in correspondence with the needs of production, services and the results of the work evaluation, conceived as an investment, aimed at improving the qualifications and requalification of the workers, to fulfill the functions of the positions with quality and ensure their successful performance with maximum results.

This legal norm is applicable for subordinate teaching institutions to state entities that provide services to all forms of labor ties in the country.

However, in correspondence with the current requirements of the Cuban economic model, it is considered important for the authors to incorporate another element to the term of training used in this legal norm, the pedagogical professional mode of action. This should be characterized by professional attitudes and skills where social commitment and innovative, independent and creative actions predominate in the labor functions developed by specialists in labor entities.

Training should consider the individual-society relationship; in this sense the working relationships established between the teachers and specialists in Management of Human Resources of work addresses, which become interpersonal , to the extent in which grows the positive feeling of specialists at the Training and learning gain in importance .

It is recognized that the training, as a teaching- learning process, constitutes a category of permanent professional training, which takes place through pedagogical activities in the educational institution. That is, training, by its essence, is a pedagogical activity.

Being consistent with the above criteria, Cat (2017) considers that the training process, in its pedagogical nature, fulfills the functions: instructive - informative, educational, guidance, developer, cognitive - mobilizing and research.

With this perspective, Infante & Breijo (2017) conceive it as a pedagogical activity of a specific type, while it is aimed at developing the personality of the professional. It is related to the satisfaction of the demands of socio-labor performance, given in the framework of the interrelation between subjects and of these with the object of learning. This process appears linked to work and there is a pedagogical intention linked directly to work functions.

The pedagogical nature of the training implies the need to specify its ultimate goal, related to the laws and categories that, as fundamental concepts, explain its movement and reflect the relationships established in said process since, according to Infante & Breijo (2017), "there cannot be a scientific educational practice without a solid pedagogical theory that bases it and responds to the requirements of that practice".

Similarly, Infante & Breijo (2017) define the training as the process of teaching and learning that takes place in the framework of a permanent, systemic, planned, integrated with systematic and continuous nature labor organization, contributing to the development of professionals with a broad profile, capable of efficiently solving the professional problems of the institution in which they work.

Finally, the analysis of the historical characterization allowed identifying that the training process went through different reforms product of the political, social and economic aspirations of each historical moment.

The results presented above lead us to believe that the training process of Human Resources Management specialists has been treated in a way that needs to be renewed, from a permanent, systemic and planned pedagogical process that leads to the preparation of specialists in their professional- pedagogical ways of acting.

IPEL as a training center for specialists in Human Resources Management of work management

The updating of the Cuban economic and social model determines the need to introduce changes in the training process. To this end, labor entities and their training centers acquire more relevance in the development and consolidation of specific professional problems.

The training of specialists in Human Resources Management must be directly related to labor processes. This intention, according to Decree Law 45 of 1981 of the State Council, attributes to the Ministry of Education the responsibility of guiding and directing the single state policy in the training of workers, for the best development of the national economy, which is applied both in the teaching centers of the National Education System, as well as in the training centers of State agencies; further provides that the established regulations for vocational training.

Decree 350/2017 of the State Council reinforces and combines the effective use of the potentials and capacities of the institutions of Technical and Vocational Education and training centers as teaching institutions for permanent and continuous training of the ETP.

These legal norms facilitate the relations between the Polytechnic Centers (CP) and the labor entities. The Cuban ETP must respond to the socio-labor system for and for which it exists.

According to Mena (2016), CPs must adapt to the conditions prevailing in labor entities and in society and to the foreseeable evolution of these conditions. One of the biggest controversies of ETP is related to its terminal nature. Officially, the responsibility of a CP has culminated with the student's discharge, after winning the professionally trained curriculum for their socio-labor performance. However, when taking the shared ETP approach, its stages are also assumed: the preparation for access to the ETP, the initial ETP process and what happens after the student leaves.

This means that the responsibility of the CP does not end with the delivery of the degree, while the professionals in the exercise periodically need to be re-qualified, updated or simply trained according to the continuous changes and scientific- technical advances that occur in labor processes. For this, there are training centers, teaching institutions responsible for postgraduate education of the ETP.

This task is also of the CP, when talking about postgraduate education quickly think about college. However, although the ETP in its micro aspect refers to the upper middle level, in its nature of vocational training it is also obliged to maintain an education of the graduate worker throughout the entire working life through the training centers. Therefore, the worker's continuous ETP agreement includes both initial education and permanent professional training (Abreu & Soler, 2015). Although the CP does not constitute universities, they must fulfill certain functions related to continuous training throughout their working life.

In addition to generating knowledge, as a conditioning pedagogical principle, they base their management on integration with corresponding labor entities.

Consistent with the above ideas, IPEL has the mission of planning, organizing, directing and executing training actions to contribute to achieving excellence in the professional performance of the cadres, reservations, specialists and workers of the labor directions in labor policy and wages, as well as meet the provisions of the labor agreement between the MOE and the MLSS concerning the Medium technician in the Management of Human Capital. The process of integration of the Polytechnic Center with the labor entity in the training of specialists in Human Resources Management is an essential alternative to integrate initial and ongoing training that refers to cohesive work with work management. That is, the adaptation of the pedagogical process to the labor process.

For this, it has the qualified personnel to carry out the training of the specialists in Human Resources Management taking into account the transformations that the work and social security system has undergone in our country as part of the update of the Cuban Economic Model.

From the celebration of the Sixth Congress of the PCC, the Political Economic and Social guidelines of the Party and the Revolution for the period 2016- 2021 (Communist Party of Cuba, 2017) were approved , in order to carried out the update of the Cuban Economic Model. As an analysis of the implementation of guidelines 138, 145 and 146, the Provincial Strategy for Preparation and Overcoming Tables is updated, where the main territorial training centers are involved under the rectory of the CAP until 2015.

Among its main aspects the political and ideological preparation in the center of activities, with a view to providing ideopolitical, technical-professional and the application of concepts, styles, methods, knowledge, skills and scientific-pedagogical management techniques arguments, solidly grounded from a scientific point of view, to achieve efficiency, effectiveness and economy in the use of human, material and financial resources.

Under current conditions and depending on compliance with the Political Economic and Social guidelines of the Party and the Revolution and Revolution for the period 2016-2021 (Communist Party of Cuba, 2017) , the need arises to continue raising the quality of the educational teaching process deepening the study of the theoretical-methodological aspects on which the training is based.

Theoretical references about the development of the pedagogical professional action mode in the training process of the Human Resources Management specialists of the work directions

The training of the Human Resources Management specialists of the work directions is carried out within the framework of a pedagogical process, aimed at transforming the personality of the professional according to work objectives.

It is deployed in a process of joint solution of pedagogical tasks, both instructive and educational, in changing conditions and full communication between the teacher and the specialist in Human Resources Management, requiring a creative attitude and careful organization, execution and control of his pedagogical actions for professional training.

An approach to the topic of professional training and the development of the mode of action in pedagogical activity reveals that this has been of interest to the scientific community in recent years. From different approaches, various authors such as Gámez (2012) Alonso, Gato & Díaz (2016), Páez (2017), Mena (2017) among others, have referred to him.

Analyses of these definitions can say that the specialists in Management of the Human Resources of the work direction must develop modes of action, since a training process that provides a motivation for new incorporate knowledge of their Professional performance, to achieve a full and conscious action in solving professional problems, which leads to the integration of content (pedagogical, didactic and technical) to influence the objects of the profession and demonstrate satisfaction with the work functions performed.

The social environment is the real bearer of the values and experiences of the specialists, which constitutes the ideal way to break the contradiction between the academic and the work, between knowledge and doing, gradually taking place in this task of appropriating knowledge, the skills and attitudes in the work. This provides the ideal way to materialize the Martian principle of the link between study and work and theory and practice, and allows the educational institution to be increasingly inserted in the social life of the country. All these possibilities offered education work in labor institutions for the training of a professional; should benefit all intent to influence in the development of the teaching professional way.

In this direction, it is possible to explain the modes of action in the context of their professional activity, penetrate the structural and functional elements of the personality, analyze it as a system of relationships where two regulatory spheres are identified, in a structural way: the inductive or motivational affective, which explains , through its operation, the why and for which of the performance of the person and the performer or cognitive-instrumental, which points to how and with what is done. In this case, the how and with what the action is performed is basically dealt with, in its dialectical relationship with the why andfor which.

To achieve this purpose, professional pedagogical processes are needed that respond to the specific conditions of each historical context and moment, so that the professional future can actively participate in its necessary training on a permanent basis.

This aspiration presupposes the development of a teaching- learning process where each component plays its part, demonstrated by the author as Aguilar & Mena (2014); Abreu & Soler (2015); Benítez & Mena (2016); Aguilar (2016); Mena & Cueto (2017); Rodríguez & Breijo (2017) among others. However, achieving the coherent interrelationship of the components of the process is not possible if you do not have the tools that allow the teacher the collection, processing and interpretation of data, to enable issuing a value judgment and the decision-making around the orientation of the pedagogical and learning actions of the specialists.

It is important to recognize that the professional-pedagogical ways of performance of the training, in the context in which this research is conducted, involves to take into account the need to raise the skills and competences, from the acquisition, updating and deepening of professional contents that allow the specialist in Management of Human Resources of the work directions in Pinar de Rio, to evolve efficiently in the professional process and contribute to achieving the goals conferred upon society.



The consideration of the proposed budgets, based on the results of the documentary review from various authors and theoretical positions, allowed the approach to the training of the Human Resources Management specialists of the work directions, operatively defined as the permanent formative process , systemic and directed, with the purpose of preparing the Human Resources Management specialists of the work directions, based on the acquisition, updating and improvement of the knowledge, skills and values related to professional training and development of the mode of action in the pedagogical activity , which meet the needs and individual and collective interests, current and prospective of the institutions, required for their professional performance, in accordance with the current requirements of the professional process.

The trend analysis of the training process treated contributes, in the theoretical-methodological framework of research, to the improvement of the process of ongoing training in the municipal institutional context of Pinar del Río, while revealing the evolution of the training of specialists in Management of the Human Resources of the work directions.

From the systematization carried out, arguments are presented that demonstrate the relevance of the training for the training of the professional and the development of the mode of action in the pedagogical activity of the specialists in Human Resources Management of the work directions in Pinar del Río.



Abreu., R. L.; y Soler., J. L. (2015). Didáctica de la Educación Técnica y Profesional.La Habana: Instituto Superior Pedagógico para la Educación Técnica y Profesional (ISPETP). Formato digital.

Aguilar Hernández., V. & Mena Lorenzo., J. (2014). El proceso de inserción laboral de los estudiantes de nivel medio en la rama del transporte: la evaluación de su efectividad. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 12(4), 442-449. Recuperado de

Aguilar Hernández., V. (2016). Desafíos de la investigación en la Enseñanza Técnica y Profesional en Cuba. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 14(1), 1-8. Recuperado de

Alonso Valdés., M.; Gato Armas., C.; & Díaz Cabrera., J. (2016). La superación profesional técnica de docentes que imparten elementos de economía y legislación laboral en la educación técnica y profesional. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 14(1), 93-99. Recuperado de

Benítez León., S. & Mena Lorenzo., J. (2016). Evolución histórica de la formación y desarrollo de habilidades profesionales en la especialidad Mecánica Industrial, en Pinar del Río. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 14(4), 302-307. Recuperado de /MendiveUPR/article/view/883

Centro Interamericano de Investigación y Documentación sobre Formación Profesional de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo CINTERFOR/OIT. (2006). Aprendizaje permanente y otros aportes para la configuración de políticas y sistemas de formación. En: La nueva Recomendación 195 de OIT. Desarrollo de los recursos humanos: educación, formación y aprendizaje permanente. Montevideo: p. 41-64.

Cuba. Partido Comunista de Cuba. (2017). Lineamientos de la política económica y social del partido y la revolución para el período 2016-2021. Ciudad de La Habana. Cuba: PCC.

Gámez Iglesias., A. (2012). Economía de empresas: teoría y práctica. La Habana: Editorial Pueblo y Educación, p. 35.56.

Gato Armas., C. A. (2017): La comunicación pedagógica en la especialidad Agronomía de la Educación Técnica y Profesional. Revista IPLAC. 2, p.30, 45.

Barrial Martínez., A. (2017). La capacitación en gestión documental para gestores y técnicos de archivos de las instituciones municipales. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 15(2), 226-241. Recuperado de

Infante Becerra., V.; y Breijo Woroz., T. (2017). Mirada histórica al proceso de Capacitación en el Mundo. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 15(1), 57-64. Recuperado de

MTSS. (2006). Resolución No. 29/06. Reglamento para la planificación, organización, ejecución y control del trabajo de la capacitación y desarrollo de los recursos humanos, en las entidades laborales. Ciudad de La Habana. Cuba: MTSS

Mena Lorenzo., J.A. (2016). Pedagogía Profesional y/o Pedagogía de la Educación Técnica y Profesional. Una Ciencia en construcción. Revista Pedagogía Profesional. Universidad Enrique José Varona. 14(1).

Mena Lorenzo., J.A. (2017). Integración Educación trabajo: necesidad de la Formación profesional, Editorial Académica Española, ISBN:978-3-84-84-78-77.

Montenegro, P. L., Cueto, R. N., & Mena Lorenzo, J. A. (2017). Una aproximación al carácter investigativo de la Educación Técnica y Profesional cubana actual. Revista española de educación comparada, 30, 136-149. Disponible en:

Páez Paredes., M. (2017). El trabajo de los colectivos pedagógicos como potenciadores del aprendizaje pedagógico organizacional. Revista Orbita Científica. 23(96).

Rodríguez Fuentes., S. y Breijo Woroz., T. (2017) Estrategia para el desarrollo de modos de actuación profesional competentes en los profesores habilitados. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 15(1), 480-491. Recuperado de


Conflict of interest:

Authors declare not to have any conflict of interest.


Authors´ Contribution:

Authors participated in the writting process of this article and in the analysis of documents.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) Jannet Pérez Triquero, Vadim Aguilar Hernández