Mendive. Journal on Education, January-March 2023; 21(1): e3116
Translated from the original in Spanish
Methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment to the primary teacher in family orientation
Metodología para el acompañamiento pedagógico al maestro primario en orientación familiar
Metodologia para o acompanhamento pedagógico ao professor primário em orientação familiar
Alenni Ramona Aguilera Grave de Peralta1https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3535-2079
Roberto Pérez Almaguer1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2641-0214
Yudith Laura Ferreiro Fuentes2 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6003-9466
1University of Holguin. Cuba. email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
2Study Center of the Federation of Cuban Women. Holguin. Cuba. email@example.com
|Aguilera Grave de Peralta, A., Pérez Almaguer, R., & Ferreiro Fuentes, Y. (2023). Methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment to the primary teacher in family orientation. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 21(1), e3116. https://mendive.upr.edu.cu/index.php/MendiveUPR/article/view/3116|
Received: June 8, 2022.
Accepted: November 10, 2022.
The primary teacher, from his actions, transcends the school space by taking education to other contexts, with which he interacts, such as the family. However, there are teachers who, for various reasons, do not play a guiding role in the education of families, in order to contribute to the integral development of students; one of the causes that limit their performance for family guidance is found in insufficiencies in professional training. In this sense, the research addressed the issue of professional training of the primary teacher for family guidance. A methodology energized by a method was proposed, aimed at training the teacher in the professional knowledge necessary to do family counseling. The objective of the article was directed to socialize the results of the application of the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment to the primary teacher in family orientation, from the school context. The study was developed from a descriptive-explanatory scope. Methods of the theoretical and empirical level were used, such as: historical-logical, analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction; likewise, the research techniques: observation, interview, survey and evaluation scale, in addition to the methods of specialist criteria and field experimentation. The results of the partial insertion of the methodology, in practice, revealed the development of the teacher for the performance of his guiding function in the education of the families of his students from the school institution. In conclusion, the value of pedagogical accompaniment is emphasized as a mediation process that favors the permanent formation of the primary teacher for the development of family orientation, from the school context.
Keywords: professional training; primary teacher; methodology; Family counseling.
El maestro primario, desde su accionar, trasciende el espacio escolar al llevar la educación a otros contextos, con los que interactúa, como la familia. Sin embargo, hay maestros que, por diversos motivos, no desempeñan un papel orientador en la educación de las familias, para así contribuir al desarrollo integral de los educandos; una de las causas que limitan su desempeño para la orientación familiar se encuentran en insuficiencias en la formación profesional. En este sentido, la investigación abordó el tema de la formación profesional del maestro primario para la orientación familiar. Se propuso una metodología dinamizada por un método, dirigida a formar en el maestro saberes profesionales necesarios para hacer orientación familiar. El objetivo del artículo estuvo dirigido a socializar los resultados de la aplicación de la metodología para el acompañamiento pedagógico al maestro primario en orientación familiar, desde el contexto escolar. El estudio se desarrolló desde un alcance descriptivo-explicativo. Fueron empleados métodos del nivel teórico y empírico, tales como: histórico-lógico, análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción; asimismo, las técnicas de investigación: observación, entrevista, encuesta y escala valorativa, además de los métodos de criterio de especialistas y experimentación sobre el terreno. Los resultados de la inserción parcial de la metodología, en la práctica, revelaron el desarrollo del maestro para el desempeño de su función orientadora en la educación de las familias de sus educandos desde la institución escolar. Como conclusión, se enfatiza el valor del acompañamiento pedagógico como proceso de mediación que favorece la formación permanente del maestro primario para el desarrollo de la orientación familiar, desde el contexto escolar.
Palabras clave: formación profesional; maestro primario; metodología; orientación familiar.
O professor primário, a partir de suas ações, transcende o espaço escolar levando a educação para outros contextos, com os quais interage, como a família. No entanto, existem professores que, por motivos diversos, não exercem um papel orientador na educação das famílias, de forma a contribuir para o desenvolvimento integral dos alunos; uma das causas que limitam sua atuação na orientação familiar encontra-se nas insuficiências na formação profissional. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa abordou a questão da formação profissional do professor primário para orientação familiar. Foi proposta uma metodologia dinamizada por um método, visando capacitar o professor nos saberes profissionais necessários para fazer aconselhamento familiar. O objetivo do artigo foi direcionado para socializar os resultados da aplicação da metodologia para o acompanhamento pedagógico ao professor primário em orientação familiar, desde o contexto escolar. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir de um escopo descritivo-explicativo. Foram utilizados métodos de nível teórico e empírico, tais como: lógico-histórico, análise-síntese, indução-dedução; da mesma forma, as técnicas de pesquisa: observação, entrevista, levantamento e escala de avaliação, além dos métodos de critério especializado e experimentação de campo. Os resultados da inserção parcial da metodologia, na prática, revelaram o desenvolvimento do professor para o desempenho de sua função orientadora na educação das famílias de seus alunos da instituição escolar. Em conclusão, destaca-se o valor do acompanhamento pedagógico como processo de mediação que favorece a formação permanente do professor primário para o desenvolvimento da orientação familiar, desde o contexto escolar.
Palavras-chave: formação profissional; Professor primário; metodologia; Aconselhamento familiar.
The figure of the teacher is recognized in all societies, since a fundamental part in the education of the new generations is deposited in them (Pérez et al., 2019; Salazar and Tobón, 2018). Even more so, when an increasingly prepared professional is required, who not only shares his knowledge, but also his personal qualities, and who thereby transmits values, motivations and ways of acting. Teacher training responds to personal needs, priorities of the educational system and social demands that allow their personal and professional growth (Perdomo, 2021; Roberts et al., 2019).
In this sense, educational work demands the presence of a teacher who is increasingly prepared to face the new challenges that this task imposes (Gutiérrez et al., 2019; Rojas et al., (2018). This is highlighted when the teacher is summoned to transcend the school space and bring education to other contexts with which he interacts, such as the family. However, there are teachers who for various reasons do not play a guiding role in educating families; among the causes that limit their performance for family orientation from school are the insufficiencies in professional training.
With a view to the sustainable development objectives of the 2030 Agenda, attention is paid to the responsibility of promoting actions that guarantee quality education. In this sense, the third improvement of the National Education System in Cuba proposes the establishment of changes in the active and conscious participation of families. As part of the general changes, a reactivation of the various modalities of orientation and education of families is included. In the same way, it reveals the need to attend to the permanent training of the teacher to carry out the designed transformations.
From this perspective, it is important to assess what happens in the various professional training processes to which the teacher has access. In this sense, initial training occupies a transcendental place in the preparation of the professional future. In the case of Cuba, new study plans are introduced in the training of Education professionals (MES, 2016). In these study plans, in the disciplines General Pedagogical Training and the integrative discipline, the treatment of family orientation and education contents is included; however, the use of other elements that guarantee the preparation of families for the education of their children is not studied in depth, which has repercussions on their performance once they graduate.
The analysis leads to the assessment of continuous training, taking into account that it constitutes a space for teacher enrichment, since it is a stage of deepening professional interests and personalization of professional work (Barbón et al., 2014). However, despite the fact that the continuous training system of Cuban professionals recognizes the necessary preparation throughout life, a harmonious and coherent link is required that promotes training from its performance context.
Numerous authors have developed research on family guidance and teacher training. They stand out: Ares (2018), Castro (2018), Carvajal et al. (2021), who provide content and guidance methods, highlight the need to offer an education to families to fulfill their educational and training function from an affective point of view, as well as highlight the value of the link established by the school to influence this preparation. to family members. In general terms, these studies emphasize elements to take into account in the professional training of the teacher for family orientation and demonstrate the validity of this problem.
Although the sources consulted reveal the necessary knowledge that the teacher must have to develop family orientation, these focus on professional technical knowledge for this, leaving less treated those that are linked to the experience that the experience itself brings them from the reflection of their guiding practices. At the same time, the need to reveal professional knowledge that must be taken into account in the permanent training of the teacher to guide the families of their students, which includes knowledge, skills, values and personal qualities, is emphasized.
However, it is not yet revealed sufficiently, from the theory, the consequent foundation of the permanent formation of the primary teacher for family orientation from its context of performance, which reveals the existing potentialities in the school scenario that exceeds the preparation for it in the educational practice.
The aspects analyzed have led to the development of research actions, aimed at deepening the permanent training of the primary teacher to guide the families of students at this educational level. With the application of empirical methods, the existence of insufficiencies in the process is verified, which limits the preparation of the teacher to develop family orientation:
- Scarce psycho-pedagogical resources of the teacher to carry out an educational process for families, increasingly individualized, which influences the integral development of schoolchildren.
- Insufficiencies in the methodological treatment of educational content that affects family orientation.
- Limited coordination of educational influences from the school and family relationship for the development of guidance actions.
From the analysis carried out at an empirical and theoretical level, a problem linked to the training that the teacher must receive to guide the family is evident. The elements raised justify the development of the present investigation, which declares as a scientific problem: how to promote the professional training of the teacher for the performance of family orientation from school?
The objective is oriented to socialize the results of the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment to the primary teacher in family orientation, from the school context.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was developed from a mixed research approach, from the assumptions of Hernández and Mendoza (2018); It has a descriptive-explanatory scope, which brings it closer to the current conceptions of professional teacher training within the framework of family guidance. The scientific research techniques of the interview, the survey, the observation and the evaluation scale were applied. In addition, theoretical triangulation was used as a methodological resource, based on theories about professional teacher training and family orientation, as well as the methods of specialist criteria and field experimentation.
The selection of an intentional non-probabilistic sample made up of 14 teachers from the "Expedicionarios del Corynthia " semi-boarding school, from the Cacocum municipality in the Holguin province, Cuba, was carried out. The investigation begins in the year 2019 until 2022. The following were used as dimensions and indicators of the study:
1. Initial professional training: curricular treatment of family orientation contents in the career. Training scenarios for family orientation.
2. Postgraduate professional training: presence of family orientation content in spaces and moments of methodological work. Overcoming in various forms of postgraduate.
3. Personological: conception of family orientation that they have. Knowledge of principles, methods and modalities to develop family orientation. Skills and personal qualities as an educational counselor. Disposition towards family orientation. Recognition of personal strengths and limitations for the development of family orientation.
The results of the observation of exchange spaces between the teacher and the families confirmed the existence of deficiencies to stimulate participation in 12 teachers (86%), limited personological resources in 11 (79%) to favor reflection and debate on the topics addressed. Regarding communication skills, three (21%) show inadequate communication styles that affect the participation of families.
In this way, the limitations in teacher training for work with families mean that the main needs for which they were summoned to attend school are related to: information on the behavior of students, analysis of indiscipline, schools of education where topics were addressed for the study of resolutions, school regulations or others issued by higher authorities, parent meetings to discuss them.
On the other hand, the interviews with teachers corroborated that the methodological preparation and the individual self -preparation that were developed in the educational institution constituted the main ways of professional improvement in which the teachers were inserted. Likewise, it was revealed, in the case of the conception of family orientation of the teachers, a proximity in their relationship with promoting help and solving problems, being perceived in its therapeutic and remedial nature, giving less weight to their relationship and insertion, in the entire educational process that the school develops with the families of the students.
With the objective of determining the level of preparation of the teacher for the performance of family orientation from school, evaluation scales were applied to teachers, where it was evidenced that only two (14%) perceive that they have good preparation, seven (50%) regular and five (36%) scarce. Next to this, 79% (11 teachers) manifest ignorance in relation to elements that guarantee to a great extent the approach to families and the achievement of adequate family orientation, which affects the harmonious development of students.
The results of the applied techniques determined, to a large extent, the following regularities in the professional training process of the primary teacher in family guidance:
- Insufficiencies in the preparation of the primary teacher for the performance of family orientation in the use of resources, ways, techniques.
- Limited access to the content of family orientation from the different spaces and moments of the methodological work that is carried out in the center.
- Insufficient use is made of the potential offered by the integration of agents as a way for family guidance and as part of the teacher's professional training for the performance of the guidance function.
- Little connection between the family and the school.
The diagnosis made revealed insufficiencies that had to be addressed from the search for solutions that would enable the training of the primary teacher for the adequate performance of family orientation, tempered to the school context and the new demands of society and the Cuban educational system.
Structuring of the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher in the process of family orientation
For the elaboration of the proposal, the systemic-structural-functional approach is assumed as a methodological starting point, which allows understanding the structure and interrelationships that occur in the deployment of pedagogical accompaniment in the framework of the teacher's professional training process for the exercise of family orientation. From this perspective, the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher in the family orientation process is defended as the main contribution of the investigation, while it conceives the foundations that allow ordering the mode of action of the agents that intervene in the solution of problems. problems in educational practice.
The methodology is conceived as: a way of proceeding for the organization of pedagogical accompaniment, taking into account the dynamics of the family orientation process and the context of collaborative interaction between the school psychologist and the teacher as a process of knowledge construction through Deployment of the method for its development.
By following the logic of the process, the components and the identification of the relationships in the methodology were determined as a first approach to the modeling of its structure. The criteria of Contreras et al. (2019), who require the structuring of the methodology through a cognitive apparatus that corresponds to the theoretical components, and an instrumental apparatus according to the methodological component. Consequently, the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher in the family orientation process responds to this internal structure.
Through the relationship established between each of its components, it is possible to transform the professional training process of the teacher for family orientation, based on the participatory accompaniment of the educational psychologist in said process, with the involvement of other educational agents.
The cognitive or theoretical component reveals the nuclei that guide the understanding of the pedagogical accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher in the family orientation process. For its part, the instrumental or methodological component reveals the method for the realization of the accompaniment from the logic of the nuclei that support it (figure 1).
This epistemological position, with a conception based on the school as a training space, assumes the idea of reflection in action from the pedagogical accompaniment of the teacher in a specific socio-historical context.
The cognitive or theoretical component includes an internal process of determining the contextual referents that support the pedagogical accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher within the framework of ongoing training for family guidance. On the other hand, the conformation of the methodology articulates the theories of teacher training and family orientation. These presuppositions of the theoretical component, from a conception of training centered in the school, direct the methodological from the integration of educational theory-practice.
In order to fulfill its objective, the methodology adjusts to the potentialities and possibilities of the subjects in training, as well as to the conditions present in the school as a training space. The theoretical nuclei that support the methodology are considered as pedagogical conditions for this process of teacher training to take place; That is why they are manifested not only in the assimilation of knowledge, but also in the development of professional knowledge.
Fig. 1- Internal structure of the methodology
In this sense, the objective of the theoretical nuclei is to guide the actions to be followed in the process of formation of professional knowledge that includes the assimilation of knowledge, the development of skills, the formation of personal qualities and values for family orientation. In this way, the theoretical component of the methodology acquires dynamism from the relationships that are produced between the theoretical nuclei in the understanding of the pedagogical accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher in the family orientation process.
To establish the theoretical nuclei, it is based on the fact that these are the result of understanding the teacher's professional training process, where the accompaniment is specified, and that they are decisive in the actions of the educational psychologist in this collaborative dynamic. The theoretical nuclei in the understanding of the pedagogical accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher, in the family orientation process, contain and favor the professional training process in the unveiling of new edges in the development of family orientation.
These nuclei contain the specificity of the objectives of the teacher's professional training and their contextualization to the professional functions that they must fulfill; within them the orientation to the family, from the diagnosis, in a collaborative relationship teacher-school psychologist. In each of the nuclei, to the extent that the training contents are addressed in the dynamics of accompaniment, the contextualization of the training process in family orientation is demanded.
In the understanding of the pedagogical accompaniment to the teacher in family orientation, the following theoretical nuclei are declared:
- Unveiling of professional knowledge to carry out family orientation.
- Articulation of the educational scenarios in the concretion of the accompaniment for the exercise of family orientation.
- Resignification of the collaborative integration of facilitators of the family orientation process.
The theoretical nuclei that are presented are a reflection of the internal logic of the methodology, which invigorate the practical applicability, by revealing the formative logic in which the agents are inserted in the understanding of the accompaniment as part of the primary teacher training in guidance family. In this way, the directionality of the theoretical nuclei that support the permanent formation of the primary teacher in family orientation is complemented.
Taking into account the analysis carried out, in the theoretical core of the disclosure of professional knowledge to carry out family orientation, it means the determination of the professional knowledge that the teacher needs (knowledge, skills, qualities and personal values) for professional training.
The professional knowledge transversalizes the remaining theoretical nuclei that are proposed; In such a way, the knowledge must be constituted in educational contents that are systematized in each one of the nuclei. These educational contents respond to the purpose pursued by family orientation and what the teacher must appropriate from professional training to develop it; These questions reveal a particularity of the methodology.
For its part, the theoretical nucleus of articulation of the educational scenarios in the concretion of the accompaniment for the exercise of family orientation alludes to the professional training scenarios in which the teacher receives educational influences such as: cycle groups, methodological workshops, self-preparation. The scenarios are the spaces in which the teacher actively participates or in which there is an active interrelation to favor their professional training or the improvement of their professional training.
The educational scenarios for teacher training in family guidance point to the spaces in which the teacher is accompanied in guidance activities, both theoretically and methodologically, where the teacher progressively appropriates this knowledge in the exercise of guidance from the school.
The theoretical core of resignification of the collaborative integration of facilitators of the family orientation process establishes how the integration of professionals who constitute educational agents in the family orientation process should take place. The educational agents would be the subjects that in an intentional, organized and systematized way contribute to the development of the processes aimed at the professional training of the teacher for the education of families.
By integrating the work of these agents in the various educational settings, experiences are generated that favor the relationship system that occurs in the school, such as the relationships between: educational psychologist-teacher, educational psychologist-managers-specialists-teacher, teacher-families- primary school, teacher-teacher. The essence of influencing the dynamics of the system of relationships that qualify the professional training process of the teacher in family guidance lies in the limited foundation of the actions of each educational agent that enables collaborative integration until they become facilitating agents of the guidance process. family (figure 2)
Fig. 2- System of relationships in the pedagogical accompaniment to the primary teacher
Accompanying psychologist-accompanied teacher relations:
- Projection of the experience of the educational psychologist, for which he exercises his mediating role with a democratic, collaborative and participatory attitude.
- Recognition of teacher training needs and collaboration in the preparation of a professional development plan.
- Joint production of professional knowledge for family guidance.
- Generation of a climate of trust and mutual respect based on assertive communication.
- Organization of spaces and planning of activities for teachers to reflect on their practices and question them.
- Establishment of feedback actions for teachers on their guidance practice.
- Development of training activities.
- Joint production of knowledge about methods and techniques for guidance.
- The process of accompaniment towards the actions to be carried out by them in educational settings is promoted to integrate into the family orientation process.
- Articulation of training actions from the reflection of guiding practices in a collaborative environment.
- Interrelation of the technical-professional knowledge with the experiential ones, which are built and rebuilt in the process of accompaniment to the teacher for his permanent training in family orientation.
Teacher-families-primary school relationships:
- Development of relations from the base of the co-responsibility school-family in the integral formation of the primary school.
- Integration of the school and the family in the family orientation process, based on a participatory diagnosis that considers the needs and expectations of the parents.
- Attention to the particularities of the development of the primary school and the characteristics of their families, directing the orientation to produce individual and collective transformations for school coexistence.
Expression of the relations between all the agents. The vision of the teacher stands out in his double role of accompanied to companion in the process of permanent formation for family orientation; To the extent that it reaches higher levels of development, it collaborates in the construction of this knowledge in other professionals.
The actions of agents in educational settings are essential when generating a system of new relationships from a logic of integration in the dynamics of the ongoing training process in family guidance. From the accompaniment to the teacher, the new nuances that the roles of the psychopedagogue, teacher and other agents acquire in correspondence with the logic established in the professional tasks for family guidance are based. In general lines, the pedagogical accompaniment enriches the system of new relationships that are formed in the various educational settings. This can be seen in the fact that the action of the pedagogical accompaniment of the psychopedagogue with the agents in the educational settings is essential, by generating a system of new relationships from a logic of integration in the dynamics of the ongoing training process in family guidance.
The instrumental or methodological component: method of collaborative reflection in the accompaniment of the educational psychologist to the teacher for his training in family guidance
This component includes a process of concretion of the contextual referents of the professional training of the teacher in family orientation, the dynamics of the theoretical nuclei on which the methodology is based. This component of the methodology specifies the method, procedures and methodological guidelines for its structuring in educational practice.
In this way, the method of collaborative reflection in the accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher for his training in family orientation , is defined as the pedagogical way that allows to describe, explain and predict the dynamics of the process of professional formation of the teacher in family orientation, dynamized by procedures that, in correspondence with the mediation of the pedagogical accompaniment, allow the formation of knowledge, skills, values and personal qualities that become professional knowledge for the exercise of guidance from the school.
This leads us to deepen the critical-reflexive approach to teacher training, as a training approach that is assumed in the method presented.
From the critical-reflexive method of pedagogical accompaniment, an emphasis is presented on the integral development of the subject in formation. In view of this, it is the development of practical thinking that is learned through reflection and self-assessment, in practice, in a collegiate manner, and that reveals a contextualized praxis as a space for professional training.
This perspective of the critical-reflexive teacher leads to understanding professional development in its relationship with the creation of pedagogical knowledge, from the construction of professional knowledge that is based on the educational theory-practice relationship (Tezanos, 2021). For this, teacher training is based on the development of analysis, inquiry, critical reflection and information processing skills, with emphasis on collaborative ways of working among professionals, with a markedly humanistic nature of the process. In such a way that the professional training of the teacher for family orientation becomes a source for individual and institutional development, which stimulates the improvement of the educational processes of the institution and the pedagogical group.
Application of the criteria of specialists on the proposal of the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher in family orientation
In order to determine the relevance of the application of the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment to the teacher, the criteria of specialists are applied, for which the consultation is carried out through a reflection and critical opinion workshop. For the selection of specialists, the following aspects were taken into consideration: professional experience, research carried out related to the subject, years of professional experience, scientific and teaching category.
The following participated: five educational psychologists with more than ten years of experience, seven teachers with ten or fifteen years of experience, three professors from the career with the highest teaching and scientific category, three specialists from the Center for Diagnosis and Guidance (CDO). All of the selected specialists have between five and 25 years of professional experience, some are linked to teacher professional training and others develop research related to the subject and have specialized publications.
The objectives of the reflection and critical opinion workshop were the following:
- Investigate value criteria regarding the methodology for the accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher in family orientation, among the participants.
- Perfect the proposed methodology based on the suggestions and recommendations made by the specialists.
- Confirm the relevance of the designed methodology.
The methodology used for the development of the workshop was based on the qualitative assessment, from considering the interpretation of each one of the participants. They issued their criteria according to their points of view, asked questions and made recommendations and suggestions for the proposed exercises.
The methodological procedures followed in its development were the following:
1. A 30-minute oral presentation was made by the researchers in front of the group of specialists, where the main scopes that the methodology promotes in the professional training of the teacher from the school context were summarized.
2. A discussion forum was organized where the ideas that guided the debate were proposed.
3. During the development of the workshop, the exchange was promoted among the participants from the dynamic interaction, to obtain a higher level of suggestions.
4. The evaluative criteria about the main strengths and weaknesses of the proposed methodology were collected, as well as the suggestions and recommendations for its improvement.
The partial evaluation of the methodology for the accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher for the professional training of the latter in family orientation was developed through the use of the field experimentation method.
To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, an initial and final diagnosis was applied, declaring the following indicators to evaluate the preparation of the families:
1. Knowledge that teachers have to fulfill their guiding role in the education of families.
2. Methods and personal resources that teachers have to promote their self-development and contribute to the development of family orientation.
3. Preparation of teachers for the direction and attention to the family orientation process from the school setting.
After putting the methodology into practice, a final diagnosis was applied where other elements of a higher level of complexity than those applied in the initial diagnosis were evaluated, which allow partial evaluations of the application of the proposal.
The results of the reflection and critical opinion workshop derived from the application of specialist criteria determined the suggestions that are presented below:
- The specialists agreed that the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment to the teacher is pertinent from the objective that is proposed.
- The participants in the workshop considered valuable the theoretical nuclei that enrich and reveal the characteristics of pedagogical accompaniment as a mediation in the professional training of the teacher in their context of action.
- They reached a consensus that the methodology for pedagogical accompaniment contains the required structure and starts from the diagnosis made to the professional training presented by the teachers, which particularizes this process.
- They consider valid the vision of pedagogical accompaniment as a modality of professional teacher training in the school setting.
The criteria issued synthesize the work carried out by the specialists, which were complemented with solid arguments to recognize the validity of the methodology for pedagogical accompaniment, aimed at the professional training of the teacher in family orientation. In the conclusions of the workshop, a consensus was reached unanimously in favor of the relevance of the application of the methodology.
With the intention of processing the results of the initial and final diagnosis applied to teachers, the following values are given to each indicator: High (5), Medium (4), Low (3), and Very Low (2). Finally, the results behaved as follows (figure 3):
Fig. 3- Analysis of the results of the initial and final diagnosis applied to teachers
In indicator 1, of the 14 teachers, which represents 100% of the sample, 10 (71%) have limited knowledge about the fulfillment of their guiding function and 4 (29%) have very low knowledge.
In the second indicator, 2 (14%) show the use of some methods and personal resources and 7 (50%) present limited knowledge that allows them to develop these methods. Regarding indicator 3, of the 14 teachers (100%), 4 (29%) have as a result a medium level in terms of preparation for attention to the family orientation process, 9 (64%) present a low level and 1 (7%) the level is very low.
The analysis carried out in the verification of the initial diagnosis made in the professional training of the teacher for family orientation allows us to verify the limited preparation that they present for the successful development of family orientation from school. Therefore, the need to implement the methodology for the pedagogical accompaniment of the teacher is explicit, to favor the formation of knowledge, skills and personal qualities that integrate the professional knowledge that the training of this professional deserves from the school setting.
In the final diagnosis, applied after implementing the family orientation program, the results behaved as follows:
In indicator 1, of the 14 teachers, who represent 100% of the sample, all reached a high level regarding: knowledge about the fulfillment of their guiding function. A difference is evident in 100% of the level reached in an initial phase, where they did not have the required knowledge in relation to the subject at hand.
In indicator 2, of the 14 teachers (100%), 11 (79%) manage to obtain a high level in the establishment of methods and personal resources for the development of family orientation; three (21%) a medium level. When referring to indicator 3, nine (64%) reach a high level in their preparation for the direction and attention to the family orientation process; two (14%) medium and three (21%) teachers with a very low level reach a low level.
Based on the results obtained in the final diagnosis, partial conclusions can be reached regarding the professional training achieved by teachers for the development of family orientation from school.
In 11 (79%) of the teachers it is possible to reach a high level of knowledge for the fulfillment of their guiding function in the education of the families of their students. This directly influences the preparation of families to successfully fulfill their educational and training role in the education of their children.
Although three teachers (21%) reach a medium level in the use of methods and personal resources to promote their self-development and contribute to the development of family orientation, they manage to know aspects related to the characteristics and direction of the process.
In the same way, the results obtained in Test 1 and Test 2 are processed using a t Test for related samples, and the following results are projected (Table 1):
Table 1- Test t for related samples of Test 1 (P1) and Test 2 (P2)
95% Confidence Interval (CI)
As p<0.05, it can be affirmed that the means between activity 1 and activity 2 are significantly different; Therefore, it can be concluded that the methodology for pedagogical accompaniment favors the development of the teacher for the family orientation process.
In addition to the preparation achieved by the teachers for the direction and attention of the family orientation process, positive transformations are verified in the teaching-learning process of more than 50% of the total enrollment of the students.
The teachers who participated in the pedagogical accompaniment process through the development of training strategies expressed their criteria on the topics addressed with words such as: fruitful, important, interesting, positive and highlighted the link between theoretical aspects with guiding practice, in addition to recognize the importance of the concrete examples offered in carrying out actions for the formation of professional knowledge for family guidance from the school context.
Various authors recognize in the methodology a type of scientific result, according to Leyva (2013), De Armas et al. (2015), Alonso et al. (2019), Alonso et al. (2020), among others. From the analyzes carried out, it is agreed that the methodology does not constitute a purely theoretical or purely practical result, rather they complement each other.
The concept of methodology is worked from different perspectives, seen from the most general level, such as the philosophical study of the methods of knowledge and transformation of reality, the application of the principles of the conception of the world to the process of knowledge of spiritual creation. in general, and in practice. On a more particular level, the methodology is recognized as the one that includes a set of methods, procedures and techniques that respond to each science, in relation to its characteristics and its object of study.
Although the sources consulted reveal methodologies to contribute to teacher training (Betancourt et al., 2020; Gallo & Suárez, 2020; González & García, 2021; Gimenez et al., 2021 and Vázquez & Pérez, 2021), these focus their actions on preparing for the fulfillment of the teaching-methodological function and development of professional skills, but do not specify the guidance function, with emphasis on family guidance that must be carried out by this professional. These limitations reveal the need to base a new methodology aimed at preparing the teacher for the execution of family orientation from the school context and in correspondence with the current demands for the improvement of primary education in Cuba.
In the present investigation, the methodology is assumed on a more specific level, in a set of methods, procedures, techniques, which, regulated by certain requirements, allow ordering the thought and mode of action, to obtain new knowledge in the study of the problems of theory or problem solving in practice. At this more specific level, the methodology is presented as a theoretical contribution to the research.
The systemic nature of the methodology is specified in the dialectical relationships of dependency and mutual conditioning, which are established between its components. These relationships are specified in two levels: a first level within each component and a second level between each one of them.
The first level of relations occurs between the theoretical nuclei; that is to say, the core of disclosure of professional knowledge to do family guidance depends on the logic of the articulation core of the educational scenarios in the concretion of the accompaniment for the exercise of family guidance, which in turn depends on the logic that is establishes in the redefinition of the collaborative integration of facilitating agents of the process. Where the potential of the components and their dynamics are specified for the professional training of the teacher in family orientation, from the school context. Consistent with the theoretical elements of the methodology, the method allows the teacher to move to higher levels of development.
The second level of relationships is established between the components of the methodology, in which the method, as the center of the instrumental component, in turn, is consistent with the interrelationships that occur between the theoretical nuclei that support it and specify the professional training. of the teacher in family orientation from these relationships, which is possible due to the theoretical-methodological nature of the method.
The dynamic that arises between the theoretical nuclei evidences the characteristics that make the proposed methodology new and current, for the object and context of the investigation. With this, the ways or procedures that exist for the study of the professional training of the teacher in family orientation, established by science, are overcome. In this way, it is considered that the methodology, from the theoretical component, enriches the categories that integrate it to function in certain conditions that allow objectifying the dynamics of the object in its addressing with practice.
The proposed methodology for the professional training of the primary teacher in family orientation from the school institution has as important elements the theoretical nuclei that guide the formation of professional knowledge for such purposes. These are specified in the proposal of a new method: the method of collaborative reflection in the accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher for their training in family orientation, with procedures that enable the involvement of educational agents, thus expanding the foundations for the development of the guidance process from training content with professional and personal significance for teachers.
The methodology emerges as a way of founding the procedures of the collaborative reflection method in the accompaniment of the psychopedagogue to the teacher for their training in family orientation, through new methodological foundations that stimulate the social situation of the development of teachers, to the extent that that the collaborative accompaniment to the teacher is specified. With this it corresponds, in a creative way, with the fulfillment of the purpose of the Elementary School Model in Cuba.
It is convenient to underline that, in an initial verification, limitations were revealed from the theory for the pedagogical accompaniment to the teacher, so that it favored his permanent formation in family orientation from his performance context; Next to this, the need to have psycho-pedagogical resources in teachers that are specific to each family, as well as the need to reveal the existing potential in the school setting, which exceeds the preparation for it in educational practice.
From the implementation of the proposal, an enrichment of the pedagogical understanding of the professional training of the teacher in family orientation is revealed, by providing a methodological resource that supports the guiding function of the primary school teacher in the development of family orientation from the school context, consistent with the theoretical nuclei that guide the dynamics of the methodology. In the same way, it favors the permanent training of the primary teacher for the development of family orientation, while the training achieved by the teachers contributes to favor the preparation of the members of the family group and their involvement in the integral development of the students.
The authors thank the pedagogical group of the "Expedicionarios del Corynthia " semi-boarding school, for allowing us to introduce the methodology for accompanying the teacher, as well as the instruments to measure the teacher's training for the performance of the guiding function in the education of families from the very beginning. school. We also thank the management of the center for the support granted during the spaces of the training strategies developed. In addition, the results shown have benefited from the academic exchange of its participants.
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The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.
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