Mendive. Journal on Education, January-March 2023; 21(1): e3062
Translated from the original in Spanish
Pedagogical systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro
Sistematización pedagógica del pensamiento humanista de Fidel Castro
Sistematização pedagógica do pensamento humanista de Fidel Castro
Elieser Lastres Rodríguez1https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2226-0933
1University of Granma. Cuba. email@example.com
|Lastres Rodríguez, E. (2023). Pedagogical systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro. Mendive. Revista de educación, 21(1), e3062. https://mendive.upr.edu.cu/index.php/MendiveUPR/article/view/3062|
Received: May 11, 2022.
Accepted: September 23, 2022.
The humanist training and education require professional mastery and the educational potential of the disciplines and subjects that make up the plan of the teaching process of the pedagogical careers, of a theoretical-conceptual integrity that establishes the interrelationships between the link with the professional problems of the education and the historical-contextual conditions that characterize current Cuban society. The objective of this article is to socialize the result of the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro at the University of Granma, to contribute to the development of the new generations. In the research, methods typical of scientific research were applied, among which are source criticism, hermeneutics and comparative, in addition to analysis by expert criteria and case studies.
Keywords: systematization; humanistic thought; humanist formation.
La formación humanista y la educación exigen dominio profesional y de las potencialidades educativas de las disciplinas y asignaturas que conforman el plan del proceso docente de las carreras pedagógicas, de una integridad teórico-conceptual que establezca las interrelaciones entre el vínculo con los problemas profesionales de la educación y las condiciones histórico-contextuales que caracterizan la sociedad cubana actual. El objetivo de este artículo es socializar el resultado de la sistematización del pensamiento humanista de Fidel Castro en la Universidad de Granma, para contribuir al desarrollo de las nuevas generaciones. En la investigación se aplicaron métodos propios de la investigación científica, entre los cuales se encuentran la crítica de fuentes, el hermenéutico y el comparativo, además del análisis por criterio de expertos y estudio de casos.
Palabras clave: sistematización; pensamiento humanista; formación humanista.
A formação e a educação humanística exigem o domínio profissional e as potencialidades educativas das disciplinas e disciplinas que compõem o plano do processo de ensino das carreiras pedagógicas, de uma integridade teórico-conceitual que estabeleça as inter-relações entre o vínculo com os problemas profissionais da educação e as condições histórico-contextuais que caracterizam a sociedade cubana atual. O objetivo deste artigo é socializar o resultado da sistematização do pensamento humanista de Fidel Castro na Universidade do Granma, para contribuir com o desenvolvimento das novas gerações. Na investigação, foram aplicados métodos de pesquisa científica, entre os quais a crítica de fontes, hermenêutica e comparativa, além de análise por critérios periciais e estudos de caso.
Palavras-chave: sistematização; pensamento humanista; formação humanística.
The study and analysis of the humanist formation according to the Professional Model of the Degree in Education, Marxism-Leninism and History, expresses the importance of an integral preparation in correspondence with the educational and social context of the student, which supposes taking into account a dialectical-materialist methodology in the analyzes to be carried out, a cultural and personological approach and the cultivation of sensitivity and spirituality.
In relation to the above, Fidel Castro Ruz's criteria regarding humanism become the core for the systemic configuration of cultural identity in the pedagogical professional. There have been several authors who address the thought of Fidel Castro.
Hernández & Infante (2015) suggest that the training of students should be aimed at obtaining a knowledge system that enables them to know and apply the achievements of science and technology and, in the same way, acquire knowledge about history, both universal and homeland; appreciate the beauty of art in all its manifestations, which favors that they can value it in life, among other aspects.
Different investigations that constitute antecedents are identified, among which are the works of Chacón (2009); Ruiz & Rodriguez (2018); Tejera & Núñez (2017), who have in common that they have identified the instructive and formative value of said thought for education. Humanism, as a feature of the thought and personality of Fidel Castro Ruz, seen as a source with potential to influence humanist training, allows to argue the theory from its practical actions, directed towards the realization of a project in which the being Human is the most important.
In the normative documents that govern the initial training process of students in the aforementioned career, the actions directed to work with the humanist thought of Fidel Castro are insufficient.
The methodological work in the different groups of the career is directed, fundamentally, to the academic component to the detriment of the work with the humanist thought of Fidel Castro. The related factual statements are in contradiction with the aspirations expressed in the normative documents cited above and allow the author, through a process of scientific abstraction, to reveal the following causes.
In the process of humanistic training in the students of the career there is evidence of a fracture in the adequate relationship between the aspirations declared in the objectives of the Professional Model and their social performance.
humanist thought of Fidel Castro are partially and insufficiently specified.
Due to the above, it is declared as a research problem: insufficiencies in the pedagogical work with the humanist thought Fidel Castro in the Bachelor's degree in Marxism-Leninism and History Education, limits the way of humanist action of the students.
The objective of this article is to socialize the result of the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro at the University of Granma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the elaboration of the investigation, theoretical methods were used; such is the case of analysis and criticism of sources, to reveal the essential aspects of the sources consulted, such as: professional model, career strategy, educational projects, methodological plans, minutes of career groups and year, school records, scientific papers, national seminars and results of other investigations that have ventured into this process, as well as to verify the data from the empirical techniques used in the investigation. It integrates, as procedures, the following logical thought methods: induction-deduction, analysis-synthesis and the transition from the abstract to the concrete.
The hermeneutic-dialectical method is used in the interpretive study of the plurality of concepts, categories, textual projections and speeches put forward around the research topic and in the reconstruction and criticism of sources. In addition to the empirical level, the documentary analysis method was used, which led to the analysis of normative documents to identify the conditions of educational work and humanistic training in Higher Education.
Analysis and criticism of sources, to reveal the essential aspects of the sources consulted, such as: professional model, career strategy, educational projects, methodological plans, minutes of career groups and year, school records, scientific papers, national seminars and results of other investigations that have ventured into this process, as well as to verify the data from the empirical techniques used in the investigation. It integrates, as procedures, the following logical thought methods: induction-deduction, analysis-synthesis and the transition from the abstract to the concrete.
Hermeneutic-dialectical, in the interpretative study of the plurality of concepts, categories, textual projections and parliaments wielded around the research topic; and in the reconstruction and criticism of sources. It is also used to characterize the development of the contradiction.
Historical-logical, during the study of the historical evolution of the humanist training process in the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History, with emphasis on the systematization of Fidel Castro's thought.
Modeling, for the explanation and argumentation of the field of research and its representation in the pedagogical model and strategy.
Methods and techniques
Documentary analysis: it facilitated the analysis of normative documents to identify the conditions of educational work.
Observation: to the different university processes, in order to verify how the humanist formation is manifested in the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career.
Interview: individual, to find out the opinion of the teachers of the faculty and other socializing agents involved on the humanist training in the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career, and also specify how it is directed from the pedagogical and group point of view, with the purpose of characterizing the improvement needs of the subjects involved and assessing the effectiveness of the proposal.
Survey: applied to students, with the aim of obtaining information to specify and substantiate the scientific problem, verify the pedagogical procedure in humanist training and thus be able to delve into the detected insufficiencies; confirmation, to community residents, to corroborate the effectiveness of community intervention actions.
As a methodological procedure, the triangulation of data, methods and theories was used to contrast and integrate the information provided by the sources consulted and the methods used, in line with the selected paradigms, which allows building a global and detailed vision of each particular experience. , when considering the criteria of Pérez and Fuentes (2018) that: "The theoretical constructions that are currently provided by universities cannot avoid those issues that condition the quality in the training of professionals. For this, it is necessary to enrich the knowledge scientist..." (p. 126).
In addition to statistical and mathematical methods, descriptive statistics are used for the processing of the information obtained in the research process, as well as for the preparation of tables and graphs, which allow arriving at well-founded assessments of the research elements.
The term humanist formation suggests integrality, sensitivity, style of thought and action, spirituality and, in this case, has teacher training as its center of reflection, which implies penetrating into the nature of the process of formation of culture and personality (Mendoza, 2011).
Therefore, it is reaffirmed that in education professionals it is not enough to master the specialty, nor to know the essential motives through which human thought has flowed in its philosophical, economic and sociopolitical expressions. It is not enough to master the history of pedagogy or contemporary pedagogical trends, it is not only to instruct thought, it is necessary to educate sensitivity and feeling, cultivate sensitivity so as not to be limited in the kingdom of finite knowledge.
In the 2019-2020 academic year, various investigative instruments were applied to diagnose the current situation of the humanist training of the future professional of the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career. A population of 20 teachers was investigated and a simple random sample of eight teachers working in the career was selected, as well as the entire population of 10 2nd year students of the day course.
The previous situation is reflected in the students in the following way:
Poor knowledge about the definition of the humanist training concept, as well as its fundamental categories and its importance for personal and professional training.
In general, they are little motivated by the educational activities of the degree, since they do not consider them attractive or significant for their professional and personal lives.
Insufficient exercise of criticism and self-criticism of the manifestations contrary to humanism, both in the educational institution and in the community.
Modes of action persist that are not consistent with the humanism that characterizes the Cuban people in general and the community in particular, such as: marginal behavior, lack of motivation towards studying, practice of double standards, disinterest in the problems of others, tendencies towards individualism and social alienation, among others.
The interpretation and integration of all the documents analyzed allow us to determine the following regularities in the humanist training process of the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career, at the University of Granma.
The formative potentialities of Fidel Castro's humanist thought are not used sufficiently to achieve the humanist training of future professionals. Nor has a scientifically based strategy been conceived for this purpose.
It is worth mentioning causes that impact the subjectivity of students, which affects the real harmony that makes human growth possible: the crisis of meaning and life projects, lack of family communication and the scant reference to humanist models.
The actions carried out to improve educational processes are insufficient; Professional training is often oriented towards the development of skills in the different spheres of action, and the training of socio-affective skills in students is neglected.
There is a tendency to fragment the student's training by directing it towards the academic and investigative components, to the detriment of humanist training as the main axis.
Difficulties are observed in the students of the career to interrelate the humanist thought of Fidel Castro with their life and development as future professionals. This is due to the fact that the study on Fidel Castro is oriented according to other perspectives that exclude what is related to the humanist formation.
The deficiencies raised previously constitute the factual confirmation of the scientific problem and support the need to develop a pedagogical strategy, based on a pedagogical model of systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro in the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career, which favors the way of acting professionally in them. The proposal, at the same time, allows enriching the pedagogical work in said career and its impact on society.
The humanist character, for Lastres (2021), is expressed in the work of universities in the educational dimension, by providing students with qualities that make them creative and independent professionals, prepared to assume their self-education throughout their lives.
This suggests a style of thought, spirituality and is expressed from the culture of treatment, the ways and methods to develop cognitive, affective and communicative potentialities, with a personological , developing, dynamic and creative character, with a profile of permanent education, which it pursues that the teacher assumes a theoretical position that guides his educational practice, according to the context of the current demands of educating for life; so that, from the teaching-learning process, the student acquires in his pedagogical professional training these qualities and characteristics based on his potentialities. In his theory for the development of human potential, Torroella (1998) considers that human life is the most important and essential matter and that the greatest wealth of an individual is his human potential.
From the indicated postulates, the particularities or features of the conception of Education for Life are derived, a theoretical reference for the humanistic formation of the education professional.
Education centered on the student, considered a proactive subject; the inclusion of the affective component in the teaching and learning content as a cornerstone of training; the teaching process that promotes learning, taking into account the interests, concerns and conflicts of the student; the educator takes into consideration the current needs of the student on the basis of respect, acceptance of differences and love; and attention when learning to be and learning to do, so that they learn to know how to face the circumstances that stand in the way of, access or hinder the fulfillment of tasks or educational actions to take the fair, measured and appropriate action at all times (Torroella , 1998).
The results obtained through the application of the qualitative triangulation technique allowed us to conclude that there is a coincidence in the information obtained from the different data sources (methods) on the quality of the theoretical and methodological conception of the model and the strategy, as well as the effectiveness that could be obtained with its application in social practice, by favoring a better professional performance.
The results of the triangulation application were statistically corroborated by applying Cochran's Q non-parametric test, which provided sufficient evidence to state, with a confidence level of 95%, that there are no significant differences in the data between the elements that make up the methods: expert criteria and case studies.
The probability associated with the value of Q=1.000 is p=0.1585. Since p > ; then, the result is not statistically significant; that is, there is sufficient evidence to state, with a confidence level of 95%, that the null hypothesis is not rejected, so that among the elements that make up the set of information sources methods: expert criteria and case studies, there are no significant differences in the data provided. The results of the triangulation are presented below.
The proposed model and strategy are valid and feasible, although they may be perfectible.
To carry out the analysis and interpretation of the data obtained from the different sources of information, in order to contrast, compare, interpret and determine coincidences and contradictions, triangulation was applied as a qualitative technique.
The objective of the triangulation is aimed at revealing coincidences and discrepancies in the content that are related to the quality of the theoretical and methodological conception of the model and the proposed strategy, as well as the effectiveness that can be obtained with its application in social practice, to encourage better professional performance.
As sources of information, sources of primary or relevant information that make it possible to carry out the analysis are taken to obtain the factual and theoretical data in the investigation; therefore, a methodological triangulation was carried out to contrast the data obtained from the application of methods such as: expert criteria and case studies.
Type categories were used: subject (topic covered in the content), direction (opinion of how the content is treated) and recipients (who receive the action or to whom the content is directed), represented by the analysis criteria:
1. Relevance of the theoretical foundations that support the proposed scientific contributions.
2. Coherence of the scientific logic expressed in the theoretical construct.
3. Scientific novelty of the theoretical construct.
4. Recommendations for the improvement of the theoretical construct.
5. Recommendations for the improvement of the practical contribution.
6. Relevance and feasibility of application of the proposed practical contribution.
To classify the categories, subcategories were used through an ordinal rating scale with the values:
0: indicates the absence of the criterion in the content of the information.
1: indicates the presence of the criterion in the content of the information.
The application of the pedagogical strategy for the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro in the Bachelor's degree in Education, Marxism-Leninism and History, allowed us to appreciate that it is pertinent in correspondence with the model of the current and humanist Cuban University.
The application of the pedagogical strategy for the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro in the Bachelor's degree in Education, Marxism-Leninism and History, consolidates the humanist formation from the interrelation with the academic, labor and investigative components.
The pedagogical strategy for the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro in the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career, was materialized through the pedagogical model of systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro in the career, although it can be perfected in the realization of actions in the different stages that emphasize other aspects.
Despite these results, discrepancies were observed in the data obtained by the different sources of information, in the evaluation made of the scientific contributions in the dimensions, according to the analysis criteria:
Criterion: recommendations for improving the theoretical construct; In the methods, it is evident that actions with themes that contribute to the totalizing analysis of man within the humanist training process must be systematized in each component for a better professional performance.
Criterion: recommendations for improving the practical contribution; In the socialization and expert criteria workshop, the need to specify socio-cultural aspects that contribute to the solution of existing problems in actions of the strategy stages is exposed, which shows as a cause the need to systematize from the understanding and interpretation of the Fidel Castro's thought to generalize, transfer and apply in context.
In order to verify the effectiveness of the pedagogical strategy, its partial application in educational practice was carried out, through a case study. The case study made it possible to interpret the phenomenon, situation, event or fact, allowing to reveal the meanings and senses they have for the subjects involved, broaden knowledge and/or confirm precedents. One of the fundamental characteristics of the case study is its concern with the individual, the subjective, and the social structure in a given sociocultural context.
The analyzes and interpretations previously carried out constitute elements of confirmation that presuppose the objective of the investigation has been fulfilled, the transformed object and, therefore, the problem solved, since it was possible to develop the training process of the professional of the Bachelor of Education, Marxism- Leninism and History, from the application of the pedagogical strategy, which favored obtaining manifested transcendent transformations:
In the formative process
Strengthening of the formative work with attention to the relationship between the instructional and the educational during the process, which gives special value to the development of the academic, labor and investigative components from the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro.
The humanist thought of Fidel Castro is intentioned and systematized, based on the solution of existing problems in the various sociocultural contexts in which the professional in training intervenes, with the help of training agents, who guide and control the training process, based on the pedagogical and psychological foundations of the development of the young person's personality and, in the development of the traits that characterize the career professional. Improvement of knowledge, skills, values, pathways and procedures of the training process, which encourage personal and professional development and, with it, the quality of pre-professional practices.
In the forming agents
They improve the educational work from the deployment of actions in different contexts, aimed at satisfying the student's training needs, based on the pedagogical and psychological foundations of personality development and, in particular, the traits that characterize the professional of education. race.
Advances are manifested in a more evident way in the attitude of the directors and teachers of the career, from the adequate projection of academic, labor, investigative and extension activities, which favor in the students the approach to the content of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro.
The level of satisfaction of the career and year group for the educational work carried out and, consequently, for the transformations in the various contexts, based on the solutions to educational problems.
In students in training
They intention and systematize the humanist thought of Fidel Castro, based on the solution of existing problems in the various contexts in which he intervenes.
Appropriation of the content: knowledge, skills and values, new points of view, interpretation and reflection are conditioned in relation to the professional performance that characterize the professional of the Bachelor of Education, Marxism-Leninism and History career.
Improvement of educational pathways and procedures to promote personal and professional development, from the deployment of actions in different contexts with the quality of pre-professional practices.
The implementation of the pedagogical strategy for the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro in the Bachelor's degree in Marxism-Leninism and History Education has allowed the constant enrichment of the tasks that students and teachers must carry out to achieve it. This is the result of a deeper preparation and a constant evaluation by the teachers, for the conscious direction of said process. However, to these results of the application of the pedagogical strategy, insufficiencies remain unresolved, such as: use of the potentialities and human resources of the training contexts, from the interaction of the subjects involved in the process, in the resources of students in training to flexibly restructure their field of action and self-manage their professional development.
To achieve its solution in the medium and long term, it is proposed:
Improvement of the methodological work of the career, which contributes to the stimulation of individual and group resources, depending on the professional approach of each activity that is developed.
Improvement and systematization of community guidance actions, which reveal an increase in the quality of the training process as a community social counselor for educational psychologists in training in the Bachelor's degree in Education, Marxism-Leninism and History.
Humanistic training constitutes one of the challenges of education at all levels, which is why the need to break with traditional schemes becomes evident. González (2010) affirms that humanist training should be directed towards:
the active participation of the student in their learning, in the communication and cooperation processes based on teamwork, in which everyone can learn from everyone; by promoting the development of critical and reflective thinking that promotes the cognitive and affective approach with the cognoscent object for the development of certain attitudes and behaviors (p. 22).
These elements are expressed in the model of the education professional due to the impact it has on the formation of the personality of children, adolescents and young people as a result of a pedagogical training, characterized by the system of professional values and qualities that guarantee a way of teacher's performance, in correspondence with the challenges of this XXI century. For these reasons, humanistic training constitutes a fundamental theoretical nucleus in shaping the development of the educational professional.
In relation to the above, Lastres (2022) states that:
society has a high complexity, which comes from the very systemic nature of its content and its interactions with the material activity of men. Precisely, the story delves into the social life of men, tries to unravel the relationships established by men in the course of history by reflecting how they live, act, think, decide their actions in a temporal space and how these influences and decides on the later life of the men themselves (p. 8).
The university advocates strengthening humanist training, since its educational mission is not reduced to the search and conformation of academic quality, since this is only one aspect of its broad and complex work; therefore, it must train its students to respond to the challenges that every human being must face personally and socially for the well-being of humanity.
Taking into account the previous evaluations, it coincides with Sánchez (2017) when he expresses that the maximum aspiration of humanism in education is the integral formation of the personality, of being and its full realization as a human being, and the cultivation of sensitivity to develop their true creative potential, which can be achieved through the teaching-learning process.
To carry out the systematization of the humanist thought of Fidel Castro, it is important that the teacher provide objective information but, at the same time and gradually, increase the participation, reflection, debate, interpersonal relationships of the students, in such a way that favors the formation and development of own criteria, the acquisition of arguments to debate and to be able to make generalizations in which the predispositions to a certain action in specific situations and contexts are implied.
Humanist training must be understood not only in terms of knowledge related to the history of humanity, the process of universal and national culture, the concepts and categories that allow the appreciation of artistic-literary manifestations, updating in the sociopolitical area and economic, but also in prosecution, critical assessment, in assuming the cultural legacy.
The qualitative assessment of the results obtained in the research revealed a satisfactory trend in the systematization of Fidel Castro's humanist thought in the Bachelor's degree in Education, Marxism-Leninism and History, and the results in professional performance in context.
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Conflict of interests:
The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.
Contribution of the authors:
The author participated in the design and writing of the work, and analysis of the documents.
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