Mendive. Journal on Educación, october-december, 2022; 20(4):1123-1134
Translated from the original in Spanish
Training in psychopedagogical orientation skills in the primary education degree
La formación de habilidades de orientación psicopedagógica en la carrera licenciatura en educación primaria
A formação de competências de orientação psicopedagógica no curso de licenciatura no ensino básico
Received: April 26th, 2022.
Accepted: July 01st, 2022.
Perfecting the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills of the primary teacher is a necessity to achieve a committed educational professional that impacts the lives of their students with modes of action consistent with the demands of today's Cuban society. The present work aims to present the results of the study carried out on the current state of the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education career, at the University of Pinar del Río. For this, methods such as historical-logical, documentary analysis, teacher interviews and class observation were used, which allowed us to verify the current state of this process in the initial training of the primary teacher, taking the dialectical method as a methodological materialistic basis . From the search carried out, it was possible to know that the subject has been little addressed in the particular context of this professional in the undergraduate degree. In a meticulous analysis of the various study plans, it is clearly seen that their implementation has not yet been achieved, as the psycho-pedagogical orientation skills are not operationalized nor the didactic sequence for their instrumentation defined, which favors the development of ways of professional performance to have a direct impact on the transformations in primary schools by future graduates of the Bachelor of Primary Education career in comprehensive attention to the development of the personality of the primary schoolchild.
Keywords: training; skills; primary teacher; psycho pedagogical orientation.
Perfeccionar la formación de habilidades de orientación psicopedagógica del maestro primario constituye una necesidad para alcanzar un profesional de la educación comprometido y que impacte en la vida de sus alumnos con modos de actuación coherentes con las exigencias de la sociedad cubana actual. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo exponer los resultados del estudio realizado sobre el estado actualde laformación de habilidades de orientación psicopedagógica en la carrera Licenciatura en Educación Primaria, en la Universidad de Pinar del Río. Para ello se utilizaron métodos como el histórico-lógico, el análisis documental, la entrevista a profesores y la observación a clases, los que permitieron constatar el estado actual de dicho proceso en la formación inicial del maestro primario, tomando como base metodológica el método dialéctico materialista. De la búsqueda realizada fue posible conocer que el tema ha sido poco abordado en el contexto particular de este profesional en el pregrado. En un análisis minucioso de los diversos planes de estudio se deja ver de manera clara que aún no se ha logrado su implementación, al no estar operacionalizadas las habilidades de orientación psicopedagógicas ni definida la secuencia didáctica para su instrumentación, lo que propicia el desarrollo de modos de actuación profesional para impactar de forma directa en las transformaciones en las escuelas primarias por los futuros egresados de la carrera Licenciatura en Educación Primaria enla atención integral al desarrollo de la personalidad del escolar primario.
Palabras clave: formación; habilidades; maestro primario; orientación psicopedagógica.
Aperfeiçoar a formação de habilidades de orientação psicopedagógica do professor primário é uma necessidade para alcançar um profissional da educação comprometido que impacte a vida de seus alunos com modos de ação compatíveis com as demandas da sociedade cubana atual. O objetivo deste artigo é expor os resultados do estudo realizado sobre o estado atual da formação de habilidades de orientação psicopedagógica na carreira de Bacharel em Educação Primária da Universidade de Pinar del Río. Para isso, foram utilizados métodos como histórico-lógico, análise documental, entrevistas com professores e observação de aulas, que permitiram verificar o estado atual desse processo na formação inicial do professor primário, tomando como base metodológica o método dialético. materialista. A partir da busca realizada, foi possível saber que o assunto tem sido pouco abordado no contexto particular desse profissional na graduação. Numa análise detalhada dos vários planos de estudo, vê-se claramente que a sua implementação ainda não foi alcançada, uma vez que as competências de orientação psicopedagógica não estão operacionalizadas nem definida a sequência didática para a sua implementação, o que favorece o desenvolvimento da ação profissional para impactar as transformações nas escolas primárias pelos futuros egressos da carreira de Bacharel em Educação Básica na atenção integral ao desenvolvimento da personalidade das crianças do ensino fundamental.
Palavras-chave: treinamento; habilidades; professor primário; orientação psicopedagógica.
The current society demands of men that it is not enough for them to repeat and reproduce what they know, but that they feel the desire to create, that they possess an innovative behavior and that they constantly aspire to their own growth and personal improvement. This has been a permanent aspiration of Cuban education and especially of the young generation (Rojas et al., 2018).
That is why they must appropriate learning-stimulating techniques to form psychopedagogical orientation skills, be bearers of the necessary ethical qualities that enable them to contribute to the formation of their students in the environment where they act, from the realization of a pedagogical, communicative, inclusive, flexible, humanistic and transformative activity.
As pointed out in the previous section, during the teaching-learning process, sometimes the cognitive aspect is prioritized, specifically, the result to which one aspires; however, the path to be followed during the process enables how to reach the proposed objective, where the teacher must pay particular attention to the procedures and steps to be followed in an intentional manner, which allows the student an analysis of the process that enables necessary adjustments during it. Thus, the teacher interacts with the student from the conditions in which he finds himself and allows him to differentiate the psychopedagogical attention according to his potentialities and deficiencies.
There are novel research results, among which Blanco (2000), Calviño (2000), Ordaz (2011), (Alfonso and Serra, 2016) and Castellanos (2020) stand out, aimed at helping self-knowledge, personal growth, as well as the enrichment of the intellectual and creative capacities of the students; all this, through diagnosis and psycho pedagogical intervention in the interest of the integral formation of the individual, starting from offering teachers the methodological tools. Despite the existence of sufficient theoretical references on the subject, there are insufficiencies in the concretion of practical actions that allow offering an adequate treatment for the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills.
Regarding psychopedagogical orientation, Márquez and Ordaz (2018) refer to how this constitutes a resource for the transformation of individuals, since it raises the quality of training processes. Simultaneously, the design of the types of help and accompaniment to be used is taxed, where the psychological transformations that occur in the protagonists, as a result of their participation in said process, are followed up. Therefore, the dialectical relationship between psychological and pedagogical aspects in educational activities is established.
In this article, the authors present the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills, not as one more subject or discipline to contemplate in the regular training of the primary teacher, but as a component of work to build the pedagogical practice, which encompasses the system of psycho pedagogical contents that you have acquired during your pre-professional life; articulated and incorporated in a coherent way in the mode of professional pedagogical action that is aspired to.
During the teaching-learning process, the orientation treatment must pay tribute to the development of a reflective professional, both in his professional and personal performance. So that, as a result of constant self -education, as a process inherent to their professional functions, they acquire the intentional ability to correctly guide their students and enhance their training and transformation (Salazar and Pérez, 2020).
In this context, the guiding function of the teacher from the professional model is manifested in his pedagogical activity in terms of:
From this perspective, psychopedagogical orientation is defended as a continuous and dynamic process, which occurs throughout life and considers the person as an active agent in their process. This allows, facilitates or helps in the transformation or change of its context or reality. From the orientation, the person must: act as an agent of change; be able to generate knowledge and actions from their experience; decide based on them and undertake collective actions that allow the transformation of reality, facilitating their personal and comprehensive development, through their professional and life project.
Today education professionals are needed with greater comprehensiveness, capable of identifying, facing and solving problems and situations that highlight the object of their profession, characterized by permanent change; this requires new qualities to their professional preparation, which in turn calls for changes in training systems (Mena and Mena, 2020).
In correspondence with these demands, teachers today face a context that imposes new challenges. The need for a new vision of society, the family, the students, who demand an education professional who constantly carries out scientific research and innovations that transform the problems in the teaching-educational process, is observed; A suitable teacher, cultured, is necessary as an essential protagonist in the formation of primary school children.
These ideas have motivated the authors to investigate about the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills in the teaching-learning process in the Bachelor of Primary Education career at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca".
In an exploratory study, using empirical methods such as class observation, interviews with students and teachers, and document review, it was found that the students of the Bachelor of Primary Education degree at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", present strengths and weaknesses in the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills, which are listed below:
From the weaknesses and strengths related to the formation of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills presented by the students of the Bachelor of Primary Education career at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", a problematic situation is created, since These students do not establish a correct implementation of the skills, since those related to psycho pedagogical orientation are not operationalized , nor is the didactic sequence defined for its implementation; as well as establishing a strategy that, from the supports of the professional performance mode, contributes to the configuration of the object of the profession for this purpose, which determines the lack of relevance of the training process.
Daily practice shows that this is one of the regularities of the bank of problems of the educational institution, which led the authors of this work to venture into the subject, putting into practice the knowledge system of scientific research and proposing the following scientific problem: how to contribute to the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education degree at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca"?
From the above, the objective of this work is revealed, which consists of presenting the results of the study carried out on the current state of the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education career, at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", as an essential part of initial undergraduate training, based on the verification of the current state of this process in the aforementioned context.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The realization of this study was developed under the dialectical-materialistic approach, supported by theoretical methods such as the historical-logical method, which made it possible to systematize the theoretical, historical and trend background of the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills of the primary teacher and empirical methods data that made it possible to characterize the desired state, object of investigation.
To verify the current state of the process of training psycho pedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", it was necessary to carry out a diagnosis, which defined the following variables.
Dimension 1: conceived as a process; with some indicators that allowed evaluating it:
Dimension 2: conceived as a result. In this case the indicators to characterize the object are:
The career course in Primary Education of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" was selected, where we worked with the teachers and students of the regular day course from the second to the fourth year of the career, who carry out their work practice in the primary schools of the head municipality and develop actions of planning, execution and control of curricular and extracurricular activities, in correspondence with the mode of professional pedagogical action.
The documentary analysis consisted of the search for information in normative and methodological documents of the career, among which are: Study plan, Professional Model, Report of accreditation of the career (2018).
The descriptive and inferential statistics allowed to process the information referring to the characterization of the current state of the formation of skills of psychopedagogical orientation to the diagnosis.
As part of the documentary analysis, a review of the different study plans (A, B, C, D and E) through which the Bachelor of Primary Education has gone through was carried out.
Regarding the observation of classes, it allowed the collection of information from the elaborated guide, on the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills and the development of the teaching-learning process of the Psychology subject and the relationships established between the different activities. that are carried out (curricular and extracurricular), depending on the process of training the psychopedagogical orientation skills of the primary teacher.
To verify the current state of the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills of the primary teacher, an interview was applied to the professors of the Department of the career in Primary Education, with the purpose of characterizing said process in the acting model.
The application of the research methods allowed us to verify the following results on the process under study.
In the direction of the teaching-educational process, it was possible to appreciate that the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills in the educational context has potentialities from its theoretical-methodological foundations to increase the preparation of professionals in initial training of the Bachelor of Primary Education career, to the proper development of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills in solving the problems that are presented to primary teachers in the contexts of action.
As can be seen, the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills is an essential element for professionals in training for the Bachelor of Primary Education career. However, the potential offered by the different disciplines to prepare the student for the proper development of these skills has not been taken advantage of. This task requires an effective implementation of the pedagogical diagnosis, as a premise of an effective work in this sense.
The analysis of the historical evolution of the training of psychopedagogical guidance skills has undergone a process that began with doubts regarding its content and identity in the guidance function. Then he went through successive approaches to the teaching-learning process, until his true insertion in it.
Regarding the initial training of the primary teacher, this has gone through different stages in the improvement, which have intervened in its preparation, which cover the study plans from plan A to plan E.
The formation of skills for orientation was not an explicit objective in the initial training of the primary teacher up to plan D. However, the need for pedagogical and intellectual skills developed by the different subjects of the study plan was implicit.
In 2010, orientation was deepened and consolidated as a function of the teacher in training. Important elements to consider here would be the theoretical conceptions about the guiding function in initial training and for the development of the skills inherent to the guiding function; hence the importance for the exercise of the profession of training psychopedagogical guidance skills.
As a result of the analysis of the Study Plan E of the career, the lack of subjects or modules that contribute to the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills was verified. The general skills of the profession are not related to the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills; this process is not part of the general skill system of the profession.
In the Professional Model, it was verified that the guiding function exists; however, the psycho pedagogical orientation in the training of the future graduate does not appear explicitly.
In the analysis of the results of the observation of teachers and students in the teaching-learning process from the classes, insufficient quality was found in the execution of the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills in the teaching-learning process, lack of fluency at the moment of understanding for the operationalization of psycho pedagogical orientation skills and the didactic sequence for its instrumentation; hence the need to carry out other operations within the skills of psychopedagogical orientation, to favor the process of their formation.
The following data was obtained from the interview with the professors of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education department.
68% agree that the organizational form that most enhances the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills are work practices; Although they clarify that in all forms the formation of these skills can be enhanced, the rest of the teachers believe that in all organizational forms the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills can be enhanced, depending on the planning that the teacher has of the meeting and only 29 % were able to explain how the different organizational forms (conferences) give rise to the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills.
52% consider that it does contribute to the formation of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills in the orientation of evaluations; the rest do not know if they do it or not and only 18% were able to exemplify that it contributes to the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills, in characterization, diagnosis, counseling and evaluation.
The lack of constancy in the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills in undergraduate teaching is evident in labor practices. There are no duly established stages that allow determining when students master psychopedagogical orientation skills.
These facts show that the formation of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills is not conceived as a process that must go through the orientation, execution and control stages and that it is not structured through the didactic components that typify it as process and result.
The results obtained with the application of the aforementioned methods, as well as the theoretical search on the subject, show the need to improve the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills, due to the importance and relevance of the initial professional training of the primary teacher, given the functions to be performed by it.
The research shows that the main regularities of the current state of the training of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education career were characterized by:
Regarding the teaching-learning process, psychopedagogical orientation skills, despite their importance, are not taken into account in the design and execution, like the rest of the skills.
The analysis and interpretation of the data obtained allows us to recognize that the formation of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills goes through the orientation, execution and control stages and it is structured through the didactic components that typify it as a process and a result; That is why many times the methods, means and forms are not as effective and decisive in a solid and conscious learning.
What has been said above is one of the current weaknesses of the teaching-learning process in the formation of psycho-pedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education career.
Precisely, the development of the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills in stages, points to an adequate generalization of habits, an issue that is at the base of the transfer phenomenon. In this way, the psychopedagogical orientation skills to be trained in the students of said career are determined by the modes of action in the development of the personality of the primary school student, which is fundamental, considering that the object of the profession is the educational process.
There are various criteria that are used regarding the formation of psychopedagogical orientation skills presented. The authors (Rojas et al., 2018) have investigated considering that skills constitute a basic element in the learning of future primary education professionals, since there is no knowledge without a skill, without knowing how to do and teach how to do. This is strongly promoted from the perspective of a developer didactics (p. 88).
Conesa Santos (2018) refers that the psycho-pedagogical contents are inherently integrated into their mode of professional action, where the different resources of the teacher are mobilized, necessary to overcome the problems that arise in the educational context. In this way, it favors the education and development of reflective and scientific, personal and professional thinking from social commitment in pedagogical practice, essential for quality professional practice.
Vélaz de Medrano (2002) points out that the purpose of orientation is to assist the student to acquire sufficient knowledge of himself and his environment, to be able to use more intelligently the educational opportunities offered by the school and the community. He argues that this set of knowledge, methodologies and theoretical principles facilitates and promotes the integral development of subjects, with the involvement of the different educational agents (counselors, tutors, teachers, family) and social agents.
The foregoing connects with the mission assigned by society to the primary teacher, who is also a dynamic agent of relations between the school, the family and the community. In this regard, Ordaz (2011) considers that counseling has evolved from a basically diagnostic, classificatory and specific activity, to a broader, procedural and differential approach, taking into account the different stages of development of the individual and the multifaceted and comprehensive nature of his personality (p. 19).
In the teaching-learning process of psycho-pedagogical contents, through the systematic link between theory and practice, between study and work, education professionals progressively dominate actions for psycho-pedagogical characterization, counseling and evaluation, such as substantive processes of their work. From this mastery results the acquisition of professional psychopedagogical guidance skills.
The need to achieve maximum efficiency and authenticity in professional training has been reiterated; Hence, the counselor is assigned as a professional function and they are prepared from their initial training to develop the process of psychopedagogical orientation.
In this way, it is appropriate to point out that, in the initial training process, through the comprehensive treatment of students, in the context of their training and in the different activities carried out, aspects related to the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills are promoted, for the achievement of the very complex maneuver of creating the personality of primary schoolchildren.
By way of conclusion, the work carried out shows the need to improve the training of psychopedagogical orientation skills in the Bachelor of Primary Education career, during the undergraduate course, based on the professionalization of the primary teacher, which the teaching-learning process demands, becoming the university in the formal campus through which students acquire instruction and skills, to promote the development of the personality of primary school children, as the first step in the mission of stimulating intelligence and fine-tuning feelings.
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Conflict of interest:
Authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Tania Hernández Carrera, Juan Lázaro Márquez Marrero, Itzmal Fernando Pereda Cuesta