Mendive. Journal on Education, January-March 2023; 21(1): e3043
Translated from the original in Spanish
The way of acting of the professional: its evaluation in preparation for employment
El modo de actuación del profesional: su evaluación en la preparación para el empleo
A forma de atuação do profissional: sua avaliação na preparação para o emprego
Rosana Gutiérrez Taboada1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8062-6518
Tania Hernández Mayea1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2032-6054
Sandra Yuliet Brito Padilla1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3772-696X
1University of Sancti Spiritu José Martí Pérez. Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
|Gutiérrez Taboada, R., Hernández Mayea, T., & Brito Padilla, S. (2023). The way of acting of the professional: its evaluation in preparation for employment. Mendive. Revista de educación, 21(1), e3043. https://mendive.upr.edu.cu/index.php/MendiveUPR/article/view/3043|
Received: April 24, 2022.
Accepted: October 27, 2022.
The evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in the preparation for employment constitutes an important factor for the assurance of educational quality, based on the growing consensus in relation to the determining role of the teacher to promote and guide changes in the other factors of the educational system. The article aims to socialize with the scientific community categories and subcategories around the improvement of this process. An investigation was carried out at the Jatibonico Municipal University Center, in which the qualitative methodology based on a systematization of experiences was used; Document analysis, participant observation, in-depth sessions, semi-structured interviews and methodological triangulation were also used. From reflections derived from the reconstruction, the critical interpretation of the experience and the opportune immersions in the theory, categories and subcategories of analysis are proposed that characterize the what and how to evaluate the way of acting of the educational professional in the preparation for the job. The proposal constitutes a useful tool, focused on improving the validated quality assessment, based on methodological rigor, based on criteria of credibility, confirmability, dependability and transferability.
Keywords: evaluation; quality; professional performance mode; preparation for employment.
La evaluación de la calidad del modo de actuación del profesional de la educación en la preparación para el empleo constituye un importante factor para el aseguramiento de la calidad educativa, a partir del consenso creciente en relación con el papel determinante del docente para impulsar y orientar cambios en los demás factores del sistema educativo. El artículo tiene como objetivo socializar con la comunidad científica categorías y subcategorías en torno a la mejora de este proceso. Se realizó una investigación en el Centro Universitario Municipal de Jatibonico, en la que se utilizó la metodología cualitativa basada en una sistematización de experiencias; fueron utilizados, además, el análisis de documentos, la observación participante, sesiones en profundidad, entrevistas semiestructuradas y la triangulación metodológica. A partir de reflexiones derivadas de la reconstrucción, la interpretación crítica de la experiencia y las oportunas inmersiones en la teoría se proponen categorías y subcategorías de análisis que caracterizan el qué y el cómo evaluar el modo de actuación del profesional de la educación en la preparación para el empleo. La propuesta constituye una herramienta útil, enfocada en el perfeccionamiento de la evaluación de la calidad validada, a partir el rigor metodológico, sobre la base de criterios de credibilidad, confirmabilidad, dependibilidad y transferibilidad.
Palabras clave: evaluación; calidad; modo de actuación profesional; preparación para el empleo.
A avaliação da qualidade do modo de atuação do profissional da educação na preparação para o emprego constitui fator importante para a garantia da qualidade educacional, a partir do crescente consenso em relação ao papel determinante do professor para promover e orientar mudanças. nos demais fatores do sistema educacional. O artigo visa socializar com a comunidade científica categorias e subcategorias em torno do aprimoramento desse processo. Realizou-se uma investigação no Centro Universitário Municipal Jatibonico, na qual se utilizou a metodologia qualitativa baseada na sistematização de experiências; Utilizou-se também análise documental, observação participante, sessões em profundidade, entrevistas semi-estruturadas e triangulação metodológica. o emprego. A proposta constitui uma ferramenta útil, focada na melhoria da avaliação da qualidade validada, assente no rigor metodológico, assente em critérios de credibilidade, confirmabilidade, fiabilidade e transferibilidade.
Palavras-chave: avaliação; qualidade; modo de desempenho profissional; preparação para o emprego.
The evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the educational professional in Cuba occupies an important space in the field of the evaluation of educational quality, based on the growing consensus on the determining role of the teacher to promote and guide changes in others. factors of the educational system, endorsed in the Conceptualization of the Cuban Economic and Social Model of Socialist Development, of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC), endorsed by the National Assembly of Parliament in June 2017, in its chapter IV on Social Policy, guidelines 118, 120, 121, 125 (PCC, 2017, p. 21-23).
These premises make up the Cuban model of Higher Education based on new concepts of continuous training, where the development and improvement of the way of acting of the education professional materializes in the dynamics of its three components: "undergraduate training, which It is complemented by professional development, through preparation for employment in the educational institutions where he begins his working life and postgraduate training" [Ministerio de Educación Superior (MES), 2019, p. two]. The purpose of this is that the graduate can carry out his work in the basic link of the profession, based on a professional pedagogical approach that allows him to internalize his mode of action, in order to face the professional problems of pedagogical practice.
The scientific debate on preparation for employment, in order to improve the process of continuous training of the education professional from different perspectives, constitutes an area that is still open to discussion. The theoretical contributions of different researchers provided essential elements for a definition of the quality assessment of the mode of action of the education professional in preparation for employment:
Based on the studies, it is reported that the preparation component for the employment of the education professional is:
a planned, organized, directed, controlled and evaluated process, with the purpose that the graduate can carry out his work in the basic link of the profession from a professional pedagogical approach in correspondence with the object of the profession and the curricular practices assumed, which allows the development and refinement of the way of professional action. The diagnosis materialized in the pedagogical delivery of the recent graduate, job training, conceived from the strategy of preparation for employment and the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the professional who graduates, are considered.
In the current study plan of the different pedagogical careers, one of the general objectives of the Education Professional Model is aimed at "systematically self-assessing the progress and needs of the modes of action as a source of personal development and self -improvement "(MES, Regulation of Postgraduate Education of the Republic of Cuba, 2019). The evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional comes to play here a determining role, in correspondence with the object of the profession and the curricular practices assumed from the duty to be of the professional trained in the second component of the process of continuous training, conceived and executed in labor entities, in coordination with universities (MES, Regulation of Postgraduate Education of the Republic of Cuba, 2019, p. 2).
The scientific investigations carried out as part of the attention and follow-up to the graduate that are carried out in the Municipal University Center of Jatibonico and the recovery of the practice lived around the evaluation of the quality of the professional performance mode in the preparation for the employment, allowed us to specify that no scientific reports were found about how and what to evaluate in the way of acting of the education professional, in preparation for employment, so there is limited knowledge of the evaluation community about the evaluation of the way of action of the education professional from the preparation for employment and the characteristics that define the mode of action of the education professional in preparation for employment are not defined.
Due to what was previously stated, the fundamental objective of the article was aimed at socializing, with the scientific community, categories and subcategories regarding the improvement of the evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the education professional in the preparation for employment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out on the basis of the qualitative paradigm, the recovery of the lived practice, its interpretation and transformation. It allowed to enrich the knowledge and explain the factors of change regarding the evaluation of the quality of the mode of professional action of the graduate of pedagogical careers in the preparation for employment.
It was developed in a scenario characterized by a dialectical unity between the "José Martí Pérez" University of Sancti Spíritus, represented in the territory by the "Panchito Gómez Toro" Municipal University Center, and the Jatibonico Municipal Education Department, with its educational institutions, these being the agencies that directly intervene in the development and improvement of the way of acting of this professional in the second component of the continuous training process.
Essential in the experience were education professionals who go through the preparation for employment component during the stage under study (71), located in different educational institutions in the territory; the director of the Municipal University and Education Center of the territory; heads of departments of the different educational levels; heads of departments of the University of Sancti Spíritus, from where the professionals graduate; coordinators of microcycles and departments of educational institutions; tutor teachers; professors of the Municipal University Center involved in the attention to the graduate, all constituting the research sample. Their selection was determined from simple random sampling.
Tojar `s (2006) criteria, the informants were classified as:
Keys: nine, for 12.7%: six heads of the departments from which education professionals graduate in the period studied (Speech Therapy, Foreign Languages, Pedagogy-Psychology, Labor Education-Informatics, Preschool and Marxism-Leninism and History), three researchers with experience in issues of evaluation of the quality of the education professional of the University of Sancti Spíritus "José Martí Pérez".
Special: twelve, 16.9%: the municipal director of Education, the director of the Municipal University Center, three heads of departments of educational levels (Early childhood and Special, Primary, Basic Secondary and Pre-university), three educational institutions directors, six coordinators of microcycles (for moments of development) and two heads of grades.
Representatives: fifty, representing 70.4%: thirteen tutors from educational institutions, seven professors from the Municipal University Center assigned to support during the preparation for employment component and thirty professionals who go through this component in the period of September 2018 to June 2021.
A systematization of experiences was used as a fundamental empirical method in order to dialectically relate existing theoretical knowledge and those derived from lived experience. The documentary analysis that made it possible to know the provisions of documents that establish the legal course that the preparation for employment component has, the work in each career, as well as annual evaluations, individual development plans and strategies for attention and follow-up to the graduate. Participant observations, in-depth sessions, and semi-structured interviews were carried out in order to verify and explain the characteristics of the phenomenon studied.
With the intention of correlating the data obtained through the exposed methods and the determination of meeting and divergence points, methodological triangulation was used.
The study carried out showed that the theoretical and methodological arguments within the educational sciences that support the state of the art around the evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the educational professional in the preparation for employment, were concentrated in the need to systematize the unit of criteria to determine what to evaluate and how to evaluate this particular.
In the documents that make up the legal framework of the object in question, a conceptual definition of the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in preparation for employment was not found; The stages and functions of the process were not specified, despite the fact that its development and improvement is ruled from the job position of the recent graduate; There were no dimensions associated with the duty to be of the education professional that are characterized accordingly with knowing, doing and being.
By delving into the Professional Model for Study Plan E for the training of the education professional, with emphasis on the fundamental object of work, the modes of action that are formed and developed in the careers, the fields of action, the spheres of action, the general objective, the specific objectives and the skills to be achieved, there are meeting points that allow the process of evaluating the quality of the modes of action of this graduate from a generalizing position to materialize.
The characteristics that are intended to be promoted in future professionals, according to these documents, determine the objective of continuous training, which consists of training highly qualified patriots, in political and scientific-pedagogical knowledge, with solid values and human qualities, which contribute to the general and integral cultural formation of the new generations and perform according to the demands of the needs of education in a creative and independent way.
The evaluation of the Professional Model of the pedagogical sciences careers showed that not all refer to the ethical and aesthetic values of the profession that also characterize the Cuban professional of education, precise categories are not defined to determine the mode of professional performance of the graduate in careers or how to assess it from job readiness.
The methodological work plans of the Municipal University Center, the minutes of the Board of Directors of this and the Municipal Directorate of Education in the territory provided information about the hierarchical lines of the institution.
It was corroborated that there is an intention to improve the work of attention and follow-up to the graduate by the agencies involved, but the evaluation of the quality of the modes of the education professional is not conceived, in pursuit of its development and improvement from its beginning. job.
The analysis of the documentation corresponding to the methodological preparation allowed us to elucidate that even when there is work around the follow-up actions of the graduate, determined by a strategy where the intervention actions are planned by the Municipal University Center, the evaluation of the quality of the way of professional action does not have a methodological treatment; The study of the minutes of the boards of directors of the different educational institutions allowed us to infer that the analyzes on the results of the different moments of the evaluation lack depth in terms of knowing, doing and being.
When reviewing the documents that make up the evaluation process, it was evidenced that there is a lack of self-assessment carried out by the professional on the quality of his mode of action. In the individual development plans, few generalizing actions were required for the development and improvement of this particular, based on the identified weaknesses.
The evidence of the preparation of the evaluation process denoted a lack of variety of methods used to obtain valid and reliable data that allow a holistic vision of the quality of the professional's mode of action; quantitative and superficial analyzes predominate. There was little evidence of the exchanges about the results, so they do not conform as a result of a continuous process.
The participating agents recognized the importance of evaluating the quality of the professional's mode of action during the employment preparation component, in order to perfect and develop the professional's duty to be. They asserted that the current evaluation process directs its attention to the teacher's performance and not to the mode of action, as established in the statutes that make up the process of continuous training of the education professional.
When interviewing 33.3% of the professionals who were in the employment preparation component, they reported that the way in which they are evaluated makes them equal to the rest of the most experienced education professionals and they still have a period of two years to develop and perfect their ways of acting, despite the fact that they lack a characterization of these that includes what to know, what to do and how to be in correspondence with the trained professional. They attached great importance to self-assessment, although they had doubts about how to carry it out.
In the opinion of the agents who, during the study stage, were accompanied by the transition of the professionals through the preparation for employment, they expressed that the professors of the Municipal University Center are never asked for criteria, and only on some occasions the tutors refer judgments about teaching performance, without emphasizing their way of professional performance; they had little control over which components make up the quality professional performance mode that responds to knowing, doing and being and what generalizing actions they carry out in their professional praxis.
In relation to the participant observation carried out in the stage, it made it easier to appreciate the state of the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in preparation for employment, for which reason it constituted a conclusive element for the formation of from the starting point.
Four methodological meetings were observed in the basic educational institutions, two groups of cycles and two meetings of grades and a board of directors, in the point destined to the analysis of the evaluation process. In the opinion of the researcher, it was revealed that no differentiated treatment is given to the evaluation of the mode of action of the education professional who is undergoing preparation for employment, the use of methods that favor the collection of valid and reliable during the process, the methodological treatment that is given to the evaluation process is limited, so there are few activities based on the preparation of the agents for this purpose. Professionals are more concerned with the category awarded than with the improvement actions that are proposed.
In order to carry out a detailed and global vision of the main events that took place in the course of the experience (2018-2021), in-depth sessions were carried out, which favored the participatory analysis of the processes, results and transformations in the study object.
In the first in-depth session, the debate was directed to the legal framework that supports the process of evaluating the quality of the way of acting of the education professional, contextualized in the process of continuous training. The participants in this session were nine key informants (heads of departments and researchers) and 12 special informants (director of the Municipal University Center and Municipal Education, as well as directors, coordinators of microcycles and degrees of educational institutions), for a 29, 5%, for which it was necessary to carry out two work sessions (University of Sancti Spíritus and Municipal University Center).
Three fundamental trends were determined based on the main needs emanating: interest of the participating agencies and agents in contextualizing the evaluation of the education professional in the preparation for employment component, in order to develop and improve their modes of professional performance.
The second in-depth session promoted collective reflection on the "should be" of the education professional, in order to answer the question of what to evaluate? All the key and special informants participated, as well as 50% of the representative informants (thirteen tutors, seven professors from the Municipal University Center and five professionals who are preparing for employment, graduates of different careers). As in the previous one, it was carried out in two work sessions. The referred in-depth session became a space for the collective construction of knowledge, characterized by the presentation of arguments and suggestions, which allowed enriching the theoretical foundations on which the characterization of the professional performance mode was built.
In the third in-depth session, five key informants participated: three researchers and two heads of departments (Speech Therapy and Pedagogy-Psychology), eight special informants, the director of the Municipal University Center and the Municipal Education Center, three department heads of educational levels , three directors of educational institutions (one from each level), and seven representative informants (professors from the Municipal University Center linked to the follow-up actions for graduates).
The proposals of stages for the design and implementation of the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in the preparation for employment, as well as the use of methods, techniques and instruments to be used in the evaluation process, were collectively evaluated. A consensus was reached regarding the stages through which the evaluation process must go, based on the theoretical foundations assumed in the study, the procedures to be carried out at each stage were discussed and approved, the ethical principles that they must govern the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the graduate of the pedagogical sciences careers.
As a result, categories and subcategories of analysis were specified as theoretical and empirical references for work:
I. In the stages of the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in the preparation for employment, planning of the evaluation process and preparation of the agencies and agents that transit was considered as one of the categories and as subcategories. for preparation for employment, obtaining and processing valid and reliable data in the real space of action, issuance of value judgments and projection of improvement actions with the maximum participation of the participants and socialization and reflection of the results with social actors interested.
II. The functions of quality assessment were determined as another of the categories and, consequently, as subcategories the instructional function, educational function, diagnostic function and the developer.
Finally, it was selected as a category:
III. The mode of action of the education professional and as subcategories, performance in the integral pedagogical diagnosis, performance in the planning, execution and control of the Teaching-Learning Process, performance in orientation and communication, performance in research as a way of solving professional problems and pedagogical professional identity.
As part of the recovery of the practice, feedback actions were carried out on the process experienced to date, based on the improvement of the quality evaluation of the way of acting of the education professional in preparation for employment.
They were designed, in conjunction with the evaluating agents, and introduced into practice as part of the follow-up actions for the graduate, contextualized in the Jatibonico Municipal University Center.
The development and improvement of the modes of action presupposes individualizing behaviors that are reconciled with social objectives, becoming aware of how one acts, seeing what is useful, where there are limitations, why and how; Hence, the mastery by the professional of generalizing actions that characterize the mode of action of the education professional plays a determining role.
The results obtained were characterized by a strengthening of joint work, in a context of co-responsibility between the agencies and agents involved in the process; they favored the appropriation, by the professionals who graduate of modes of action, in correspondence with the object of the profession and in function of responding to the professional problems that arise in the educational activity.
In correspondence with the path traveled and described, the Scientific-Methodological Seminar "Systematization of experiences on the conception of the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in the preparation for the job"; with the participation of all the informants, where the necessary self-preparation was taken as a premise , based on the circulation of the document "The evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the education professional in the preparation for employment, a necessity of our time", containing guiding elements about what to evaluate and how to evaluate the mode of action in this specific context, forming a theoretical-methodological apparatus built on the basis of systematized experiences.
The characterization of the evaluation process was the subject of a debate, whose richness is evidenced by the quantity and quality of the interventions. The participants agreed on the importance of assuming the evaluation in its character as a system, which favors the concatenation between the different stages that are proposed in the in-depth session three and takes into account the links, relationships and regularities resulting from it. It turned out to be a guide for the construction of the stages through which the process refers to the barriers that emerge from this process.
It is noted that 78.6 % of the informants defended the character of systematicity, since they consider that the most important thing is not to implement the evaluation, but to achieve its permanence. The managers of the agencies involved and the researchers argued the importance of guaranteeing the objectivity of the information. All the attendees spoke favorably about the participatory nature of the evaluation process, expressed in the changes to be observed in the agents involved, with a view to improvement.
An adequate coherence was appreciated between the actions that were oriented to the search for information, based on the proposal of elaborated instruments, and those that were directed to the determination and implementation of improvement strategies.
The criteria referred to the consideration of the self-assessment that the teachers who go through the preparation for employment carry out of the quality of their performance, which had the consensus of the participants, were discussed. However, 60 % of the informants expressed themselves in favor of a greater frequency in the application of this important instrument that promotes analysis, from a self-critical and participatory position.
A greater interest and personal involvement were demonstrated, which was helped by the previous training and the motivations that arose, in correspondence with the theme, as well as the understanding on the part of the participants that their criteria were taken into account for the elaboration of the proposal.
The evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the educational professional in Cuba occupies an important space in the field of the evaluation of educational quality, based on the growing consensus in relation to the determining role of the teacher to promote and guide changes in the other factors of the Cuban educational system.
In this sense, a challenge is imposed due to the need to evaluate the quality of the way of acting of the education professional, in correspondence with the object of the profession and the curricular practices assumed from the duty to be of the professional trained in the second component of the continuous training process, conceived and executed in labor entities in coordination with universities (MES, Resolution No. 138/19, 2019, p. 19).
Hence, it is a question of conceiving it with a holistic character, of turning it into a process, that is not thought through isolated actions in a determined period of time, where the contradictions of the intrinsic opposites of evaluation are sharpened, but as the qualitative change and the systematic transformation that must take place in all the co-acting agents and agencies that intervene.
The category proposal is supported by a prolonged theoretical-practical research activity that has been mobilizing educational evaluators who have verified a diversity of problems around the foundation and instrumentation of the evaluation of the quality of the education professional.
A definition of educational quality evaluation that is applicable at all levels of Cuban education is the one provided by Valdés (2005) and assumed by the author; is specified in:
the systematic process of data collection incorporated into the general system of educational action, which allows obtaining valid and reliable information on each of the context, input, process and product variables that make up the definition. The information thus obtained will be used to make value judgments about the state of educational quality, which constitute starting points for decision-making to improve the valued educational activity (p. 15).
In order to characterize the mode of action of the education professional, the elements that compose it proposed by Addine (2013) in his study about General Didactics and its teaching in Higher Pedagogical Education were conclusive:
- The system and sequence of actions, of a generalizing activity, in which a competent execution is modeled.
- Acting on the object of the profession.
- The development of skills, abilities, constructs that make up their own professional identity.
- The characterization of the professional's activity, regardless of the spheres of action in which he develops his activity and the fields of action in which he acts.
- The integration of the content of education in their interaction with the object of their profession.
- The interdisciplinary relationships of different areas of knowledge, both those included in the teacher's training curriculum, as well as the fields of action of the spheres of action of the object of their profession, in accordance with a preconceived intention, where the science-teaching relationship.
- The interaction that the subject develops with the object of his profession and the other subjects through communication and activity.
- The relationship between the problems that the professional has to solve and the educational purpose of their training process, which reflects the relationship between society and the profession in training and self-training (p. 152-153).
From the dialectical-materialist conception, the mode of action of the education professional is an expression of the appropriation of knowing, knowing how to do, being, living together and undertaking, according to social demands to guarantee an inclusive, equitable and of quality, capable of promoting learning opportunities throughout life.
In this same line, some more recent studies are recognized: Acosta; Garcia and Bacardi (2016); Cabero Almenara, Llorente and Morales (2017); González and Bautista (2020); Rodríguez, Ordorika and Gil (2016), who coincide in stating that the link between educational quality, the quality of the way in which the teacher performs and their evaluation determines their constant development and self -improvement.
Based on the theoretical notes, it was possible to analyze the evaluation applied to the field of education quality, based on the diversity of definitions derived from the different philosophical, epistemological and methodological positions that have prevailed in different stages; which allowed us to understand the evaluation of the quality of the mode of action of the education professional in preparation for employment as:
. the systemic, systematic, objective and participatory process of obtaining valid and reliable data in relation to the modes, form and qualities of action, which allows the elaboration of value judgments with a formative purpose, which is expressed in the adoption of regulatory strategies based on improvement.
The foregoing is supported by the coherence between the theoretical foundations provided by Marxist-oriented Philosophy, Sociology and Psychology and the taking of a position around the object, laws, principles and categories of Pedagogy, which strengthens the continuous improvement through starting from the current demands of the current professional training process in Cuban Higher Education.
The results obtained from the methodological triangulation carried out at the starting point of the systematization of experiences allowed to reveal that the base educational agents and agencies show motivation for the improvement of the evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the education professional in the preparation for employment; there is no precision in what and how to assess its quality and they miss out on the potential of using methods that allow obtaining a holistic vision of the quality of the way of acting of the education professional.
In order to achieve the projection of change, in the opinion of Guardian Fernández (2010), in the qualitative paradigm there are four concepts that guarantee the methodological rigor of the study in a manner consistent with the paradigm itself; These are: credibility (achieved when the study findings are recognized as "true" by the participating agents), transferability (possibility of transferring the results to other contexts or groups), dependability (evidence) and confirmability (which implies that the results can be confirmed).
The study carried out clarifies the position of the results obtained regarding methodological rigor.
The studies related to the evaluation of the quality of the way of acting of the education professional in the preparation for employment reveal the importance of this process for the achievement of an ethical, responsible, creative and independent action, as well as the modeling of the particularities of what and he how to evaluate in the way of acting of this professional, in correspondence with the particularities of the preparation for employment.
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