Mendive. Journal on Educación, october-december, 2022; 20(4):1284-1296
Translated from the original in SpanishOriginal article
The socio-critical historical way of reasoning of the Higher Education student
El modo de razonar histórico socio-crítico del estudiante de la Educación Superior
O modo de raciocínio histórico sócio-crítico do estudante do Ensino Superior
José Vladimir Mauri Estévez1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2207-273X
Carlos Alberto Rojas González1https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2250-1546
Madelin Guerra Llanes1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2607-6244
Nilson Saumell Marrero3 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2918-9295
1Universidad de Pinar del
Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org;
2Escuela Pedagógica Tania La Guerrillera. Pinar del Río. Cuba. email@example.com
3Universidad Carlos Rafael Rodríguez Rodríguez, Cienfuegos. Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: April 23rd, 2022.
Accepted: September 1st, 2022.
The training process of the Higher Education professional offers possibilities to contribute to the comprehensive improvement of their personality, this implies the need to develop the socio-critical historical mode of reasoning so that the student acquires competent professional modes of action, enabling the analysis of the reality that is lived, become aware of it and be an active part in its construction; It was proposed as an objective to communicate the result of the strategic actions for the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning of the student of the Early Childhood Education faculty, during the process of professional training in Higher Education. The Materialist Dialectic was assumed as a general method, which determined and founded the use of theoretical methods such as historical-logical, analytical-synthetic and systemic-structural; in addition to empirical methods such as document analysis, survey and interview. Its starting point is the need to generate actions applicable to the training process aimed at developing the historical socio-critical way of reasoning that was based on the guidelines of Research-Action-Participation, in which reflection was joined to action. and social reality was understood as a concrete and complex totality to generate response possibilities. The design of strategic actions applicable in the training process for the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning of the Early Childhood Education professional, contributed to the domain of the process of investigating with intellectual insight, strengthening and autonomy in the learning contents for its professional performance.
Keywords: Historical socio-critical; way of reasoning; formation process.
El proceso de formación del profesional de la Educación Superior brinda posibilidades de contribuir al mejoramiento integral de su personalidad, esto lleva implícito la necesidad de desarrollar el modo de razonar histórico socio-crítico para que el estudiante adquiera modos de actuación profesionales competentes, posibilitando el análisis de la realidad que se vive, hacerse consciente de ella y ser parte activa en la construcción de la misma; se propuso como objetivo comunicar el resultado de las acciones estratégicas para el desarrollo del modo de razonar histórico socio-crítico del estudiante de la facultad Educación Infantil, durante el proceso de formación profesional de la Educación Superior. Se asumió como método general el Dialéctico Materialista, el cual determinó y fundamentó el empleo de métodos teóricos como el histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético y el sistémico-estructural; además de métodos empíricos como el análisis de documentos, la encuesta y la entrevista. Tiene como punto de partida la necesidad de generar acciones aplicables al proceso de formación encaminados a desarrollar el modo de razonar histórico socio-crítico que se sustentó sobre los lineamientos de la Investigación-Acción-Participación, en los que se unió la reflexión a la acción y se comprendió la realidad social como una totalidad concreta y compleja para generar posibilidades de respuestas. El diseño de acciones estratégicas aplicables en el proceso de formación para el desarrollo del modo de razonar histórico socio-crítico del profesional de la Educación Infantil, contribuyó al dominio del proceso de investigar con perspicacia intelectual, fortalecimiento y autonomía en los contenidos de aprendizaje para su desempeño profesional.
Palabras clave: Histórico socio-crítico; modo de razonar; proceso de formación.
O processo de formação do profissional do Ensino Superior oferece possibilidades de contribuir para o aprimoramento integral de sua personalidade, isso implica na necessidade de desenvolver o modo de raciocínio histórico sócio-crítico para que o aluno adquira modos de atuação profissional competentes, possibilitando a análise do realidade vivida, tomar consciência dela e ser parte ativa na sua construção; Propôs-se como objetivo comunicar o resultado das ações estratégicas para o desenvolvimento do raciocínio sócio-crítico histórico do aluno da faculdade de Educação Infantil, durante o processo de formação profissional no Ensino Superior. A Dialética Materialista foi assumida como um método geral, que determinou e fundamentou a utilização de métodos teóricos como histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético e sistêmico-estrutural; além de métodos empíricos como análise documental, levantamento e entrevista. Seu ponto de partida é a necessidade de gerar ações aplicáveis ao processo formativo visando desenvolver o raciocínio sócio-crítico histórico que se baseou nas diretrizes da Pesquisa-Ação-Participação, em que a reflexão se une à ação e a realidade social foi entendida como uma totalidade concreta e complexa para gerar possibilidades de resposta. O desenho de ações estratégicas aplicáveis no processo de formação para o desenvolvimento do raciocínio histórico sócio-crítico do profissional da Educação Infantil, contribuiu para o domínio do processo de investigar com perspicácia intelectual, fortalecimento e autonomia nos conteúdos de aprendizagem para sua atuação profissional.
Palavras-chave: Histórico sócio-crítico; forma de raciocínio; processo de formação.
The process of initial training of the Higher Education professional in recent decades is based on the hasty transformations that are experienced in scientific research in Education Sciences and this leads to the appearance of new challenges and circumstances that merit reflection in their work (Harrison, 2019).
Faced with this reality, the development of the logical processes of thought in the students of the Early Childhood Education faculty is essential to contribute to the development and strengthening of conscious reasoning that allows the development of positive and effective response systems based on criticality to the different historical and social situations of concrete educational practice.
Alonso, Cruz and Olaya (2020) refer that the professional training process is one that in a conscious, planned and organized way, is developed in educational institutions and labor entities in close connection, in a dynamic that integrates teaching with work, research and extensionist from the unity between the instructive and the educational through the socio-professional interaction between the subjects involved: students, teachers, tutors, workers, family members and members of the community, which aims to achieve the professional growth of the worker in initial or continuing training.
For this reason, the training of the professional of the Early Childhood Education faculty is based on a permanent and continuous process, based on the principles of Pedagogy, mainly that of scientificity and making students at this level of education see that knowledge is not the only attribute of professional competence, its value is in the socio-critical historical way of reasoning to enable its application and can be oriented to satisfy the learning needs, linked to the problems of concrete professional practice.
Achón, Ramos and Molerio (2019) refer that for professional practice in the training process it makes clear the need to rethink curricular design in a globalizing perspective that means, first of all, a way of organizing and carrying out education. , that allows the student and the teacher to identify and investigate problems without being restricted by limits in any way, such as: subjects, disciplines, and that places the professional and comprehensive development of the student in the foreground from their way of reasoning.
The socio-critical historical way of reasoning constitutes an alternative response to integrate the training process that refers to work as the axis of the educational teaching process, source of knowledge and object of transformation, which favors collective and multidisciplinary participation that favors dynamic construction. of new knowledge through research, the analytical management of information and the exchange of knowledge and experiences (Roschke, Darini and Jadead, 1993).
It is possible to speak of a socio-critical historical way of reasoning, when it is demonstrated by the student during the professional training process of the Early Childhood Education faculty, when the subjects manifest themselves with a critical performance by raising arguments of their own acts of learning and modes of action, following the logic of going beyond a simple justification, defending each situation in the teaching-learning process with a professional attitude and skills, by providing effective arguments with reference to the context and the criteria that justify it, transcending the limits of instrumentality and arrive dialectically at the field of the validity of ideas and theories to discover in time and space the human dimension, the feats of man, his effort, values and his social-historical condition.
All these features that typify the socio-critical historical way of reasoning guarantee the student, during the professional training process of the Early Childhood Education faculty, to have full mastery of the learning contents of the object of the profession, which allow the same apprehension of methods for their professional performance, interweaving in a system of generalizing actions of their activity, adaptable to various forms and contexts, contributing their interaction to the conformation of qualities and distinctive features of personality that allow matching the specificity of the object and the social mandate of the profession and to be able to identify a student with a broad and competent profile.
A student of the Early Childhood Education faculty with a broad and competent profile with an adequate development of the socio-critical historical reasoning requires strategic actions for their generalized professional training, starting from assuming a theoretical position related to the skills of identifying, characterizing, diagnose, explain, establish relationships, substantiate, select, model, execute, control, assess, direct and make decisions with a developer character, depending on the problematic situation to be solved and that allow the fulfillment of professional tasks and functions, from the own context of professional problems.
These actions are present in any type of educational activity, so they would have to be modeled throughout the entire training process, based on a clear understanding of the strategic action assumed from the academic, labor and research aspects, which characterizes all its professional activity and being able to fulfill the opportunity, responsibility or obligation that can fall on many human beings, such as the one who becomes a competent professional, with certain technical skills, scientific knowledge and understanding.
When evaluating the current contextual situation of the Higher Education professional training process, it is necessary to design strategic actions based on the development of the socio-critical historical mode of reasoning during the training process of the Early Childhood Education faculty student.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The results achieved are a consequence of the research project related to the process of professionalization of the Higher Education student belonging to the Center for the Study of Higher Education Sciences of the Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca University, which was based on the guidelines of the Research-Action-Participation, in which reflection is joined to action and social reality is understood as a concrete and complex whole that supposes generating response possibilities, which can later be analyzed in their effectiveness, based on the applicability of the same in specific educational contexts; also carry out a sequential, deductive, probative process and an analysis of objective reality, generalizing the results.
It was proposed as an objective to communicate the results of the strategic actions for the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning of the student faculty of Early Childhood Education, during the process of training in Higher Education. For this, the strategic actions necessary for the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning, during the training process in the Early Childhood Education faculty, are determined from a theoretical and methodological study.
The research sample consisted of 60 students and 20 professors from the Early Childhood Education faculty of the Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca University. It was a non-probabilistic sample of voluntary subjects made up of third- and fourth-year students of the careers and teachers with more than 10 years of experience in the training of Higher Education professionals. These inclusion criteria responded to the need to have subjects with a broad vision in the careers of plan E, from concrete experiences and knowledge about the foundations of it.
The methodology used was based on the Dialectical Materialist method, which determined that it be qualitative and descriptive. Its starting point is the need to generate processes applicable to the training process aimed at developing the socio-critical historical way of reasoning in the students of the Early Childhood Education faculty.
Theoretical methods were used such as:
The professional approach of the training process of the Early Childhood Education student
Gómez and García (2021) refer that Higher Education institutions assume the need to carry out a training process in which a professional capable of meeting labor demands and meeting the needs of society must be achieved and, At the same time, promote the full personal development of this professional in said training process. This arises in an environment permeated by environmental, economic and health crises, vertiginous scientific-technical advances and socio-political and cultural changes.
In this sense, the process of student training in Higher Education is expressed in the organization and direction of the system of educational influences based on the demands demanded by professional practice from academic, labor, research and extension to the future graduate. which implies the need to train it from professional practice and for professional practice.
The application of this approach to the conception of academic, research and work activities from the early years allows working simultaneously and gradually in the development of interests, knowledge and professional skills (René, 2010); as well as in the formation of an adequate self-assessment in their professional management and in the development of a reflective, logical and critical thought to contribute to the development of a socio-critical historical way of reasoning in the application of said knowledge and skills to the solution of problems. problems of professional practice.
This presupposes mastering both the learning content that translates into the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes of the management of the training process as well as those related to the content of science and taking into account the integrated action of teachers in professional training. of students in Higher Education (Amaro, 2014).
On the other hand, it is to understand learning as discovery, rediscovery, search for solutions and oriented towards the application of knowledge to specific situations linked to the daily environment from which one learns to learn.
It is also, to build spaces to promote the consultation and exploration of contents not contemplated in the academic programs and the results obtained from the systematic and investigative work practice and that constitute revealing an active, investigative, problematizing character of theory and social, systemic practice. , self-controlled and self-regulated, flexible and differentiated, inclusive, historical and critical with an interdisciplinary approach based on recognition as an active subject in professional training.
This implies, working from the first years in the development of a committed, reflective, critical, independent and transforming action of the Higher Education student in the solution of the professional problems that they gradually face during the career, as well as in the formation of an adequate self-assessment of their professional development that allows them to fight to eradicate the insufficiencies in their training and work permanently on the improvement of their professional management and the work of the different institutions.
It necessarily implies taking into account, through the training process, everything related to their individual differences, as well as considering the pedagogical group of the year as a fundamental level of professional education of the personality of the future professional.
It is at this level that the educational influences that allow directing the educational teaching process towards the formation of professional interests and skills through academic, research, labor and extension activities are specified and integrated, supported by the different forms of methodological work.
The methodological work of the pedagogical group of the year must guarantee the professional approach of the educational teaching process, starting from the direction of the work towards the fulfillment of the objectives of the year and on the basis of the knowledge of the level of development reached by the students in their interests and professional learning content, which implies the application of differentiated strategic actions that guarantee the quality of the training of students with competent professional performance modes in Higher Education.
Ronquillo, Cabrera and Barberán (2019) assure that in Higher Education, by taking into account the university as a system of processes, the substantive processes take place in an integrated manner, which is why it is required to train students with solid modes of action. professional, modeled by different factors: knowledge, skills, experiences, motivations, interests, vocation, values, attitudes, potential and their state of health, among others, for the solution to various learning situations with adequate reasoning.
In this sense, the modes of competent professional action depend a lot on their ability and agility to solve professional problems, that is, being competent. Competence is not expressed in the capabilities that are possessed, but in the way or path to solve problems, by putting knowledge, know-how and knowing how to act into practice.
Therefore, for the formation of these modes of action, differentiated strategic actions must be planned and executed that start from the realization of a comprehensive diagnosis of the new students in Higher Education that allows a precise and scientific characterization in the field of career, of the brigades and at the individual level in order to be able to attend to both the motivational and intellectual spheres.
In this sense, Ronquillo et al. (2019) consider that it is necessary to contribute to the orientation and reorientation of professional motivation together with the development of knowledge, skills and professional habits, taking into account the differences in intellectual potential, which allow the level of demand to be adapted to their performance in the process. of learning, which implies taking into consideration in the training process the necessary treatment that students with high, medium and low performance in learning should receive, to facilitate an adequate development of the conscious socio-critical historical reasoning.
The socio-critical historical mode of reasoning
The socio-critical historical way of reasoning contributes to the development and strengthening of the logical processes of thought and constitutes one of the ways to carry out historical and socio-critical reasoning of the contents that favor not only learning objects of knowledge such as information. accumulated from contemporary local, national, international, multicultural and global contexts, but learn to transform information with the productive use of received messages, making those messages meaningful from a contextual location and appropriating the methods of science and technology, constituting this the mechanisms of self-formation from the dimensions of the content. (Díaz, 2010).
Fig. 1- Dimensions of learning content
Note. The scheme represents the dimensions of the learning contents and their invariants. Taken from course 8. Developer Didactics in Higher Education: an approach to the formation of professional skills (p.25), by T. Díaz, 2016, University 2016. 10th International Congress of Higher Education.
For this reason, it is the methodology of knowing, knowing how to do and knowing how to act to solve problems in a flexible and pertinent way, adapting to the context and the demands posed by diverse situations, it is not limited to the procedural aspects of knowledge, to the mere possession of skills and skills, but is necessarily accompanied by theoretical, methodological and attitudinal elements (Díaz and Rigo, 2016), making it possible to go through critical actions:
According to Mauri (2019) they state that these actions are based on the principle of the dynamism of criticality that constitutes the foundation for the socio-critical historical way of reasoning since it theoretically and methodologically supports the modes of competent professional action of the subjects to being able to raise arguments of their own acts of learning and performance quality, which allows them to go beyond a simple justification, defending each content situation with a professional attitude and skills by providing effective arguments with reference to the context and the criteria that justify it, transcend the limits of instrumentality and arrive dialectically at the field of validity of ideas and theories, discovering in time and space the human dimension, the feats of man, his effort, values and his condition.
Question that justifies that the students of the Faculty of Early Childhood Education with a socio-critical historical way of reasoning specifies the quality of a scientific-academic knowledge, it is understood as that which arises from the scientific method and that allows understanding and explaining historical phenomena, social and natural, to recognize the laws of reality, through theories (Cuadra, Castro and Juliá 2018). To acquire a sufficient development of the skills to analyze, interpret, infer, explain, assess, evaluate and self-regulate to arrive at a value judgment and to think critically about the invariants of the knowledge of the different disciplines and to be able to apply them in solving problems. of the profession, from the individual to the community in contemporary local, national, international, multicultural and global contexts.
Content is reasoned better when competent professional modes of action are developed through strategic actions that allow reasoning to be given a clearer and more orderly structure, practicing critical debate on that specific content to discover ideological knowledge or implicit prejudices. in a text, as well as analyze the deficiencies or inconsistencies in the information, or the conflicting points of view that are exposed in several sources and the argumentative criticism of a certain author or theory.
Strategic actions for the development of the historical socio-critical way of reasoning
The proposal of strategic actions for the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning is based on the Conception of Developing Teaching of Higher Education, which refers to learning as the process of appropriation of culture by professionals in initial training, under conditions of self-direction of the learning activity, going through moments or stages with a social-historical interaction (Díaz, 2016).
The development of social-historical interaction in the student of the Early Childhood Education faculty in the training process depends on the socio-critical historical reasoning, through which socialization and collaboration with and between the leading subjects of the process makes it possible for gradually learn about the objects, the procedures, the ways of acting, of thinking about the social historical context, on which the reasoning and the leading role will depend with the appropriate modes of professional action.
An aspect of special attention in this process is the development of activities related to historical and socio-critical contexts, which require a more accurate and motivational work in correspondence with their potentialities, for the development of the historical way of reasoning. socio-critical, from the instructive, the developer and the educational, through strategic actions.
Sierra et al. (2019) ensure that strategic actions are considered as procedures that make it possible to carry out a way of reasoning to achieve objectives with autonomy during the interactive learning process based on conducting independent study, search and analysis. reflective and critical of the information, the execution of the tasks and the accomplishment of the scientific investigation sustained in the investigation projects based on the solution of the professional problems.
The strategic actions for the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning of the student in the Early Childhood Education faculty allows the progress of the conception about the rational, subjective and internal psychological process of knowing, understanding, judging and reasoning the objective process of the facts historical and social, depending on the solution of professional problems that afflict during the professional training process (Campaña, Gallego and Muñoz, 2019). It conditions the training of professionals who know how to interpret, understand, detect their difficulties and think of possible solutions to the diverse difficulties of political, religious, cultural, ethical order of the objective reality and to be able to be analyzed the problems of historical, social and personal character.
Fig. 2- Strategic actions to develop the historical socio-critical way of reasoning.
Montoya and Monsalve (2018) consider that the strategic actions that are considered for the development of a socio-critical historical way of reasoning during the student training process of the Early Childhood Education faculty determine:
1. Search and expand the information based on their autonomy.
2. Decide in collaboration with their classmates and the teacher, the way of working and the organization of resources.
3. Identify and optimize your learning style.
4. Transfer the information to a new context.
5. Solve problems creatively.
6. Agree on the rules with their classmates and the teacher and assume commitment.
7. Criticize their learning process and that of the group.
The proposal of the strategic actions to develop the socio-critical historical way of reasoning is a scientific result that favors the most viable implementation of the new "E" study plan, which aspires to the development of a training process for a student of the Early Childhood Education faculty with a competent professional performance.
Nieto and Cacheiro (2021) refer to knowing how to do and knowing how to act, it is necessary to take into account some aspects to more adequately guide the approach of new models based on the way of reasoning that facilitates the establishment of relations of cooperation and collaboration between the subjects. assets of the process, to make use of participatory research methods and procedures in obtaining new knowledge, by allowing awareness of the historical-social conditions that may exist, so that they can start the construction of a new reality, from critical action.
The critical action gives the possibility that the students constitute the leading and active subjects with a certain autonomy for collective reflection, analysis, participation and observation of a complex reality and the use of methods and techniques that contribute to the clarification of the problems and the enrichment of their theoretical-practical solutions and do not transcend passivity and acceptance of everything from a simple inspection, as was being done in said process.
The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the proposal of strategic actions in a systemic and sequenced way favors the development of the socio-critical historical way of reasoning during the process of training the student of the Faculty of Early Childhood Education at the Hermanos Saíz Montes University. Oca, supposes a reasoning with a collective attitude of reflection and educational transformation, which pursues specific objectives to teach how to build knowledge, teach how to think critically about social reality, to form a thought directed to action and for the transformation of reality, based on the proposed objectives, in correspondence with the specific socio-historical needs and the selection of the contents from the culture for change.
Taking into account what has been explained, the following conclusions are considered:
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Conflict of interests:
The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.
The authors have participated in the design and writing of the work, and analysis of the documents.
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Copyright (c) José Vladimir Mauri Estévez, Carlos Alberto Rojas González, Madelin Guerra Llanes, Nilson Saumell Marrero