Self-management of knowledge in the Bachelor of Education, specialty Spanish-Literature: historical study
Autogestión del conocimiento en la Licenciatura en Educación, especialidad Español-Literatura: estudio histórico
Autogestão do conhecimento no Bacharelado em Educação, especialidade Literatura Espanhola: estudo histórico
Adaymí González Valdés1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1796-3175
Déborah Mainegra Fernández1http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0811-0629
Marislay García Cruz1http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0855-0157
1 University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: Octuber 03rd, 2021.
Approved: Octuber 25th, 2021.
The article aims to carry out an analysis of the planning of the didactic process of self-management of knowledge in the study plans through which the Bachelor of Education career, a Spanish-Literature specialty, has passed since its emergence in Cuba as part of the training pedagogical Higher professional. For this, theoretical methods such as historical-logical and induction-deduction and empirical methods such as bibliographic analysis were used, which allowed determining that the The didactic process of self-management of knowledge has not been sufficiently promoted over the years in the different study plans and programs conceived for this career, which has made it impossible for students to use different study techniques to assimilate the information contained in the bibliography, carry out varied investigative work with a professional approach and independently and creatively apply linguistic and literary knowledge in their pre-professional work. It is concluded that this lack has prevented graduates from demonstrating in their modes of action the professional skills and distinctive qualities of cognitive independence typical of a good teacher of the Spanish-Literature subject.
Keywords: self-management of knowledge; study plans; pedagogical professional training.
El artículo tiene como objetivo efectuar un análisis de la planificación del proceso didáctico de autogestión del conocimiento en los planes de estudio por los que ha transitado la carrera de Licenciatura en Educación, especialidad Español-Literatura, desde su surgimiento en Cuba como parte de la formación superior profesional pedagógica. Para ello se emplearon métodos teóricos como el histórico-lógico e inducción-deducción y empíricos como el análisis bibliográfico, que permitieron determinar que el proceso didáctico de autogestión del conocimiento no se ha potenciado de forma suficiente en el devenir de los años en los diferentes planes de estudio y programas concebidos para esta carrera, lo que ha imposibilitado que los estudiantes utilicen diferentes técnicas de estudio para asimilar la información contenida en la bibliografía, realicen trabajos investigativos variados con enfoque profesional y apliquen independientemente y de manera creadora los conocimientos lingüísticos y literarios en su labor preprofesional. Se concluye que esta carencia ha impedido que los egresados demuestren en sus modos de actuación las habilidades profesionales y cualidades distintivas de independencia cognoscitiva propias de un buen profesor de la asignatura Español-Literatura.
Palabras clave: autogestión del conocimiento; planes de estudio; formación profesional pedagógica.
O objetivo do artigo é realizar uma análise do planejamento do processo didático de autogestão do conhecimento nos planos de estudos pelos quais passou a carreira de Bacharel em Educação, especialidade em Literatura Espanhola, desde seu surgimento em Cuba como parte da formação pedagógica superior profissional. Para tanto, utilizaram-se métodos teóricos como histórico-lógico e indução-dedução e métodos empíricos como análise bibliográfica, que permitiram constatar que o processo didático de autogestão do conhecimento não foi suficientemente fortalecido ao longo dos anos no diferentes planos de estudos e programas concebidos para esta carreira, o que tem tornado impossível aos alunos utilizar diferentes técnicas de estudo para assimilar a informação contida na bibliografia, realizar variadas pesquisas com uma abordagem profissional e aplicar de forma independente e criativa os seus conhecimentos linguísticos e literários em seu trabalho pré-profissional. Conclui-se que esta carência tem impedido os licenciados de demonstrarem nos seus modos de atuação as competências profissionais e qualidades distintivas de independência cognitiva próprias de um bom professor da disciplina de Literatura Espanhola.Palavras-chave: autogestão do conhecimento; planos de estudo; formação profissional pedagógica.
Higher Education in Cuba currently faces significant challenges in terms of the development of its universities. Among these challenges is the introduction of new teaching-learning methods supported by the use of ICT, which optimize the traditional ones and are perfected in line with contemporary scientific-technical advances. These new methods are characterized by focusing more on the knowledge that students self-manage than on the teaching offered by teachers, which generally responds to curricular models that are not always tempered with the new didactic and methodological demands of language teaching and learning Literature.
In the 2000s, some research indicates the birth of a new stage in the educational field, represented by a way of learning that demands greater cognitive independence and individual self-preparation from the student, as well as improving their study and learning techniques.
In the midst of this educational scenario, the concept of self-management of knowledge emerges, which is related to the ability of students to solve by themselves the problems that, from the instructive and educational point of view, are presented to them; in the same way, this new concept presupposes a prior process of established information and essential knowledge in individuals.
The contemporary university has established itself as a place for the promotion of knowledge and the training of professionals, who contribute to the solution of social problems. That is why many scientific studies currently assure that university centers must provide their students more and more, with tools that allow them to enhance their abilities and personal skills, in order to self-manage their knowledge and knowledge, especially in times of confinement caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, a context in which students worldwide have been unable to attend classrooms in person and have had to resort to new study and preparation modalities, guided by the teacher and generally mediated by employment of ICT.
It is important to mention that different authors, both national and foreign, have stood out in the approach to self-management of knowledge, who have made substantive contributions, not only from the business perspective of the concepts studied, but from the vision of how they have been it has been displacing the field of social and humanistic sciences, specifically education.
It is a common criterion that the self-management of knowledge requires education to promote individual and collective responsibility in the individual, the development of imagination, the discovery of the world from the knowledge of oneself, the benefit of cultural exchange and knowledge as rewarding experience and not competitive challenge.
It can be seen that in the new paradigm of the concept of self-management of knowledge and its implementation, the old scenarios in which the student was a passive element are abandoned, limiting themselves to receiving content related to the subject and acting as a container.
In addition, they are required to be the main responsible and autonomous administrator of their learning process, find their objectives, carry out their tasks and manage the technological and human material resources that they need.
Similarly, self-management of knowledge requires good planning, organization, and resolution capacity; Furthermore, it requires learning with the collective and cooperatively. In this sense, the student must be able to modulate their learning, develop strategies to solve problems, enhance search skills and critical analysis of information, thus valuing their knowledge.
Carosio (2014) refers that "Self-management of knowledge has been the great change in the model that has emerged since the advent of ICT in university education. The students of these times learn more in virtual environments, than in situations organized to teach" (p.1).
To achieve an adequate self-management of knowledge, aspects such as: level of intellectuality, quality of communication, knowledge of the profession, leadership and protagonism in the development of oriented tasks must be systematically promoted and evaluated; likewise, optimize academic performance, build knowledge and make stored knowledge operational and efficient.
From the position of Sayago (2016), "Self-management of knowledge implies a new conception about the PEA, with certain particularities in the role of the teacher and the student" (p.3020).
It also points out that the teacher must carry out the work of accompaniment and guide the student, so that he can implement different strategies to achieve autonomous learning. The student is the protagonist of his learning process and, consequently, of decision-making in relation to what strategies he implements to achieve the planned objectives, how he self-manages his time and to what extent he manages to appropriate the content received.
In this sense, the following are specified as advantages of self-management of knowledge: time management for the fulfillment of the proposed activities, according to the individuals' will to work, the administration of intellectual, cognitive, motivational resources and the applicability of the content studied in multiple situations of everyday life. It can be affirmed that the self-management of knowledge is influenced by the sociocultural context in which the subjects involved operate; therefore, the results to be achieved will depend on its proper and timely management.
Tunnermann (1996, cited by Bahr and De la Torre, 2016) refers that it is not about training a professional loaded with knowledge, but a professional capable of seeking knowledge, who applies scientific methods and exploits the most modern techniques available to him. , which include the use of ICT in terms of the quality of learning (p.349).
This criterion emphasizes the need to train a professional sufficient and capable of solving multiple difficulties, with the use of the didactic resources that science discovers and that the university makes available to them; which is in total correspondence with the conception of Study Plan E and its claims for the comprehensive training of future teachers.
For the specific case of pedagogical careers, Heredia (2016) states that: "Self-management of knowledge can be promoted from the school library, developing the inclination for scientific research, depending on the problems of the educational institution" (p. 96).
The reflections presented by these authors coincide in terms of the need to train a professional capable of researching and examining knowledge until making it his own, for which he must rely on the most modern study methods and techniques, including ICT; likewise, consolidate values and motivations for the achievement of its objectives. The teacher, for his part, should focus more attention on the learning of his students and on the quality of what they learn.
The author assumes the previous reasoning, but warns that only the goals and benefits of their scope are stated and that in none of the cases presented is there a scientific procedure, a guide or model that guides the teacher, how to achieve that from the university class their students learn to self-manage their knowledge and knowledge, to later apply them. Faced with the challenges posed by education in the 21st century, many teachers opt for scientific research in groups of disciplines and research projects; that is, individual and collective studies within their own faculties and careers.
Such is the case of Fabila et al. (2017), who propose two new concepts that are based on the self-management of knowledge, research groups and academic bodies; in which the production of ideas, the creation of knowledge, and the exercise of criticism and the establishment of collaboration networks are strengthened (p.15). On the other hand, Rojas and Roa (2017) establish that: "For the correct execution of the process of self-management of knowledge it is necessary to support it in activities of capture, storage, maintenance, transfer, interpretation, evaluation and assessment of information; as well as measuring the impact of self-managed knowledge" (p.8).
The arguments of the aforementioned authors highlight that research groups and academic bodies must be in charge of solving the problems that occur in educational practice and that self-managed knowledge must be systematically controlled and evaluated, both by the teacher and by the students. ; Both guiding ideas in university work.
For researchers like Zaez et al. (2020): "The self-management of knowledge becomes a didactic resource by promoting the construction of learning that, mediated by the use of ICT, involves dialogue, research, selection, reflection, analysis, synthesis, creation and innovation" (p.509).
The author agrees with this definition of the concept of self-management of knowledge, because she shares the criterion that it becomes a didactic resource that cuts across the didactic categories of the university class. In addition, because it stimulates research, understanding of the world, personal decision-making, the appropriate use of ICT, the construction of learning; likewise, because it promotes scientific research and enhances the abilities, attitudes and values in the social environment of the subjects.
Calcines et al. (2017) points out that independent work as a materialization of self-management of knowledge is an organizational form of teaching, where the student reaches their maximum level of independence; but it needs to be preceded by an adequate and effective prior orientation (p.227).
In this sense, the MES (2016), in the Study Plan E projects that independent work should favor autonomous learning and the development of critical thinking, debate and exchange in the activities of the process, so that the student counts with all possible spaces to express; which will strengthen the development of their cognitive independence (pp.21-44).
As a teaching-methodological function, the teacher is responsible for guiding and controlling the independent work of the learners, in order to develop in them skills for the search, processing and proper use of the various sources of information, among which reading and writing occupy a primary role. For the materialization of self-management of knowledge based on independent work, the teacher relies on the development of didactic guides that propose to the student the content to study, the activities to be solved and the evaluation invariants. These didactic guides should favor the appropriation of knowledge, be well oriented, as well as encourage students to be trained in the review and search of the different topics in different sources.
Faced with this reality, Solórzano et al. (2020) consider that: "The knowledge at a social level produced by the generation of information, communication, knowledge and the great advances in technology, acquire a high degree of relevance in the training of competent professionals" (p.57). Likewise, they coincide in stimulating the self-management of knowledge based on techniques, methodologies and procedures, among other variants, that allow the interpretation of the various real situations that arise in the training processes.
A professional who does not have the skills to self-manage his knowledge is not conceived, since this action has become an unavoidable part of the contemporary university, specifically to operate in all academic and research processes; This has been demonstrated in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, where everything has been self-managed with the use of ICT: knowledge, learning, group collaboration and even evaluation.
The inclination of these criteria to consider the self-management of knowledge as a didactic process is appreciated, which suggests its essential presence in the university class; likewise, its close link with the didactic categories and with the functional components of the language.
In a general sense, Zae-Juara et al. (2008) reveal that the study of self-management of knowledge from the pedagogical perspective must achieve to provide the student with basic knowledge and prepare him for his autonomous enrichment, so that he can face the real problems that arise in his academic and social performance, in a world in constant development and transformation (p.32).
These last ideas clarify that the teacher should take care of showing the students that if they efficiently self-manage their knowledge, they prepare to solve the problems that arise in educational practice and in their daily life in the near future. They should also enhance their abilities, their own resources and the capacity for independence to achieve greater effectiveness in self-management of knowledge. An essential aspect, therefore, refers to the willingness to work in teams, which favors access to knowledge in a shared way, through the construction and reconstruction of cognitive processes.
According to the positions of Solórzano et al. (2020), so that the teacher can promote the self-management of knowledge in the students, they must: have tools to guide, plan, project and direct training actions that favor learning and deepening the contents; constantly refine their improvement; provide students with novel study techniques and educational methods that promote the implementation of creative teaching-learning strategies; as well as, facilitate the protagonism of students and evaluate their professional performance (p.64).
The self-management of knowledge to achieve success requires quality teachers, with adequate didactic-methodological and scientific-technical preparation, which includes the efficient use of ICT, hence the objective of this article is to carry out an analysis of planning of the didactic process of self-management of knowledge in the study plans through which the Bachelor of Education career, a Spanish-Literature specialty, has passed since its emergence in Cuba as part of higher professional pedagogical training.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Taking as a basis the dialectical-materialist approach to the interpretation of the phenomena of objective reality and with the support of theoretical methods such as historical-logical and induction-deduction and empirical methods such as bibliographic analysis, a trend study about the self-management of knowledge was carried out in the Didactic discipline of the Spanish Language and Literature (DLEL), of the Bachelor of Education, Spanish-Literature, of the Faculty of Secondary Education, belonging to the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", Cuba . The referred methods were used as follows:
Historical-logical: it was applied in the study of the evolution of the object and in the determination of the tendencies of its development, for the analysis of the previous conceptions assumed about the didactic process of self-management of knowledge with the use of ICT, with the in order to reveal the regularities that were manifested in this sense.
Induction-deduction: it was used to determine the essential relationships that are established between the didactic process of self-management of knowledge and the self-management of knowledge in the appropriation of knowledge by students, which favored the interdependence between these elements.
Bibliographic analysis: based on a search in the various sources of information, using the phrases self-management of knowledge and Didactics of Language and Literature, we proceeded to select those texts that, due to their relevance and relation to the context of action of the researchers were more appropriate, in order to build the referential framework. Subsequently, the revision of the pedagogical professional training curricula corresponding to the Bachelor of Education, Spanish-Literature career was carried out, from its emergence in 1977 to the present, taking as indicators of the search the inclusion and approach of the didactic process of self-management of knowledge in the study plans of the major in general and in the DLEL discipline in particular; likewise, the treatment of didactic categories in the teaching of the Spanish Language and Literature.
It is valid to clarify that the process under study received other names in the study plans prior to "E" (currently in force), such as: cognitive independence, independent work or self-preparation. The organization of the presentation of the results responds to four stages that coincide, in turn, with the implementation of the study plans that existed in the Bachelor of Education in Spanish-Literature in Cuba; they were A, B, C and D.
For the development of the study the following criteria will be considered: the inclusion of the didactic process of self-management of knowledge in the study plans in general and in the DLEL discipline in particular; likewise, the treatment of the didactic categories from the prevailing approaches to the teaching of the Spanish Language and Literature.
First stage. In the year 1977 they began the studies of the Bachelor of Education, Spanish-Literature, taken in four years and with it the implementation of the study plan A, in the 1977-1978 school year. Since then, the subjects Methodology of Language Teaching in third year and Methodology of Literature Teaching in fourth year have been incorporated into the base curriculum of the degree.
These subjects belonged to the pedagogical-psychological cycle, which was the cycle with the greatest weight, both in the number of subjects and in the number of hours. In this cycle, the scarce development of Special Methodologies stands out, which do not exceed two semesters and are included in the so-called Special Didactics or Spanish Didactics, that is, private didactics predominated.
In this study plan there are general objectives that contribute to the didactic process of self-management of knowledge, such as: raising the scientific-theoretical preparation of the students, the levels of cognitive independence and strengthening the skills to solve the individual study. However, the presence of a normative-prescriptive approach predominates, in terms of teaching rather than learning; Intra and interdisciplinary relationships are not conceived from a guiding discipline and, as a result, each subject addresses the didactic process of self-management of knowledge from not always common points of view, an issue that limits the scope of the aspirations of the process in question.
The subjects Methodology of the Teaching of the Language and Methodology of the Teaching of Literature, on the other hand, addressed the didactic categories.
Second stage. In 1982 reforms were introduced that were specified in study plan B; The career increases to five years of study and the subjects Methodology of the Teaching of Spanish and Methodology of the Teaching of Literature are incorporated in the third and fourth years, respectively. These subjects attended the didactic categories, but they show deficiencies with respect to the treatment of the didactic process of self-management of knowledge, since the professional problems that correspond to it are not recognized; in the same way, teaching is totally guided and controlled by the teacher, offering few spaces for the cognitive self-affirmation of the student.
In general, in study plans A and B some disadvantages were recognized that affected the quality of the student's training process for the degree, such as: inconsistencies between the volume of information and the real time available to the students, reflected in the excessive number of subjects per semester, high weekly load and little time for the necessary self-preparation; there was no disciplinary conception; there was little link between theory and practice; The concept of learning to learn and learning to teach was not sufficiently promoted from the class and, finally, the need to use computers in subject work was not reflected, given the insufficient development of educational technology in Higher Pedagogical Institutes (ISP) of the country.
Third stage. In 1990 (with adjustments in 1992) study plan C was introduced. This study plan implemented, for the first time, the disciplinary conception of all related subjects. The discipline Methodology of the Teaching of Spanish and Literature was taught in the third and fourth years of the career, with a total of 204 hours of classes in the program. It was received in four semesters: in the fifth with 68 hours, in the sixth and seventh with 51 and in the eighth with 34.
In this new curriculum, the intention is subtly noted for the student to strengthen their cognitive independence, through the following concepts: specify the general educational and instructive objectives of the professional model and the training of a comprehensive, highly qualified teacher capable to apply the acquired skills to their daily work.
The discipline Methodology of the Teaching of Spanish and Literature corresponded to the group of so-called special didactics, which dealt with the study of the components of the teaching process; hence, as a particular pedagogical science, it has its own object of study: the Spanish and Literature teaching process, its components and regularities. This discipline was closely related to General Didactics or General Theory of teaching and other pedagogical and psychological sciences, which theoretically support the teacher's work.
This discipline, which merges the methodological aspects of the teaching of linguistic and literary contents, has an integrated character of the pedagogical-psychological, philosophical and specialty contents. In it, the theoretical knowledge, habits and skills are put into operation that will in turn allow the acquisition of new knowledge, the automation of other habits and the development of professional skills to which one aspires for the full performance of the educational teaching work. . The discipline stands out for foreseeing the execution of a set of activities of greater complexity than those developed in the preceding phase, which will confront the student with new situations that will require a creative activity from him for their solution; in this way, the investigative work is strengthened.
Among the general educational objectives of the discipline, linked to the didactic process of self-management of knowledge, the following stand out: that the teacher must achieve through the teaching of Spanish and Literature and their professional activity, that their students acquire habits and skills that allow them to constantly raise their level of preparation, considering advances in science and technology and their professional needs.
The general instructional objectives, meanwhile, focus on contributing through the use of appropriate methods to the development of cognitive independence and creative activity of students; Correctly use the different sources of scientific information that allow them to maintain an adequate level of updating of knowledge and apply the principles of scientific and pedagogical research to the teaching of language and literature.
In addition, structure the class system considering the typology and the interrelation between the didactic categories; as well as the principles of pedagogy and psychology, and integrate the different components of the subject into the class system, according to their methodological peculiarities. All the previous objectives are summarized in: develop in students intellectual, teaching and specific skills in the analysis of linguistic and literary phenomena, with great independence.
Among the general skills that are projected in the study plan and that contribute to the self-management of knowledge can be mentioned: using different study techniques to assimilate the information contained in the bibliography, using computation in its self-instruction and as a means of teaching, make conclusions and evaluations on pedagogical and scientific phenomena studied, determine the system of knowledge, skills, methods and procedures to achieve independent and creative assimilation, in correspondence with the conditions in which cognitive activity and the teaching of language and literature must take place.
The system character in the C study plan, a deficit aspect in the previous study plans, is manifested in the intrinsic relationship that is established between the components of the training process and the cognitive independence of the students. The academic and research components favor and promote the development of independent work, creative capacity and self-preparation of students. The labor component integrates the academic and the investigative, so it contributes with its systemic nature to professional training.
It can also be observed that since the implementation of the C study plan, the need to include the teaching of computing or educational computing in the career curriculum was already envisaged, depending on the problems that arise in the educational institution and in the PEA.
The subject Methodology of the Teaching of Spanish and Literature in study plan C, showed a different reality to that perceived in the previous study plans. It is a renewing vision of the learning styles of students, always according to their diagnosis-prognosis. Concepts aimed at the student's ability to self-manage their knowledge and knowledge is recurrent in the conception of the plan, such is the case of: self-preparation, independence, capacity and creative activity, study techniques, updating of knowledge, self-instruction and assimilation.
Despite the achievements evidenced in study plan C, it was not achieved that the didactic process of self-management of knowledge (current concept) was well attended, since pedagogical groups consider that the process of learning to learn is innate and natural in the individual, so they do not feel the need to demonstrate, control and evaluate it; the disciplines and their subjects do not articulate it in the form of a system, it is handled in an isolated and unharmonious way; Likewise, from the study plan there is little space that is offered for the students' essential self-preparation.
The insufficient access to information sources in digital format is highlighted in this study plan, given the scarce technological resources that existed in the ISPs, the printed book predominated only to access the content of the subjects and sometimes of old and outdated editions; in the same way, the greatest difficulty was found in the levels of guidance and help that the students received to carry out the activities entrusted, by the teachers.
On the other hand, there are no methodological guidelines aimed at the use of computing in classes and teaching activities; only the need for its use arises. In this sense, the students received Computer Science, specifically word processors such as Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, but based on the completion of their coursework and diploma, not with the intention that this information would help them self-manage their knowledge to solve other activities. There was also no Internet, Moodle Interactive Platform or other virtual platforms that the university has today.
There were unresolved questions in this study plan, in addition, the balance between theoretical and practical training, attention to the development of skills typical of the profession, a reduction in the weekly teaching load and an excess of subjects and hours of classes.
Fourth stage. In study plan D (MES, 2010) significant transformations were introduced, giving flexibility to the conception of the curriculum. The work of language and literature is consolidated with more force from the cognitive, communicative and sociocultural approach, which aims to develop cognitive, communicative and sociocultural competence, starting from enhancing the processes of understanding, analysis and construction of texts. In addition, four major backbones are conceived: Language and Communication, Linguistic Studies, Literary Studies and particular Didactics of language and literature.
The contents that are taught have a marked interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary character, considering the growing trend towards a sociocultural conception of language sciences, which highlights the links between cognition, discourse and society. Particular emphasis will be placed on the conception of the language as a vertical articulation node in the curricular concretion.
Among the general objectives of the grade are: to demonstrate with their example and daily performance the mastery of contents and working methods in scientific activity; contribute to the construction of scientific knowledge of the educational reality by using methods and forms of work typical of scientific activity such as the posing of questions, inferences and hypotheses, search for information from various sources, formulation of expositions and arguments to support or refute thesis; summarize various information and the corresponding construction of texts of different types.
Among the tasks corresponding to the teaching-methodological function, the use of ICTs stands out, both in the educational process and in research; in addition, the orientation and control of the independent work of the learners. In general, the objectives of the academic years raise the need to demonstrate the development of the scientific-investigative skills acquired, in the solution to the various problems facing the teaching-learning of the Spanish language and literature. As professional problems that contribute to the didactic process of self-management of knowledge, the following can be mentioned: the direction of the PEA of the Spanish Language and Literature with a scientific-humanist and developer approach, the development of the individual potentialities of each school from the diagnosis and the systematic assessment of the results of their work, professional self-improvement and the search for scientific solutions to the needs of educational research.
The Didactic discipline of Spanish and Literature in the D study plan is based, fundamentally, on the theoretical and didactic elements of the cognitive, communicative and sociocultural approach to the teaching of language and literature. Likewise, the objective, the essential contents, fundamental values, methodological indications and bibliography of the discipline program, have been conceived as a function of the student acquiring increasingly independent and innovative modes of professional performance.
The MES (2016) experts agree on the importance of their ability to search and locate, independently and in any medium, for the quality of the training of professionals, the information they require to update their knowledge of permanent mode.
The authors recognize as deficiencies in the positions of Carosio (2014), Sayago (2016), Heredia (2016), Fabila et al. (2017) and Zaez et al. (2020) for not proposing concrete ways to promote self-management of knowledge by students, although their studies show deep gaps in this regard.
The study highlighted the importance of achieving, with a precise educational orientation, self-management of knowledge in university students, since this considerably enhances their personal and intellectual growth and perfects their professional skills. Universities have the responsibility to train students capable of transforming academia, research, projecting themselves, making decisions and daring to generate changes to rethink the education we need.
The analysis carried out to the study plans, to the programs of the disciplines and subjects designed for the Bachelor of Education in Spanish-Literature career and to the conception of the process being studied, allows determining that it has not been conceived in a systematic and continuous way, following an spiral development that enables the training of professionals who independently self-manage their cognitive needs, making use of the resources offered by ICT and other information supports, with a selective and critical vision, which allows them to differentiate between research truthful and well-founded and the many documents that exist in cyberspace, which is reflected in the modes of professional performance and in the various contexts in which they interact.
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