Mendive. Journal on Education, january-march 2022; 20(1): 69-82
Translated from the original in Spanish
Conflict resolution competence: theoretical-methodological guidelines for their training in Sociology students
Competencia resolución de conflictos: pautas teórico-metodológicas para su formación en estudiantes de Sociología
Competência de resolução de conflitos: diretrizes teórico-metodológicas para sua formação em estudantes de Sociologia
Dayana Rosa Sotomayor Casalís1http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7535-7707
Alisvech Águila Carralero1http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2291-1641
1University of Camagüey "Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz". Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received: August 08th, 2021.
Approved: December 02nd, 2021.
The article presents a research result of a master's thesis on the formation of the conflict resolution competence in students of the Sociology career in Cuba. Its objective is to identify theorical-methological guidelines for the formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students. Theoretical level methods such as analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction were used for the approach to the subject of socio-emotional competences in the educational field. Emphasis was placed on the conflict resolution competence and its training as a relevant aspect for the students of the Sociology career. From the empirical level, the documentary analysis was used on the legal basis that supports the formation of the student of the Sociology career in Cuba. Group interviews with teachers and students were also used. The most significant result is the identification of theorical-methological guidelines for the formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students. The formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students is being supported from a socio formative approach.
Keywords: conflict; conflict resolution competence; Sociology students; problem.
El artículo expone un resultado de investigación de una tesis de maestría sobre la formación de la competencia resolución de conflictos en estudiantes de la carrera Sociología en Cuba. Su objetivo es identificar pautas teórico-metodológicas para la formación de la competencia resolución de conflictos en estudiantes de Sociología. Se utilizaron métodos del nivel teórico como el análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción para el acercamiento al tema de las competencias socioemocionales en el ámbito educativo. Se enfatizó en la competencia resolución de conflictos y su formación como aspecto relevante para los estudiantes de la carrera Sociología. Del nivel empírico se utilizó el análisis documental sobre la base legal que soporta la formación del estudiante de la carrera Sociología en Cuba, y las entrevistas grupales a docentes y estudiantes. La identificación de pautas teórico-metodológicas para la formación de la competencia resolución de conflictos en estudiantes de Sociología se resalta como resultado más significativo.
Palabras clave: conflicto; competencia resolución de conflictos; estudiantes de Sociología; problema.
O artigo apresenta um resultado de pesquisa de uma dissertação de mestrado sobre a formação da competência de resolução de conflitos em estudantes da carreira de Sociologia em Cuba. Seu objetivo é identificar diretrizes teórico-metodológicas para a formação da competência de resolução de conflitos em estudantes de Sociologia. Métodos de nível teórico como análise-síntese e indução-dedução foram utilizados para abordar o tema das competências socioemocionais no campo educacional. A ênfase foi colocada na competência de resolução de conflitos e sua formação como um aspecto relevante para os alunos da carreira de Sociologia. A partir do nível empírico, utilizou-se a análise documental da base legal que sustenta a formação do aluno da carreira de Sociologia em Cuba, e as entrevistas em grupo com professores e alunos. A identificação de diretrizes teórico-metodológicas para a formação da competência de resolução de conflitos em estudantes de Sociologia destaca-se como o resultado mais significativo.
Palavras-chave: conflito; competência de resolução de conflitos; Estudantes de Sociologia; dificuldade.
Given the dynamics of social processes and their notorious complexity at the present time, Sociology is recognized as a social science that affects the interpretation of such processes. In addition, it is in charge of the scientific analysis of the structure and functioning of society in its general expression, as well as of the population settled in the different regions and the processes they go through (Ministry of Higher Education, 2018).
The appearance of conflicts of various kinds is part of the interrelationships that are established between the individuals of any society and even between them and the institutions that represent them. Therefore, conflict resolution constitutes an element of great importance for the sociologist profession, an issue that is evidenced, although not expressly, among the fundamental functions of these professionals and that is recorded in the Professional Model. Some of them are connoted such as: conducting research to diagnose social problems that affect individuals, communities and institutions; develop forms of intervention that help to transform the problems detected; promote changes in the mechanisms of apprehension and ways of solving social problems that affect individuals, families and institutions (Ministry of Higher Education, 2018).
Authors such as Sotomayor and Aguila (2021); Padilla and López (2021); Mórtigo and Rincón (2018); Peribáñez (2016); Monzonís (2015); De Souza (2012); Bisquerra (2009); among others, they have upheld the importance of the study of conflict resolution competence and its training. In his works, the diversity of criteria around the denomination of said competence stands out and few proposals are made in the pedagogical order to contribute to its formation.
In the accredited bibliography on the subject, it was not possible to identify a definition of contextualized conflict resolution competence when acting as a professional sociologist. There is not clarity on the core aspects for their training in students of the Sociology career in Cuba, which involve the knowledge, skills, attitudes and essential values in conflict resolution. From this perspective, the need to identify theoretical-methodological guidelines that allow sustaining the formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students is emphasized.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To carry out the work, theoretical level methods were applied such as: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction, which allowed the assessment of different aspects associated with the subject of socio-emotional competencies in the educational field and the competence of conflict resolution and their training in the grounds of the Sociology career. The review of the work of several Cuban and foreign authors, accredited in the subject of socio-emotional competences, allowed the assessment of the definitions: problem, conflict and its typologies, conflict resolution competence, among others. These theoretical level methods allowed the realization of reasoning, comparisons, inferences and generalizations to identify theoretical-methodological guidelines that allow supporting the formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students. They were also used in the concretion and expression of the conclusions of the work.
From the empirical level, the documentary analysis was used on the legal basis that supports the formation of the students of the Sociology career in Cuba. Documents such as the Professional Model and Study Plans D and E, programs of disciplines and subjects, were explored with the idea of determining the budgets that support it.
Group interviews were also conducted with teachers and students, which facilitated the collection of information on the existing pathways for the formation of the competence under study. In order to put them into practice, a sample of 10 teachers and 18 students was identified, belonging to the groups from third to sixth years of the Sociology career at the "Ignacio Agramonte y Loynaz" University, Camagüey.
The assessment made of the work of the various scholars of conflict resolution competence allowed connoting that there is agreement in recognizing that their training constitutes a process that must be guided and sustained in the integrated treatment of the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values categories. The implementation of these categories is evidenced in the comprehensive actions that start from the detection of the conflict to the provision of possible solutions. They are linked to coping with conflicts through the appropriate selection of strategies for managing emotions. However, such works do not include a description of how such competence can be formed, they do not specify what would be the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values specifically involved in the formation of the competence under study.
The analysis that was carried out on the legal basis that supports the training of the students of the Sociology career in Cuba, particularly the Professional Model and the Study Plans D (Ministry of Higher Education, 2008) and E (Ministry of Higher Education, 2018), as well as the discipline and subject programs, revealed that:
The group interviews carried out with the students and teachers of the career allowed to reveal the recognition towards the formation of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that, in an integrated way, can contribute to the resolution of conflicts associated with the performance of sociologists. Students and teachers emphasized the need for theoretical and methodological clarifications regarding to what and how of the formation of these components of the conflict resolution competence.
Particularly, regarding the necessary knowledge for conflict resolution, the students interviewed as a group alluded that they present lack of knowledge about key concepts such as: conflicts, conflict resolution, emotions, group consensus, mediation and coping strategies. Teachers ponder the need to work on the theoretical-methodological, since they consider that both knowledge and the development of skills and attitudes are essential for the resolution of conflicts in daily life and in the professional practice of sociologists. Teachers agree on the lack of guidelines that allow them to clarify the essential foundations of the formation of conflict resolution competence in students.
The analysis carried out on the accredited bibliography on the subject, as well as on the documents that govern the training process of the career and the results of the group interviews with teachers and students of the Sociology career of the University "Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz" allowed to identify the following theoretical-methodological guidelines aimed at facilitating the formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students:
- Knowledge (distinction between the terms: problem and conflict, definition of conflicts, typology of conflicts in general and those that may be distinctive for the professional practice of the sociologist, emotions, group consensus, coping strategies, mediation, ways of conflict resolution, and so on).
- Skills (those that contribute to avoiding / preventing, managing / managing and solving conflicts should be weighed. Among them, communication skills such as listening and assertiveness, decision-making, the perception of inappropriate emotional states, and others more specific to the sociologist such as: forecasting the evolution of the events and social problems studied; and proposing innovative alternative solutions based on the consensus of the actors, learning, personal and group growth, etc.).
- Attitudes (associated with preventing, managing and solving conflict).
- Values (sense of identity and professional, political, social and ethical commitment, scientific objectivity, honesty, sensitivity to social problems, responsibility, respect for the professional space and its institutions, critical thinking, creativity, leadership and collaboration).
Sociologists have the important mission of analyzing and interpreting social reality from its political, social and economic dimensions. A dynamic and changing reality that presents different situations and conflicts on a daily basis. Today we highlight the need for a sociologist who not only understands the theories that support such interpretations, but it is also capable of identifying conflicts, their origin and proposing alternatives to solve them.
The study plans that support the Sociology career in Cuba currently provide the student with methodological resources that can favor the detection and interpretation of the most important social phenomena for society in general and for a community in particular. Emphasis is placed on data processing with the use of computer programs that facilitate the detection of regularities and that describe society. However, the treatment of social conflicts continues to be a pending issue. Given the diffuse nature of social conflicts, it is not possible to list or establish unique ways for their solution. However, it is possible to form socio-emotional competencies to provide the student with knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that can be put into practice in the development of appropriate intervention proposals for the resolution of conflicts that are identified in society.
In the studies of Sotomayor and Aguila (2021) the importance and need of the formation of the conflict resolution competence in the students of the Sociology career is based as one of the socio-emotional competencies. They argue that it should be taken into account that the fundamental work object of the sociologist is society, which contains the set of social relations, their nature, organization, structure and dynamics. These professional diagnoses, with relative permanence, the groups and social factors involved and provides strategies for the prevention and resolution of conflicts that, from the perspective of Mórtigo and Rincón (2018) constitute the essence for coexistence, and therefore, they must be considered within of socio-emotional competencies.
The authors of this article consider that the formation of the conflict resolution competence in the Sociology student is necessary and can contribute: to a better coping with social and interpersonal conflicts, to enhance the ability to identify contextual problems that require a solution or a preventive decision, to manage emotional situations at different scales and spheres of society, among others. All this requires to be worked from the training environment.
The formation of a competition should not be spontaneous or accidental. It must be directed and planned intentionally from the training process itself. Especially when the very conception of the design of the curriculum of the Sociology career in Cuba is based on the development of skills. However, it is not possible to affirm that there is a total absence of this idea in the Study Plan that governs the degree. The Curriculum E refers to the resolution of the problems of the profession through social research, in correspondence with the demands of the current era, the needs of Cuban society and the advances of contemporary science (Ministry of Education Superior, 2018).
They are recognized as the main missions of the sociologist: to provide information about the structural and functional dynamics of Cuban society, inserted in a globalized scenario and of capital hegemony and to contribute to the improvement of institutions, government bodies and various social actors (community, companies, labor groups, social organizations) in social development strategies and policies (Ministry of Higher Education, 2018).
From the foregoing, the complexity and magnitude of the challenges faced by sociologists for the fulfillment of the missions entrusted by current Cuban society is revealed, in order to anticipate, prevent as much as possible and solve social conflicts. However, there is overlap in the management of the emotions that underlie each of these moments in which the sociologist must intervene in one way or another, and for which he must be prepared from the training process.
The purpose of training the conflict resolution competence in Sociology students led the authors to an analysis of the specialized bibliography on the subject of competencies and found references related to their training. Thus, the ideas of Tobón (2013) are embraced in relation to the construction of the concept of competences from socioformation, which is based on the contributions of complex thinking and the training of people with critical thinking, creativity, leadership, collaboration, responsibility, respect and social and business entrepreneurship.
Regarding socio-emotional competences in general and in particular the conflict resolution competence, the works of authors such as: Sotomayor and Aguila (2021); Padilla and López (2021); Mórtigo and Rincón (2018); Peribáñez (2016); Monzonís (2015); De Souza (2012); Bisquerra (2009); Among others, they address very valuable theoretical aspects for the formation of socio-emotional competencies and that of conflict resolution in a particular way. Proposals aimed at resolving conflicts in the school environment, through programs and strategies, are also appreciated. However, important theoretical gaps were detected regarding the determination of aspects such as: knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that sustain training, conflict resolution competence; Nor was the proposal of some theoretical-methodological guidelines found that could guide their training in the university environment.
According to Bisquerra (2009), socio-emotional competencies support the ability to maintain good relationships with other people. That is, they enhance the domain of social skills and emotion management, the capacity for effective communication, the ability to manage emotional situations in social contexts and the prevention and resolution of conflicts, among others. The latter is defined by this author as:
( ) Ability to identify, anticipate or deal decisively with social conflicts and interpersonal problems. It involves identifying situations that require a solution or preventive decision and evaluating risks, barriers and resources. Face conflicts in a positive way, providing informed and constructive solutions. It implies the ability to negotiate considering the perspective and feelings of others (Bisquerra, 2009, p. 5).
The authors of this article agree with the aforementioned author that conflict resolution is considered a socio-emotional and basic competence for life. It is also agreed that it is related to conflict management by including the capacity for prevention and resolution; however, they consider that the term "capacity" is limited to refer to competition. This contains the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values as integrated knowledge.
Conflict resolution competence is also recognized in the literature as: skills for conflict resolution, conflict prevention and resolution, conflict resolution, problem solving, among others. The authors assume the name of conflict resolution competence because it is a more general term, which refers to the entire process from the detection of the conflict to the contribution of possible solutions, considering some stages such as: prevention, identification, positive coping and negotiation. For this, a set of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values must be put into practice.
On the other hand, a great diversity of opinions is recognized regarding the categories problem solving and conflict resolution, both being handled as synonyms in not a few referents studied. The authors of this article consider that this distinction constitutes a core aspect for the formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students, so it is worth briefly explaining the point of view that is held.
A problem can be identified through a situation that appears when there is disagreement between ideas. That is, when two or more ideas are opposed or contradictory. In the authors' assessment, the intervening parts may understand that one of the positions is not adequate, but argumentation is possible and necessary to find agreement and adopt a position that can be identified as a solution. The problem almost always has an external, objective cause, so feelings and emotions are not involved in the same way. Usually, the subjects that interact are open to assertive communication and suggestions. A problem can have several solutions (to do or not to do).
The problem can turn into a conflict at the moment in which the participating subjects begin to get emotionally involved and this generates a state of emotional dissatisfaction for the subject and for others. When feelings and emotions are involved, the expression of the subject's personality traits can be affected and the conflict takes on unique nuances. Communication between those involved is almost abolished l or becomes difficult, so it usually requires the intervention of a third party, unrelated to the conflict, to help solve it.
The authors consider that the use of the terms problem and conflict may be viable, but they must correspond to the characteristics of the situations that are generated. From this perspective, the experience of the subjects can be important to solve problems and / or conflicts, but the value of training to deal with both concepts from the theoretical and practical is undeniable. In the reviewed bibliography, a distinction can be seen between the categories conflict resolution competence and problem-solving competence; the latter more frequently associated with the studies of mathematics.
From an overview there are multiple definitions of the term conflict. Monzonís (2015) considers that conflict is a natural element in human relationships and coexistence, and the engine of existence. It considers that this is produced by an incompatibility in the behavior of people or by a contrast of interests, cognitions or objectives that can occur between people, groups, nations or with oneself; and alludes that it represents an opportunity for learning. In a similar perspective, Vinyamata (2015, p. 10) states that "the absence of peace and harmony are constant in the lives of people and societies," so it is inferred that conflicts are frequent.
They agree with the aforementioned authors, as they consider that the conflict can be positive or negative depending on the way it is managed. Conflicts can encourage the development of strategies and tools that favor their creative and flexible management, considering them opportunities to change, grow and learn to live with others. From this point of view, the development of society can be influenced, as long as the subject (who is part of the conflict or who by agreement of the parties is involved in the matter) manages an adequate attitude for peaceful coping. The promotion of assertive communication, the management of emotions and feelings is also possible. Everything that can contribute to mutual enrichment between people.
According to Vinyamata (2015), conflicts are not usually based on differences in criteria and interests, but on method errors in the management of tensions and coexistence, related to the way of understanding life and the world. In his work, this author ponders the concept of "conflict management" as an intervention before it. This perspective is interesting because, undoubtedly, an adequate management of the conflict could contribute to its rapid resolution. However, conflict management involves a group of knowledge and skills that are not clearly defined in the literature on the subject.
Regarding the currents or approaches to define the conflict, Monzonís (2015) identifies three fundamental approaches: the traditional one, which understands it as a negative phenomenon that implies violence, destruction and irrationality and due to its negative consequences it should be avoided; the approach to human relations, which considers it as a natural and inevitable process, which must be accepted as a beneficial element for the performance of individuals and groups; and the interactive approach, which accepts conflict as something natural. The latter considers that it is convenient to foster conflict to a manageable degree so that it encourages creativity, reflection, efficient decision-making, teamwork, the willingness to change and the establishment of ambitious and achievable goals to contribute to the sense of achievement. This author values school conflict as an optimal situation to involve the group in its resolution:
( ) We must ensure, from the school framework, that students acquire strategies for the peaceful resolution of conflicts. Mastering skills in conflict resolution that enable peaceful coexistence and prevent violence will lead to improvements in social relationships, influence educational tasks, facilitate collaboration and cooperation processes and contribute to student learning. (Monzonís, 2015, p. 201)
Another point of view is defended by De Souza (2012), who classifies conflicts as social and interpersonal, in correspondence with the theories developed by various authors:
When the conflict concerns structures and organizations and opposes groups or categories of social actors, but also when it divides individuals among themselves into groups or institutions, or when individuals among themselves impede the exercise of their roles and their status, questioning their hierarchy and position, the conflict is social. A social conflict therefore expresses a plurality of conflicts that overlap in various sectors of categorizing interactions, group or individual. The intensity of the conflict grows as a function of the relationship of force between pressure groups, the interests defended and the powers questioned (p. 59).
From this angle, social conflict is framed in the opposition or confrontation between social groups or between the members of a group for competition, power or social status. It is not necessarily a negative factor, since it can promote cohesion, consolidation of the group and act as a driver of change in society.
On the other hand, interpersonal conflicts take place in any sphere of social reality; in this regard, De Souza (2012) states:
Wherever social relationships are possible, the origin of an interpersonal conflict is possible. This is the reason why we are currently hearing about gender conflicts, labor conflicts, class conflicts, family conflicts, generational conflicts, religious conflicts, ethnic conflicts, community conflicts, neighbor conflicts, educational conflicts, economic conflicts, political conflicts, love conflicts and conflicts between friends (p. 57).
From this vortex, the authors of this article ponder the study of interpersonal and social conflicts within the training framework of Sociology students. They agree on the need to also deepen the ways to face such conflicts.
According to De Souza (2012, p. 105), "the way in which we solve a certain interpersonal conflict [ ] will affect our emotional well-being or vice versa. Well, when we manage to solve conflicts correctly, this reflects one feeling better".
To reach conflict resolution, it is necessary to understand that there is no single alternative to achieve it. There is usually more than one way to get to that level. It is the criteria of the authors that, to reach the resolution of a particular conflict, a group of aspects must be taken into account that may allow the person involved to make an adequate selection of the strategies to implement for it. Among them it can be mentioned some such as:
The more details are known about the conflict and the subjects involved, the greater the chances of success if a third-party intervention is chosen. Monzonís (2015, p. 201) refers to these elements as the conflict structure and states that it "is determined by the people, the processes and the problem."
Taking into account the previous position, the structure of the conflict may be determined by the relationships that are established between people and not so much by the people themselves. It is considered that the behaviors assumed in the face of disagreements differ from one subject to another and may or may not lead to conflicts. The authors also include the context as a determining factor in conflict resolution, bearing in mind that a disagreement can be solved more easily when it occurs in private than when it occurs in public or before certain people or circumstances.
The attitudes assumed before a similar conflictive situation can vary from one subject to another very naturally. The emotional reactions and feelings involved in the conflict qualify it. In the consulted literature, the following are recognized as common responses to a conflictive situation: aggressiveness (one's own objectives prevail and one tries to achieve with violence); passivity (attempt to avoid conflict by favoring the interests of others); negotiation (the interests of others are as important as their own, both parties try to adjust to a common commitment); and cooperation (the interests of others become their own and both parties collaborate to achieve this). The existence of three key responses or attitudes is also connoted (avoid / prevent, handle / manage and solve the conflict), which are manifested instantaneously almost always from the very beginning of the conflict. The attitude assumed by the subjects immersed in a certain conflict is not static or unchangeable. There is the possibility of a change in attitude before the conscious decision to solve it.
Conflict resolution involves a wide spectrum of skills such as: decision making, assertive communication, active listening, and teamwork, among others. The subjects involved must decide if they can or wish to solve the conflict between them or seek the intervention of a third party. In this sense, Monzonís (2015) identifies as the most widespread techniques to rsolve conflicts positively: negotiation, mediation and group consensus. Therefore, conflicts are classified and viewed from different perspectives and their significance is given depending on the context.
After analyzing the above aspects, it is possible to affirm then that complex processes on a social and interpersonal scale intervene in conflict resolution. His view from the perspective of competencies connotes the need to master an important system of knowledge that in an integrated way favors the resolution of conflicts.
In the educational field, authors such as Padilla and López (2021); Peribáñez (2016); Monzonís (2015); Vinyamata (2015), among others, make proposals for the treatment of conflicts in the educational environment. Peribáñez (2016) highlights that students learn to use various emotional strategies such as emotional regulation, assertiveness, and empathy and conflict resolution, in order to face emotionally difficult situations, within the school environment and in work or personal contexts.
It agrees with the idea that students can learn to implement emotional strategies that allow them to face unfavorable situations in various contexts. It is preferred to handle the category of conflict resolution as a competence and not only as an emotional strategy as identified by Peribáñez (2016).
In a traditional way in Cuba, the formative process of the Sociology career student has placed emphasis on the acquisition of essential knowledge and skills to face and solve professional problems. Through the implementation of structured training models based on the concern for the content, an adequate sequencing and differentiation of basic and professional cycles has been marked, aimed at guaranteeing the apprehension of the modes of professional performance. The formation of conflict resolution competence in Sociology students has not been considered an essential goal to be achieved.
The vision of the sociologist has remained detained in his professional practice as a researcher, as a professional who adequately masters the research methodology and knows how to apply scientific instruments, obtain data and interpret them to diagnose the social processes that are studied. However, the sociologist is assigned the mission of solving social problems, problems that can transcend conflicts depending on how they are handled by society and social institutions. Therefore, you must have sufficient preparation from your training process.
If it is intended to train a sociologist who can solve the professional problems of the context with autonomy, cognitive independence, and an ethical and transformative attitude, there must be intentionality from his university training. The formation of the conflict resolution competence in the students of this career could equip them with the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that, as instruments, allow them to develop their work upon graduating from high school.
Finally, through the study carried out, the limitations in the theoretical and methodological order for the formation of the conflict resolution competence in students of the Sociology career in Cuba are recognized and guidelines are proposed to guide the actions of teachers and students in achieving of this end.
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Conflict of interests:
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Dayana Rosa Sotomayor Casalís, Alisvech Aguila Carralero