Emotional competences in the professional training of the sociocultural manager
Las competencias emocionales en la formación profesional del gestor sociocultural
Competências emocionais na formação profissional do gestor sociocultural
Gilma Gómez Veloz1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4290-3908
Máryuri García González2 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2734-6541
1Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba. email@example.com
2Universidad de La Habana. Centro de Estudios para el Perfeccionamiento de la Educación Superior. firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: August 02nd, 2021.
Approved: November 23rd, 2021.
This article addresses the issue of emotional competencies in the professional training of the sociocultural manager, recognizing the need to develop them in university students for a sociocultural management that corresponds to the demands of current Cuban society. The research was carried out from a qualitative design with the use of theoretical methods such as historical-logical, analytical-synthetic and systemic-structural; in addition to empirical methods such as documentary analysis, the survey and the semi-structured interview. The objective was to characterize the emotional competencies in the professional training process of the students of Sociocultural Management for Development at the University of Pinar del Río. The results were shown that emotional competences are knowledge that manages to integrate the necessary resources to fulfill the role of the sociocultural manager, which demands emotional competences such as emotional awareness, emotional autonomy, and emotional regulation, competence for life and welfare and social competence. It was evidenced that emotional competencies are considered a type of professional competence and it was revealed that the development achieved by students in relation to these competencies does not contribute to the effective fulfillment of the professional performance of the sociocultural manager. It was specified as conclusions that it is a felt need of students and teachers, to promote the development of emotional competencies in the professional training process of sociocultural managers, since these become knowledge that manages to integrate the necessary resources to make the future professional performance more efficient.
Keywords: emotional skills; professional training; sociocultural management for development.
El presente artículo aborda la temática de las competencias emocionales en la formación profesional del gestor sociocultural, reconociendo la necesidad de desarrollar dichas competencias en estudiantes universitarios, para una gestión sociocultural que se corresponda con las exigencias de la sociedad cubana actual. La investigación se realizó desde un diseño cualitativo con el empleo de métodos teóricos como el histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético y el sistémico-estructural; además de métodos empíricos como el análisis documental, la encuesta y la entrevista semiestructurada. Se propuso como objetivo caracterizar las competencias emocionales en el proceso de formación profesional de los estudiantes de Gestión Sociocultural para el Desarrollo de la Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Se mostró como resultado que las competencias emocionales son saberes que logran integrar los recursos necesarios para cumplir el rol del gestor sociocultural, el cual demanda competencias emocionales tales como la conciencia emocional, la autonomía emocional, la regulación emocional, la competencia para la vida y el bienestar y la competencia social. Se evidenció que las competencias emocionales son consideradas un tipo de competencia profesional y se develó que el desarrollo alcanzado por los estudiantes en relación a estas competencias no contribuye al cumplimiento efectivo del desempeño profesional del gestor sociocultural. Como principal conclusión se determinó que es una necesidad sentida de estudiantes y profesores fomentar el desarrollo de las competencias emocionales en el proceso de formación profesional de los gestores socioculturales, pues estas se tornan saberes que logran integrar los recursos necesarios para hacer más eficiente el futuro desempeño profesional.
Palabras clave: competencias emocionales; formación profesional; gestión sociocultural para el desarrollo.
Este artigo aborda a questão das competências emocionais na formação profissional do gestor sociocultural, reconhecendo a necessidade de desenvolver essas competências nos estudantes universitários, para uma gestão sociocultural que corresponda às demandas da sociedade cubana atual. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um desenho qualitativo com a utilização de métodos teóricos como histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético e sistêmico-estrutural; além de métodos empíricos como a análise documental, o survey e a entrevista semiestruturada. O objetivo foi caracterizar as competências emocionais no processo de formação profissional dos alunos de Gestão Sociocultural para o Desenvolvimento da Universidade de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Como resultado, foi demonstrado que as competências emocionais são conhecimentos que conseguem integrar os recursos necessários para cumprir o papel do gestor sociocultural, o que exige competências emocionais como consciência emocional, autonomia emocional, regulação emocional, competência para a vida e bem-estar e social. competência. Evidenciou-se que as competências emocionais são consideradas um tipo de competência profissional e revelou-se que o desenvolvimento alcançado pelos alunos em relação a essas competências não contribui para o efetivo cumprimento do desempenho profissional do gestor sociocultural. Como principal conclusão, determinou-se que é sentida necessidade de alunos e professores promoverem o desenvolvimento de competências emocionais no processo de formação profissional de gestores socioculturais, uma vez que estas passam a ser conhecimentos que conseguem integrar os recursos necessários para tornar mais futuras atuações. profissional eficiente.
Palavras-chave: competências emocionais; formação profissional; gestão sociocultural para o desenvolvimento.
Within the themes that the contemporary scientific dialogue occupies, are the competences. Their conceptualization and apprehension, especially within the scenario of Higher Education, are so important that a large part of the educational models focus on shaping their curricular and training process around them. In this way, the typology of competencies has been diversified, within which emotional competencies are appreciated, which have aroused growing interest due to their importance as an indisputable element of academic and professional success.
So much so, that the 2030 Education Agenda of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2018) declares within its objectives to be achieved, "substantially increase the number of young people and adults who have the necessary competencies, particularly technical and professional, to access employment, decent work and entrepreneurship" (p. 28).
For its part, the European Union proposal to standardize Higher Education in knowledge, skills and attitudes (Tuning Project, 2006) considers that, among the general competencies that a professional must acquire, are those that allow harmonious interaction with others, the ability to work as a team, to assume leadership and to act in new situations. All of this related to emotional competencies.
In this way, Higher Education institutions assume the need to carry out a training process in which a professional capable of meeting job demands and meeting the needs of society must be achieved and, at the same time, empower the full personal development of this professional in said training process. This arises in an environment permeated by environmental, economic and health crises, dizzying scientific-technical advances and socio-political and cultural changes.
Undoubtedly, an ambivalent reality that education cannot lose sight. It is here, then, where it is necessary to bet on the development of emotional competencies that favor the fulfillment of the mission of Higher Education.
Given this reality, it is recognized that, just as education in the twentieth century was characterized by generating a broad scaffolding for cognitive development, in recent years the emergence of initiatives in processes linked to emotions in the educational field has been fostered, which is painted as progress, but also as a challenge that shows how much to do and the possible paths to follow.
In this sense, the transformations that have been taking place in Cuban Higher Education (Resolution No. 2-2018) are appreciated, which have brought as one of their results the design of a new generation of study plans to reach the levels of desired quality in the process of comprehensive training of professionals "in order to achieve revolutionary, cultured, competent, independent and creative professionals, so that they can perform successfully in the various sectors of the economy and society in general" (p. 648 ).
The contributions and transformations aimed at the general preparation of the student are still not enough despite the efforts and resources dedicated by Cuban Higher Education to face the complex challenge of meeting the academic objectives that are its own and, at the same time, consider in this process the aspects of the formation of the person that they have in their hands. Given this, among other causes, by the changing demands of the environment, the complexities of youth subjectivities and the ways in which young people assume the profession as the guiding activity of their psychological development.
The above reasons reveal that it is necessary to strengthen the professional training of university students, integrating into the intellectual preparation elements that enrich the full development of their subjectivity and prepare them to adapt to the demands of a changing world. This demands the training of a competent professional from the emotional point of view, especially if one considers that at present efficient professional performance requires, in addition to the specific competences of the exercise of the profession, generic or transversal competences; those that are situated in "knowing how to stand" and "knowing how to be", which are useful in different professional fields, such as emotional competences.
Competencies, in a general sense, can be seen from two fundamental angles: the world of work and comprehensive training at university. Both conceptions do not contradict each other, since the expression of competences in the world of work must have its genesis in the training process.
Interest in the study of competencies arose during the 60s in the labor sphere and little by little, it was blurring the gap between the professional sphere and the educational sphere, linking it directly to the training acquired with employment. It is then in the 70s of the last centuries, that the approach to competences in universities began to be used with some frequency.
Specifically, regarding emotional competencies, a multiplicity of studies that address them have been generated in recent years (Fernández et al., 2017; Alpizar and Molina, 2018; López et al., 2018; Mórtigo and Rincón, 2018; Fernández and Malvar, 2020; Sotomayor and Águila, 2021). These occupy the analysis of contemporary debates due to the importance they have as referents of the personal, social and cultural processes that condition them. Its approach is relatively recent and the systematization of its theoretical conception is still insufficient.
In this endeavor, Bisquerra and Pérez (2007) are recognized as relevant authors with their own model of emotional competencies to which this research is ascribed, considering that it defines and structures emotional competencies in a more comprehensible way; highlighting in its approach the potentialities of emotional competencies to contribute to the integral development of the person through the improvement of their own personal and social well-being; including one's own satisfaction and professional commitment.
In this sense, Bisquerra and Pérez (2007) consider that emotional competences: "They are the set of knowledge, capacities, abilities and attitudes necessary to become aware, understand, express and regulate in an appropriate way the emotional phenomena whose purpose is to contribute value added to professional functions and promote personal and social well-being" (p. 69).
Another significant definition is that of López et al. (2018), who in correspondence with Bisquerra and Pérez (2007) express: "Emotional competence is understood as the ability to adequately mobilize a set of knowledge, capacities, skills and attitudes necessary to carry out diverse activities with a certain level of quality and efficiency" (p. 59).
Based on the theoretical views addressed, the research assumes emotional competencies as a synergistic set of knowledge (knowing, knowing how to be, knowing how to do, knowing how to be) that integrates knowledge, capabilities, skills, attitudes and values that allow understand, regulate and express emotional phenomena appropriately; which results in knowing how to act that favors self-determined behavior, effective professional performance and personal and social well-being.
It is considered that emotional competences are manifested in specific contexts and are developed through learning, so they need educational intentionality and systematic work. That is why the development of emotional competencies is required under a training process where the subject's personality is involved and transformed, closely linked to the occupational profile.
This perspective of emotional competences leads the analysis towards a typology of competences, defined in the context of professional training that are of great theoretical and methodological interest; in this sense, reference is made to the classification of specific competences and generic competences.
On this, Corominas (2001), expresses:
Professional preparation therefore encompasses both training in specific competencies of the profession, that is, knowledge and techniques typical of a professional field (...), as well as training in generic competencies common to many professions (...). Specific competencies are more focused on "professional knowledge", "know-how" and "know-how to guide" the actions of other people; while generic competences are situated in "knowing how to be" and "knowing how to be" (p. 307).
The importance of both is such that it is considered a challenge and at the same times a necessity for today's university to conceive the training and development of generic and specific competences in their interrelation in the professional training process. To this it is added that, from the analysis of the conception and the possibilities of empowering emotional competences in the professional training process at the university, these can be distinguished by their duality; while they can be considered generic skills, but also specific.
From the generic perspective, they are resources that the individual has developed throughout his life that can be useful for all spheres of daily life and that can be transferable, therefore, to any professional performance. Even within this, they can be particularly distinctive of a profession and its activity, given according to the modes of professional performance for which they are employed in a specific sphere. From these referred elements, emotional competences are considered as a type of professional competence that allows an integrated functioning of the subject aimed at improving professional practice.
It is also specified that emotional competencies are considered a basic aspect in professional training. In this sense, Mórtigo and Rincón (2018) state that "When the competences that a subject must acquire to carry out a task are investigated, not only those inherent to a particular knowledge, knowledge or practice are recreated, but also those assigned to emotions" (p. 431).
Undoubtedly, the subject of competences becomes complex and its incorporation into the educational context has raised several arguments; but its importance prevails within the teaching-educational processes, essentially in the field of Higher Education, since as Alpizar and Molina (2018) recognize: "The evolution of the concept of competences has managed to generate a suitable orientation towards a comprehensive training of the professionals, who find an increasingly recognized space in universities "(p. 118).
The Sociocultural Management for Development career, which has as its antecedent the Sociocultural Studies career, is the product of the process of improvement towards the transition to a new generation of study plans: Plan E. In this way, the career is presented as an undergraduate training program whose modes of action imply the ability to advise, accompany and facilitate the processes of understanding, appropriation and dynamization of culture and sociocultural praxis, as an indispensable mediation and social change resource, in correspondence with the Cuban social project. This implies a different conception of the professional training process of sociocultural managers, so that they can adequately play the role demanded by their study plan, which requires a professional capable of meeting the emotional needs of the populations with whom they work.
This corresponds to the criteria of De Souza and Carbonero (2019), who express: "Emotional competences are emphasized above all according to the relationship of the individual with the environment, presenting themselves as fundamental for the relationship of the individual with the ecosystems in which they are integrates, as crucial for their intrapersonal, interpersonal and professional development" (p. 6).
Therefore, the need to evoke emotional competencies not only for daily life, but also for professional life stands out and, in the opinion of Martínez (2019), such importance is given to them because emotional competencies contribute to facing daily challenges and to maintain emotional balance in the face of negative events. To which he adds: "In this sense, this type of competency contributes to the integral formation of people because they educate for life" (p. 37).
However, despite the importance of emotional competencies for the training and professional performance of the sociocultural manager, he has not been granted a space for analysis in the Sociocultural Management for Development career at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca ", so this research aims to start walking the path, posing as a problem: What are the characteristics of emotional competencies in the professional training process of Sociocultural Management for University Development students? From Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca"?
Taking the above into consideration, it is revealed that the purpose of this article is to characterize the emotional competencies in the professional training process of the students of the Sociocultural Management for Development career at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca".
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research carried out was of an exploratory-descriptive type, since it addressed a subject insufficiently studying at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". It was carried out from a qualitative design, weighing the active role of the subject in the analysis of the object of study. It was motivated by insufficient understanding of the studied phenomenon and the relevance of carrying out an investigation that would allow knowing the characteristics of emotional competencies in the professional training process in the Sociocultural Management for Development career and that would reveal results that would give rise to future research.
The objective of the research was to characterize the emotional competences in the professional training process of the students of Sociocultural Management for Development of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". For this, the emotional competencies necessary for sociocultural management and the emotional competencies present in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager were identified. In addition, the forms of expression of emotional competencies and the elements that enhance their development in the training process of said professional were described.
The research sample consisted of 30 students and 10 professors from the Sociocultural Management for Development career. It was a non-probabilistic sample of volunteer subjects made up of third- and fourth-year students and teachers with more than 10 years of experience in training professionals in Sociocultural Studies and Sociocultural Management. These inclusion criteria responded to the need to have subjects with a broad vision of the career from specific experiences and knowledge about its foundations.
Methods and Techniques
The following theoretical methods were used:
Historical-logical: through which it was possible to know the antecedents of the approach to emotional competences and its relationship with the professional training process in the contemporary context, its specificity in Cuba and in the Sociocultural Management for Development career.
Analysis and Synthesis: used to decompose (analysis), in each of its parts, the emotional competences and then integrate them (synthesis) into new conceptions about the development of emotional competences in the professional training of the sociocultural manager.
Systemic-structural: it allowed the determination of the components of the object of study, as well as the relationships between them, addressing the development of emotional competencies in the formation of the sociocultural manager from a conception of unity, as an integration of elements and not as a simple sum of its parts.
The operational definition of emotional competencies in the professional training process of the students of the Sociocultural Management for Development career included, for its characterization, the dimensions and indicators that are explained below.
To study the dimension of emotional competencies, associated with the types of emotional competencies necessary for sociocultural management, the following indicators were taken as indicators:
To study the dimension of emotional competences associated with the types of emotional competencies present in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager, the following indicators were taken as indicators:
To study the dimension of emotional competences associated with the forms of expression of emotional competences in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager, the following indicators were taken as indicators:
To study the dimension of emotional competencies associated with curricular and extracurricular elements that enhance the development of emotional competencies in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager, the following indicators were taken as indicators:
The empirical methods were used:
Documentary analysis: it was used with the purpose of identifying the types of emotional competences necessary for sociocultural management, the emotional competencies present in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager and the aspects that demand the development of emotional competences in the professional model of the Sociocultural Management for Development career.
The survey: it was applied with the intention of knowing the emotional competences present in the manager's professional training process, the curricular and extracurricular elements that enhance the development of emotional competences in the sociocultural manager's professional training process and the main difficulties that They limit the development of emotional competencies in the Sociocultural Management for Development career, from the perception of students as protagonists of the process and teachers as enhancing agents of said competencies.
The semi-structured interview: it was used for its usefulness to gather information through a professional dialogue. In the present study, it allowed obtaining information on the forms of expression and characteristics of emotional competencies in the professional training process of Sociocultural Management for Development students. Responding to his conception of a semi-structured interview, he facilitated the insertion of questions and reflections, in correspondence with the established dialogue.
From the analysis of the career documents, it is appreciated that, from the declaration of the graduate's object of work, elements are revealed that demand the use of emotional competences, since the sociocultural management processes aimed at accompanying and favoring individual and collective human development in the context of various strategies, projects and actions of a social nature, are actions that the manager performs more effectively if he has an adequate development of emotional competencies; especially in those sociocultural management processes that have a direct impact on spiritual enrichment, the strengthening of cultural identity, the sense of belonging, the quality of collective life and the capacity for participation of the population in social development.
These are functions that require the use of emotional competences, especially those that guarantee the expression of social competence that, as generic competence, allows the mastery of basic social skills for personal interaction, respect for others, communication receptive and expressive, pro social behavior and cooperation.
In the professional model, the modes of action typical of the profession of the sociocultural manager are reflected, which imply the ability to advise, accompany and facilitate the processes of understanding, appropriation and consequent dynamization by those involved, of culture and sociocultural praxis as a resource for mediation and indispensable social change, in correspondence with the Cuban social project within the framework of the territory or the instance in which it corresponds to act.
These modes of action require knowledge related to positive participation in the social environment, which correspond to those emotional competences associated with the competence for life and well-being; These are necessary for sociocultural management, as they influence the ability to make decisions considering ethical and social aspects, responsible and committed citizenship, subjective well-being and the ability to create optimal experiences in personal, professional and Social life.
Associated with this, the main emotional competencies demanded by sociocultural management are identified, among which are, as generic competences, the awareness of one's own emotions referred to the knowledge that allows to name them, understand the emotions of others and become aware of the relationship between emotion, cognition and behavior as micro competencies related to emotional awareness. On the other hand, emotional autonomy and regulation of the same name are also identified, which involve the ability to express emotions appropriately.
As specific competences necessary for sociocultural management, the ability to manage one's own well-being and that of others in search of a better quality of life, as well as the ability to self-motivate and get emotionally involved in various activities of personal, social and professional life is identified. This is associated with the forms of expression of emotional competences from knowing how to be, knowing how to do and knowing how to be, which result in knowing how to act that favors personal and social well-being and effective professional performance.
In the same order, social competence is also recognized as an emotional competence necessary for the professional performance of the sociocultural manager, insofar as it allows the mastery of basic social skills for personal interaction, mutual respect, receptive and expressive communication, pro social behavior and cooperation. Associated with this, social competence and competencies for life and well-being are identified as the most visible types of emotional competencies in the training process of the sociocultural manager.
These results are corroborated with those obtained in the survey and in the semi-structured interview, which show that emotional competencies become knowledge that manages to integrate the necessary resources to fulfill the role of the sociocultural manager; Thus, from the perception of the 10 (100%) teachers in the sample, the insertion of this professional in areas aimed at promoting human development in various specific contexts also demands emotional skills.
It is recognized by seven (70%) of the teachers that these competences respond to the ability to adopt appropriate and responsible behaviors for the solution of personal, family, professional and social problems, oriented towards improving the well-being of personal and social life. It is revealed that they are a necessary resource for the sociocultural manager, as it is expected that he is capable of carrying out social management actions considering progressively adequate and effective approaches to the community, gender, sexuality, ethnic differences and other aspects related to the existence of social asymmetries and the treatment of sociocultural factors that affect the projection of social development; what demands the development of emotional competences.
Emotional competences are configured for eight (80%) of the teachers investigated, as a type of professional competence necessary in the training of the sociocultural manager, in which he is conceived as a person who expresses himself and develops in the exercise of profession.
Of the group of students, 9 of the third year and 12 of the fourth year (70%), recognize that these competences have different forms of expression, among which those related to behaviors that are associated with emotional autonomy and emotional regulation stand out. These can also be expressed in the understanding of the emotions of others, empathy and mutual collaboration, as well as in the resolution of conflicts and in all the know-how of the sociocultural manager that implies skills and abilities associated with the expression of social competence and personal interaction.
The favorable aspects of emotional competencies are recognized by 11 and 13 students (80%) of third and fourth year respectively, since they are present in the willingness to learn and in the sense of belonging to the profession. In relation to the curricular elements that promote the development of emotional competences in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager, subjects such as Psychology, Family (optional), History of Philosophical Thought and Ethics stand out. However, the students reveal that the career has not offered them the necessary tools to be more emotionally competent professionals.
Based on the criteria exposed by the professors of the sample, it is evident as the main difficulties that in the Sociocultural Management for Development career there are no strategies based on the development of emotional competencies. On the other hand, it is appreciated that high importance is attached to their progress, but eight (80%) of the teachers consider that the pedagogical group does not have all the necessary tools for training in this regard.
It is recognized that the business sector demands socio-cultural managers with the capacity for teamwork, interpersonal and communication skills, leadership capacity, the capacity to act in new situations and the capacity to make decisions; however, eight (80%) of the professors surveyed consider that students graduate with deficiencies in this regard.
In the comprehensive analysis of the results, the main emotional competencies necessary for sociocultural management are identified as awareness of one's own emotions, emotional autonomy, emotional regulation, ability to manage one's own well-being and that of others, social competence and the ability to self-motivate and get emotionally involved in various activities of personal, social and professional life.
These emotional competencies are present throughout the sociocultural manager's professional training process and are expressed in the synergistic set of knowledge (knowing, knowing how to be, knowing how to be, knowing how to be) that integrate into their structure and functioning the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes and values that allow understanding, regulating and expressing emotional phenomena appropriately.
Knowledge that is necessary to promote in students of Sociocultural Management for Development, in order to promote self-determined behavior and effective professional performance; Therefore, emotional competencies are necessary resources for sociocultural management given the modes of action, fields of action and spheres of action that distinguish the career of Sociocultural Management for Development. However, the development of emotional competencies in the Sociocultural Management for Development career at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" is insufficient to develop the potential of students from their modes of action, which makes it difficult competent professional performance upon graduation.
Among the elements that characterize the phenomenon studied are the difficulties for the proper management of one's own emotions, personal self-management, self-motivation, and mastery of social skills that favor good interpersonal relationships and the ability to adopt appropriate and responsible behaviors with which to face professional challenges; which is considered a limitation for their modes and spheres of professional performance. In this sense, the dialectical contradiction between necessity and existing reality is detected; graduates are needed capable of assuming with the necessary emotional competencies the socio-cultural management of the territory.
The results analyzed expand the findings of previous research by showing that emotional competencies are a type of professional competence and that they can be expressed in a continuum in which they are distinguished as generic and specific competences given the specific circumstances; surpassing the conception of Corominas (2001) that fragments these types of competences, by differentiating those associated with "knowing how to do" with those referring to "knowing how to be".
Coincidences were found with the theoretical assumptions addressed by Bisquerra and Pérez (2007), who consider that emotional competencies are the set of knowledge, capacities, abilities and attitudes that appropriately regulate emotional phenomena, providing benefit to professional functions. But to this conceptualization, the research contributes, from the results obtained, that the aforementioned knowledge, capacities, abilities and attitudes are integrated into knowledge that implies a knowing how to be, a knowing how to do and a knowing how to be that results in knowing how to act , which favors the effective professional performance and personal and social well-being. Added to the conceptualization of emotional competences is the necessary expression of these in a specific setting as a sign of their possession.
The conception of the teachers of the sample about emotional competences in the training of the sociocultural manager finds support in theoretical references such as that of González and González (2008), considering that emotional competences are professional competences that are essential for the understanding of the integral formation of the university student that is expected in the current university, since they are useful from the personal, social and professional point of view.
This shows similarities with the results obtained in research references on emotional competencies, specifically with the one that addresses them in the job placement process of medicine and nursing professionals at the Technical University of Manabí in Ecuador (de Vega et al., 2019), who, referring to the importance of emotional competencies, state that: "Most jobs require not only knowledge and specific technical competencies of the profession, but also a high level of emotional competencies that ensure that the worker is capable of adjusting to situations of change, dealing with conflicts, working as a team and self-motivated in favor of their personal development and the achievement of a higher performance" (p. 5).
In relation to the favorable aspects of emotional competences, coincidences are shown with Costa and Faria (2017), since the students and professors investigated recognize that emotional competences are present in the disposition to learn and in the sense of belonging to the profession; The aforementioned authors affirm that "emotion, in addition to cognition, can have an adapting and enhancing role in the development and academic success of young people", to which they also add that "the literature associates socio-emotional learning with academic, given that students' social and emotional capacities enhance academic performance" (p. 65).
This envisions a new edge to be addressed in future scientific research, which may be directed to the study of the development of emotional competencies and their impact on academic performance.
The results obtained also corroborate the demands of international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, considering in the Education 2030 Agenda that professional performance at present requires competencies that allow professionals to efficiently exercise their skills in diverse contexts with autonomy, flexibility, ethics and responsibility; as is the case of emotional competences for sociocultural management.
Associated with this, it is revealed that one of the main difficulties in approaching the issue of emotional competencies in the professional training process of the sociocultural manager is that the Study Plan of the Sociocultural Management for Development career, like the rest of the curricula of Cuban Higher Education, it does not respond to training by competencies; However, the way in which they are conceived in this research is consistent with the model of the Sociocultural Management professional and its modes of action, and also invites the necessary dialogue to achieve a vision that integrates the strengths that emotional competences contribute to professional training.
Considering what was revealed in the investigation, the following conclusions are specified:
Based on the contributions of this research, it is recommended to carry out other investigations on the emotional competencies for sociocultural management that include the vision of the employers of the graduates of the career, in order to obtain a more acute look at the phenomenon from the experience of the own professional practice.
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The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents..
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