Theoretical-methodological conception for the development of the creative performance mode in university students
Concepción teórico-metodológica para el desarrollo del modo de actuación creativo en estudiantes universitarios
Concepção teórico-metodológica para o desenvolvimento da modalidade de performance criativa em estudantes universitários
Received: July 13th, 2021.
Approved: November 03rd, 2021.
Cuban professional training allows university students to assimilate systematized content for the construction of their professional performance mode, as part of this they must express categories such as originality, flexibility, autonomy and motivation, belonging to a creative mode of performance. Teachers direct development in this way from the planning of academic, research and work activities, as well as the design and application of teaching tasks for learning. The objective of this article is to analyze a proposal for a theoretical-methodological conception, organized by a theoretical-conceptual component and a methodological component, which enables the performance of teachers in the direction of the development of the creative way of acting in students. It was the result of a qualitative research, which used systematization, to demonstrate the need for the concept presented. Likewise, the use of participant observation, interview and in-depth sessions was revealed, as well as analysis of the product of the activity and its results. From a theoretical systematization, a position regarding the aforementioned categories was assumed, and the conformation of the theoretical-methodological conception, which was of great research interest, with relevance and possibility of application in the process of training graduates in Pedagogy-Psychology, by taking advantage of the potential of the labor practice in pursuit of their preparation for the fulfillment of their professional functions. This proposal was built with the participation of teachers and students, concluding with its need for application in the professional training of psycho pedagogues.
Keywords: theoretical-methodological conception; creative mode of action.
La formación profesional cubana permite a los estudiantes universitarios asimilar contenidos sistematizados para la construcción de su modo de actuación profesional. Como parte de este deben expresar en su desempeño en la práctica laboral categorías tales como: originalidad, flexibilidad, autonomía y motivación, pertenecientes a un modo de actuación creativo. Los docentes dirigen el desarrollo de este modo a partir de la planificación de actividades académicas, investigativas y laborales, así como el diseño y aplicación de tareas docentes para el aprendizaje. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar una propuesta de concepción teórico-metodológica, organizada por un componente teórico-conceptual y un componente metodológico, que posibilita la actuación de los docentes en la dirección del desarrollo del modo de actuación creativo en los estudiantes. Constituyó el resultado de una investigación cualitativa, que empleó la sistematización para demostrar la necesidad de la concepción presentada. Igualmente, se reveló el empleo de la observación participante, entrevista y sesiones en profundidad, así como análisis del producto de la actividad y sus resultados. Desde una sistematización teórica se asumió una posición referente a las categorías mencionadas, y de la conformación de la concepción teórico-metodológica, lo cual resultó de gran interés investigativo, con pertinencia y posibilidad de aplicación en el proceso de formación de licenciados en Pedagogía-Psicología, al aprovechar potencialidades de la práctica laboral, en pos de su preparación para el cumplimiento de sus funciones profesionales. Esta propuesta fue construida con participación de docentes y estudiantes, concluyéndose con la necesidad de su aplicación en la formación profesional de psicopedagogos.
Palabras claves: concepción teórico-metodológica; modo de actuación creativo.
A formação profissional cubana permite aos universitários assimilar conteúdos sistematizados para a construção de seu modo de atuação profissional. Nesse sentido, devem expressar categorias como: originalidade, flexibilidade, autonomia e motivação, pertencentes a uma forma criativa de agir. Os professores direcionam o desenvolvimento, desta forma, a partir do planejamento das atividades acadêmicas, de pesquisa e de trabalho, bem como da concepção e aplicação das tarefas de ensino para a aprendizagem. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar uma proposta de concepção teórico-metodológica, organizada por uma componente teórico-conceitual e uma componente metodológica, que possibilite aos professores atuarem no sentido do desenvolvimento da forma criativa de agir nos alunos. Foi o resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa, que utilizou a sistematização para demonstrar a necessidade do conceito apresentado. Da mesma forma, foi revelada a utilização de observação participante, entrevista e sessões em profundidade, bem como análise do produto da atividade e seus resultados. A partir de uma sistematização teórica, assumiu-se um posicionamento quanto às categorias citadas, e a conformação da concepção teórico-metodológica, que foi de grande interesse de pesquisa, com relevância e possibilidade de aplicação no processo de formação de graduados em Pedagogia-Psicologia, por meio de aproveitamento do potencial da prática laboral, na busca de sua preparação para o cumprimento de suas funções profissionais. Essa proposta foi construída com a participação de professores e alunos, concluindo com a necessidade de sua aplicação na formação profissional de psicopedagogos.
Palavras-chave: concepção teórico-metodológica; modo criativo de desempenho.
In Cuba, university professional training is aimed at preparing students for future performance in various spheres of action; to do this, they express a mode of action within the framework of a broad profile, established in the study plan E as one of its essential characteristics.
In the Bachelor of Education Pedagogy-Psychology career, professionals capable of directing the educational and teaching-learning process of pedagogical and psychological subjects are trained in the training of educators, psycho-pedagogical advice to managers and teachers, as well as educational research in the contexts where it develops the work of educational guidance to students, families and the community, as expressed in the pedagogical professional performance mode declared in the professional model [Ministry of Higher Education (MES), 2016].
The professional performance mode is made up of a system of actions, supported by theoretical and methodological foundations systematized from the different disciplines and with a high level of integration from the Investigative Labor Training discipline, according to Hourruitinier (2006) and Addine (2015).
As part of the professional education of the personality of these future graduates, the expression of personological structures and qualities is stimulated, within which creativity, inherent in all subjects, should be highlighted, but under the stimulation of the pedagogical group and the student himself in the career. This constitutes one of the main conditions for the development of a creative way of acting in university students.
In the bibliographic search carried out, it was not possible to determine a large number of works about the development of the creative performance mode in university students; However, there are different works and investigations on the development of creativity, since this personological quality supports the expression of the mode of action investigated as part of the professional development of the personality of the students under the direction of the teachers.
Cuban authors such as Gamboa et al., (2016), Naipe et al., (2017), Concepción et al. (2017), Marcos & Fernández (2019), Hernández & Concepción (2019), Avelino & Cala (2020), del Cristo et al. (2020), among others, have dealt with the subject and its study was of great interest, as well as the selection of theoretical references that enrich the proposal made in this article.
The fundamental concepts that are handled in the article are constituted by the creative way of acting and the work practice. Regarding the creative mode of action, Borges, Corujo & Lazo (2016) and del Cristo et al. (2020). In the latter, this mode is defined in students as:
The execution of original, independent and flexible actions, in accordance with educational requirements, based on a high professional motivation, through which the development and updating of professional knowledge and skills is expressed. That is, it is considered that professional motivation is an essential condition to achieve the creative professional performance mode (p. 269).
This analysis allowed the authors to define the creative performance mode in students as: the design and execution of actions in the solution of problems of the educational reality linked to their professional functions. They must be characterized by their originality, flexibility and autonomy based on motivation, in accordance with the educational demands of the spheres of action, through which the development and updating of systematized professional knowledge and skills is expressed. The students' creative performance mode, defined in this article, is made up of four categories: originality, autonomy, flexibility and motivation, which are harmoniously integrated as a process in their construction, under the direction of teachers.
With regard to labor practice, its definition is assumed, given in Resolution 2/2018 of the MES in its article 137:
Work practice is the organizational form of teaching work that aims to promote adequate mastery by students of the modes of action that characterize professional activity, through their participation in solving the most general and frequent problems present in the scenario. professional or social in which it is inserted and, at the same time, promote the development of the values that contribute to the formation of an integral professional, suitable for their future performance in society (Ministry of Higher Education, 2019, p.44).
This form of organization allows consolidating, applying and generating new knowledge, as well as the development of professional skills. Therefore, it is a space for professional training for the development of the categories of the creative mode of action and, as such, it is assumed in the theoretical-methodological conception that is analyzed.
The teachers of the pedagogical groups of disciplines and year groups, as part of their didactic strategy in the Teaching-Learning Process in the subjects they teach, will take into account the planning of academic, research and work activities, as well as the design of teaching tasks of learning that can become valuable instruments and ways in the direction of the creative way of acting in students, essentially during the realization of the work practice.
These teachers must take advantage of the potential offered by the main integrative discipline Investigative Labor Training in the Pedagogy-Psychology career, for the establishment of interdisciplinary relationships, based on the systematization of learning contents, structured as interdisciplinary nodes. Likewise, as part of the training of professionals in Cuba, the realization of the work practice in educational institutions offers the possibility of systematizing content and its application as theoretical and methodological supports in the identification of professional problems, linked to the intervention in educational processes , as well as the proposal of solutions, concretized in the execution of original, autonomous, flexible and motivating actions, as categories of the creative way of acting.
The question arises, how to achieve the combination of these theoretical and methodological foundations of the professional performance of teachers in order to direct the development of the creative way of acting in their students, closely linked to the realization of work practice?
The authors consider that the answer to this question is the structuring of a theoretical-methodological conception that allows the direction of the development of this type of action mode, centered on the main integrating discipline Investigative Labor Training of this career and with the interactive participation of teachers and students, by taking advantage of the potential offered by work practice for this development.
The proposal that is made is of great importance in the current conditions of training of professionals in the country, capable of expressing a broad profile in their performance, characterized by the execution of actions, independently and in a novel way, that guarantee the solution of educational problems, in pursuit of the integral development of teachers and university students closely linked to the development of Cuban education.
The article has as a background the qualitative research carried out, with the use of different methods. The objective of this article is: to analyze a proposal for a theoretical-methodological conception, organized by a theoretical-conceptual component and a methodological component, which enables the performance of teachers in the direction of the development of the creative way of acting in students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The selection of the qualitative nature of the research carried out, as the basis of this article, allowed the use of different methods such as: the in-depth interview, participant observation, in-depth sessions, use of rating scales and analysis of the product of the management activity of the Process of Teaching-Learning by teachers and their own learning by students.
In the initial diagnosis of the creative mode of action of the students of the Pedagogy-Psychology career, as well as the leadership role of the teachers in the development of this mode of action, a methodology was followed, based on the five established moments by Jara (2003): the starting point, the initial questions, the recovery of the lived process, the in-depth reflection and the arrival points. The systematization methodology was organized as follows.
A first stage of the systematization in the 2017-2018 academic years, in which the search for orientations that promote the development of the creative way of acting in students was carried out in different normative documents of the career, essentially from the main integrating discipline. Likewise, in a population and sample of 12 teachers, the methods of analysis of the product of the activity, observation of teachers' activities and an in-depth interview with them were used. The objective in this stage was to analyze the leadership role of teachers in the development of the creative way of acting of the students of the career, from the assessment of their preparation for it, bearing in mind the following systematization axes:
A second stage of systematization, in the 2018-2019 academic years, aimed to assess the development achieved by students in the creative mode of action. For its fulfillment, an interview application was made to 24 third-year students taken from the population and sample, to verify in a comparative way the transformations achieved in their creative way of acting; also an analysis of the product of the activity of their learning, when executing actions for the solution of problems during the realization of the work practice and a self-assessment scale.
At this stage, two in-depth sessions were developed with the teachers and one with the students, with the aim of sensitizing them for the development of the creative mode of action, by providing them with information on this and fostering in-depth reflections that would allow reaching conclusions as part of the point of arrival.
The research took as a starting point the systematization in the third year of the grade, both of the pedagogical group and of students; Likewise, key informants were selected for the heads of discipline of the specialty and the head of the project "The improvement of pedagogical theory based on the solution of prioritized educational problems in the province of Sancti Spíritus: alternatives for their solution", to which the investigation is taxed. Also, the material and human resources essential in the investigative strategy to be applied were organized and secured.
The analysis of the different methods applied to the teachers made it possible to show that, in the lesson plans and guidelines for work practice activities, three teachers did not take sufficient advantage of the potentialities of the work practice in pursuit of the categories of the creative mode of action, for which revealed theoretical and methodological deficiencies in this direction, due to their status as novice teachers in Higher Education.
With regard to the systematization in students based on applied instruments, it was possible to appreciate a recognition of the work of the pedagogical group, although they made some critical remarks that showed deficiencies in the performance of certain teachers in the subject under investigation, which matches previously performed analyzes. Likewise, it was possible to verify the willingness of 100% of the sample to join the activities, respond to teaching tasks from a greater commitment, reflection, integration of content, which was positive and demonstrated the possibilities and potentialities for the application of the proposal theoretical-methodological conception that is carried out in this article.
It was observed that 83% of the students expressed a certain level of dependence on the help provided by the teachers of the career and the practice school, although there was a small group, which represented 7%, who did show independence in the design and even more in the execution of actions, as indicators of the development of categories of the creative mode of action.
After the analysis of all the instruments applied in the systematization of teachers and students about the subject studied, the methodological triangulation was carried out. Their analysis demonstrated coherence between the results obtained in the different methods and evidenced the need for improvement in the preparation of teachers for the direction of the creative performance mode in students, as well as deficiencies in these with respect to the expression of categories of that mode, essentially the autonomy, flexibility and motivation to propose solutions to problems in the context of work practice. Likewise, a positive aspect was to be able to recognize the importance of the main integrating discipline as a catalyst and vehicle that facilitates the direction for the development of the creative mode of action in the students of the Pedagogy-Psychology career.
After the analysis of the results of the diagnosis, we proceeded to interact with the pedagogical group to introduce the theoretical-methodological conception designed. For this, in-depth sessions were held. In one of them, the categories of the creative mode of action were presented, all agreeing on the need to stimulate their expression in students, through the use of academic, research and work-oriented teaching tasks.
In another in-depth session the teachers were shown the structuring of a theoretical-methodological conception for the development of the creative mode of action, from the direction of the teachers from the main integrating discipline Investigative Labor Training.
The need to generate ideas, concepts and representations that would allow knowing the educational reality, as well as methods, techniques and procedures to solve diagnosed problems was discussed, based on their solution from solid theoretical bases. They were proposed to assume the definition of theoretical-methodological conception given by Chirino (2013), for whom it constitutes a form of systemic organization of scientific knowledge that, based on the results of science, provides a particular explanation of the object of study and a derivation guiding methodological practice.
Ascription to this definition made it easier to consider in the structuring of the analyzed conception the presence of two basic components, linked and interdependent as dialectical opposites: a theoretical-conceptual component and a methodological one. The teachers in the session to present this structuring agreed on the need to consider these two components, due to their richness in the level of orientation and preparation for teachers and students.
Therefore, the theoretical-conceptual component was constituted by a categorical body (categories and system of knowledge, professional skills and values) and a legal body (a system of principles), which define and sustain essential aspects of the object of study, development of the creative acting mode.
Bearing in mind the principles that sustain education in Cuba, and from a derivation of them, the principles that serve as the basis for the constructed theoretical-methodological conception are declared, which are: combination of theory with practice in the development process of the creative mode of action, of the structural systemic nature of the contents of the main integrating discipline, of the contextual nature of the creative mode of action in the spheres of action and of the execution of original, independent and flexible actions in accordance with the educational demands of the sphere of action.
These principles, in an integrated way, support the categories and content systems that are declared in the theoretical-conceptual component and reveal the character of the main integrating discipline in its exit to work practice, as a form of organization of the Teaching-Learning Process that guarantees the systematization of content for the solution of professional problems, and in which the categories are revealed in a creative way of acting.
The categories of the creative performance mode in students are characterized, such as:
1. Originality: it is the ability of the individual to generate ideas and / or products whose characteristic is unique, of great interest and community or social contribution. They are elements to take into account: novelty; unpublished manifestation, when discovering something unknown; uniqueness, as the only appropriate and genuine thing; as well as imagination in the mental creation of new realities, which concretizes in the design and execution of actions in the solution of problems.
2. Autonomy: understood as the ability to decide independently , without coercion or the influence of third parties. It is a personality trait necessary for self-education, when understanding, formulating and carrying out teaching tasks according to their own initiative and without the help of anyone. For which it must manifest: freedom to choose ways to carry out projects and tasks, decision-making, from a theoretical position to solve problems related to work practice, proposals for change and modeling of solutions to problems in educational reality from the assumption of levels of individual responsibility. Also the defense of personal criteria in the scientific debate with his peers from the pedagogical and student collective and the possibility of evaluation in practice of his self-transformation and continuous development in acting, by revealing confidence, optimism and enthusiasm.
3. Flexibility: ability to organize events within diverse and wide possibilities, modification, variation in behaviors, attitudes, objects, objectives and methods. Take into account reflection when re-examining situations to be solved, with an open argument where ideas are confronted, versatility from the breadth of criteria and ease of adaptation in a projection that makes it easier for students to outline and face the future as professionals.
4. Motivation: it is the guiding force or incentive that leads to a certain action, resulting from the nature and intensity of the desire to engage in an activity; distinguishing two basic types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. In its expression, it is necessary to assess the demonstration of the development of this need for commitment in its intervention in educational processes, expression of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for action in the search for solutions to problems of educational reality, as well as influence of the self-recognition and recognition of the work carried out in the maintenance of the performance during the performance in the work practice by the pedagogical and student collective.
The extrinsic motivation, generated under the influence of the pedagogical group of the career and even the work practice center, drives performance in the search for solutions from the integration of the systematized contents in the disciplines and, in particular, the main integrating discipline. As important as this type of motivation is the intrinsic one, which in full harmony encourages independent action by intervening in educational processes for the performance of professional functions; within these, counseling requires a high level of motivation for the execution of original and flexible actions that characterize their creative mode of action.
It can be affirmed that the direction of the development of the four categories declared as inherent to the creative mode of action is intentionally promoted by the pedagogical group in the subjects of the different disciplines and from a methodological work, object of analysis in the groups of the year , in such a way that the gradual progress of the categories in the performance of the students is valued, first in their academic activities closely linked to the investigative ones, which gives way to their consolidation and expression in the labor ones.
Each and every one of these categories allows students to design and execute actions in pursuit of the solution of professional problems in the educational processes that intervene in work practice, linked to the expression of their professional functions, specifically in counseling. In the execution of these actions, the learning of the contents transmitted in the subjects of the main integrating discipline, conformed in a system and systematized throughout the career from subjects of other disciplines and that are integrated into the main discipline by methodological work of its interdisciplinary collective.
In the theoretical-conceptual component, there are close connections with the system of systematized and assimilated knowledge, the system of professional skills developed and the evaluative disposition of intervention in various situations of the educational reality, which together allow the construction of a mode of action creative, distinguished by the manifestation of the four categories analyzed.
Bearing in mind an interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of the contents of the disciplines, it was necessary to assess the organization in interdisciplinary nodes, as a structuring of the psycho pedagogical knowledge acquired by the students in the disciplines and that in the context of investigative work practice ( governed from the main integrating discipline) allow them to identify professional problems, design and execute their solution proposal; all through original, autonomous and flexible actions, which reveal their motivation, as representative elements of the development achieved in their creative way of acting.
In an analysis of the professional model of the study plan E of this career, a system of nodes of the main integrating discipline could be structured, which facilitates their intentions and exit to the investigative work practice, facilitators of the fulfillment of the specific tasks in the four professional functions, with an emphasis on the advisory function.
The Pedagogy-Psychology professional, in his investigative work performance, expresses different professional skills, which he forms and develops during the career. Therefore, we work gradually with students to achieve these skills, which are made up of more complex systems that are essential for professional performance. In the program of the main integrating discipline, a system of professional skills is declared, which are assumed to be valid in this conception. Such as: diagnose, model, design, direct, guide, advise, investigate and express a communicative action in the performance of their professional functions [Ministry of Higher Education (MES), 2016].
This system of professional skills must be the object of analysis in pedagogical groups, on the basis of methodological activities that allow the knowledge of the functional invariants of each one, as well as the system of methodological actions that will make up the teaching strategies of teachers in their act in the Teaching-Learning Process.
Each of the interdisciplinary nodes declared for the main integrative discipline are the result of a process of confluences of knowledge, skills and values from the subjects, with a high level of planning and intentionality of the teachers in this direction. They are nodes built throughout the career, specified and expressed in the main integrating discipline in the third year, in the context of work practice
Each of these elements of the theoretical-conceptual component establishes close relationships among themselves, as subsystems of the theoretical-conceptual system of the proposed conception.
The methodological component, made up of those standards that regulate the process of application of methods, techniques, actions and means, expressed in requirements to be taken into account for their design and / or for their practical application, are called methodological procedures to be completed by the teachers, supported by carrying out methodological actions, closely related to the methodological work in the year group. In an intimate dialectical relationship and derived from the procedures, indications are presented to the students for the modeling and implementation of actions to be carried out during the psycho pedagogical counseling, from the systematization of interdisciplinary nodes, the characterization of the psycho-pedagogical counseling and the identification and solution of problems related to it, which makes it easier for them to express the categories in a creative way of acting.
The following methodological procedures are proposed for the development of the creative acting mode from the main integrating discipline, such as:
The internalization of these methodological procedures and their instrumentation in the instructions to the students is achieved by carrying out methodological actions. Based on the study of authors such as Baldomir (2015), Gamboa et al. (2016), Martín (2018), among others, it is decided to understand them as a set of consciously determined actions with the purpose of raising the level of methodological preparation of the teachers of the third-year group to develop the creative way of acting of the students, from their categories and relationships in the context of work practice from the main integrating discipline.
The proposed methodological actions are characterized as being directed towards an objective, linked to working methods that facilitate reflection in a given context and the explanation of elements and interactions, as well as evaluation. They are directly linked to forms of methodological work, essentially the teaching-methodological one. The proposed methodological actions are the following:
Action 1. Integration of nodes from the different subjects to the main integrating discipline.
Action 2. Counseling in the intervention in different educational processes.
Action 3. Determination of the indicators for evaluating the development of the creative mode of action.
Action 4. Design of teaching tasks.
Action 5. Acting in the control and evaluation visits to the context of the work practice.
Action 6. Direction of work practice workshops for the evaluation of actions proposed by the students.
Each one is deployed in the theoretical-methodological conception on the basis of the declared structural aspects. These actions are derived from the proposed methodological procedures and have in their conceptual basis the elements already analyzed in the theoretical-conceptual component, which reveals the systemic nature of the conception. The development of the actions requires a high level of prior preparation of the teachers, from the domain of the characterization of the creative mode of action, its direction from the design of academic, research and work activities, as well as teaching tasks typical of the subjects that they teach, and the subject of the main integrating discipline in the third year of the degree. It also requires the modeling and execution of the methodological work in the career, groups of disciplines and year, with a systemic structuring guided in Resolution 2/2018 of the MES.
In this theoretical-methodological conception, the procedures set the standard for the actions of the pedagogical collective, in pursuit of the development of the creative way of acting of the students during their performance in the work practice, specifically in the realization of the advisory; while the methodological actions guide and support the expression of these procedures by the pedagogical collective, constituting both components base of the indications that are given to the students of the career with a view to stimulating the development of the creative way of acting from their actions in the context of work practice.
The indications for the modeling and implementation of the proposed psycho pedagogical counseling are:
In the third year of this grade this must be systematized for several reasons. In the first place, since the previous year it has been working on the identification of a possible research problem and, with the tools provided by subjects of the Research Methodology, it elaborates a theoretical-methodological design that allows to propose a solution. Second, students are in a better position to systematize their investigative performance and give them rational employment during their intervention in work practice activities. In this indication, the students are guided to the construction of this systematization, demanding its possible application for the performance of the advisory function and sustained in the domain of the interdisciplinary nodes that they have determined.
The modeled, designed and oriented tasks must have an integrative character, focused on the treatment of interdisciplinary nodes, as theoretical and methodological supports for the performance of students in their professional learning process.
These problem-solving actions during the counseling were agreed upon in the discussion that was carried out with the students in the work practice workshops, which were organized for this purpose and which allowed the socialization, assessment of the concretion of the categories and indicators corresponding to a creative mode of performance, thus revealing the systemic and integrating nature of the indications that are proposed and that promote the development of the creative mode of performance in students.
This is the structuring of the theoretical-methodological conception for the development of the creative way of acting in students from the direction of the teachers, focused on the main integrative discipline.
The conception is based on theoretical foundations such as the Theory of Knowledge, by using work practice as a starting point of knowledge, in which they consolidate and generate knowledge of the different disciplines integrated into the main integrating discipline, under the direction of teachers. The Marxist-Leninist sociological theory stands out, which allows conceiving the process of development of the creative mode of action as a derivation of academic, investigative and work activities from the different subjects integrated in the Investigative Labor Training discipline in the third year of the career. It is worth highlighting in the pedagogical foundation the categories training and development, from the relationships with the other categories.
In the psychological foundation, psychological categories such as activity, communication and personality are present that, harmoniously integrated, support the training of professionals under the direction of teachers. Also creativity, as a constitutive element of the personality, which serves as the basis for the development of the creative way of acting in students.
The discussions, reflections and acceptance of criticisms and criteria allowed to corroborate the position assumed in the construction of the theoretical-methodological conception that is presented, based on the recognition that the professionals who are trained in the Pedagogy-Psychology career build and rebuild their mode of professional performance throughout the career, nuanced by the conscious incorporation in their performance of the categories originality, autonomy, flexibility and motivation, under the direction of the pedagogical group in the Teaching-Learning Process of subjects of the disciplines and the main integrator.
The study carried out in the works of authors who have investigated the creative mode of action confirmed that it is distinguished by the prominent presence of creativity. This constitutes a human potentiality that is manifested in the activities and situations in which the subject is deeply involved, and where it expresses and produces the subjective resources that make it possible. Obviously, the creative performance mode in students must be achieved from their creativity, expressed in their performance in work practice.
The establishment of creativity is considered as the psychological basis of the creative way of acting and it is broadened by analyzing characteristics of creativity and integrating them into that way of acting. In the conception that is investigated in this article, it has been understood to pose the presence of autonomy instead of cognitive independence, since the latter is one of the causes of autonomy, an essential feature in the performance of university students during their practice labor.
Similarly, del Cristo et al. (2020) recognized in the way of creative performance of teachers in training the presence of "the execution of original, independent and flexible actions, According to the educational requirements, from a high professional motivation, by which it is expressed the development and updating of knowledge & skills - professional ties "(p. 269). There is full identification of these categories in this article; even emphasis is placed on considering motivation.
It is understood in the analyzed theoretical-methodological conception that motivation in university students becomes an essential cause of their performance, but not independently, but associated with other elements that teachers must promote their development. Among these is the professional identity, which is built by the students during the career and where their intervention in the educational reality of their future scenarios of action is promoting and consolidating.
The recognition of the work carried out, fundamentally the design of actions to solve professional problems, with an original, flexible and autonomous nature, consolidates the motivation for their performance in professional functions, specifically psycho-pedagogical counseling. Hence the close relationship of this motivation, as a cause and as a result of the development of the remaining categories of a mode of action. Question that is novel in the conception that is presented with respect to other investigations in this regard.
Likewise, the authors Hernández & Concepción (2019) and del Cristo et al. (2020) insist on the preparation of teachers for the development of the creative mode of action, as do the authors of this article. These authors agree on the need for teachers to recognize the transformations demanded by pedagogical activity in today's school, to make the need to diagnose, plan, execute and evaluate a pedagogical practice aimed at fostering learning that tends to become a sustainability reality in the development of human potentialities that society demands.
The theoretical-methodological conception, specifically, presents a methodological component made up of methodological actions, supported from the methodological work in the career, discipline and year groups, to achieve the use of the potentialities of the main integrative discipline Investigative Labor Training, question that impregnates a distinctive and novel stamp with respect to the referenced and compared investigations.
The use of this, from the establishment of interdisciplinary relationships, reinforces the idea of the use of interdisciplinary nodes of the career as a theoretical and methodological basis for the creative performance of students in their intervention in work practice. For this reason, it agrees with del Cristo et al. (2020) when it raises:
... Problems and demands generated by professional teaching practice allows determination and troubleshooting of the problem, allows the inter - change, helps to give confidence, enriches individual thinking from the interaction in the collective activity (p 270).
This is what it is intended in the analyzed conception, to promote the development of the categories of the mode of action in students when they identify and seek solutions to problems of the educational reality; Socialization is favored through exchanges with their peers and teachers in work practice workshops organized for this purpose, as well as their self-assessment in the development achieved. All this, when executing the indications proposed in the methodological component.
A final differential aspect that stands out in this analyzed conception is the establishment of dialectical relationships between the methodological procedures, proposed for teachers, and the indications for students in the methodological component.
In the revelation of the systemic nature of this component, the procedures and indications are recognized as subsystems, among which internal relationships are established, as stated in the Systems Theory. The relationships of interdependence between teachers and students, focused on the execution of both elements of the component, enrich the conception and allow revealing its novel character as a scientific result, in order to contribute to the development of the creative mode of action.
Likewise, in this system external relationships are evidenced with the potentialities offered by the main integrating discipline and which serves as an instrument for the design and implementation of this theoretical-methodological conception. The interaction of teachers and students with the content of this discipline, as well as its methods and the context where it takes place, qualify the establishment of these external relationships.
This question of the establishment of internal and external relationships in this methodological component of the conception, the difference from the other proposals analyzed. Therefore, it is considered a step forward, both theoretically and methodologically, the proposal of the conception that is analyzed in this article, which is put into practice at this time, under the conditions of isolation imposed by the pandemic of COVID-19 in Cuba.
In conclusion, it is understood that, in order to promote the direction of the development of the creative way of acting in students, the theoretical-methodological conception that is present can be modulated and put into practice in the students of the third year of pedagogy-psychology career.
It is necessary for the preparation of teachers to use different forms of teaching-methodological work to be carried out in this group of the year and the interdisciplinary one in Investigative Labor Training, as well as with students, by taking advantage of the potentialities of teaching tasks and oriented activities to be carried out in work practice; This facilitates the expression of the categories declared in the creative performance mode when they execute actions in the solution of problems of the educational reality in which they intervene.
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Conflict of interest:
Authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Midiel Marcos Mendoza, José Norberto del Valle Marín, Zaida González Fernández