Foundations of a training model for preschool educators who direct Physical Education
Fundamentos de un modelo de capacitación a educadoras de la infancia preescolar que dirigen la Educación Física
Fundamentos de um modelo de formação para educadores pré-escolares que dirigem Educação Física
Rasciel de la Caridad Zayas Acosta1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1283-6150
Juan Francisco Pérez Torres1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0594-9202
Faustino Camejo León1 http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8361-4718
Gustavo Pacheco Ruíz1 http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7208-7596
1 University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: May 25th, 2021.
Approved: November 19th, 2021.
The third improvement of the National Early Childhood Education System traces as one of the main aspirations, the preparation of the educators to lead a higher quality educational process; Where the educators all areas of development Attend, Among Which is the area of Physical Education. The objective of this article is to establish a training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood. The materialist dialectical method is assumed as the most general method, which allows the determination of a system of theoretical methods, among them: logical methods such as modeling, systemic and structural-functional; as well as the procedures that make up the method: analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction. The selected population was 32 educators and 25 managers. The result of the research is expressed in a training model for educators, reveals the components in the theoretical, methodological and procedural levels. As conclusions are established, the links between the direction of the educational process developer of Physical Education in preschool childhood and training actions for the transformation of the actions of educators, as protagonists of the process they develop, to promote professional and human improvement, from establishing interdisciplinary links, identifying the problems and potentialities of the infantile context, as well as the inclusion of directed self-improvement and collaborative complementation from educational practice.
Keywords: model; training; educators; Physical education; interdisciplinarity; early childhood.
El III Perfeccionamiento del Sistema Nacional de Educación en la primera infancia traza como una de las principales aspiraciones la preparación de las educadoras para conducir un proceso educativo de mayor calidad; donde estas atienden todas las áreas de desarrollo, entre las que se encuentra el área de Educación Física. El objetivo de este artículo es fundamentar un modelo de capacitación a educadoras para el mejoramiento de la dirección del área de la Educación Física, como parte del proceso educativo en la infancia preescolar. Se asume como método más general el dialéctico-materialista, que permite la determinación de un sistema de métodos teóricos, entre ellos: métodos lógicos como la modelación, el sistémico y estructural-funcional; así como los procedimientos que componen el método: el análisis y la síntesis, la inducción y la deducción. La población seleccionada fue de 32 educadoras y 25 directivos. El resultado de la investigación se expresa en un modelo de capacitación a educadoras y revela los componentes en los planos teórico, metodológico y procedimental. Como conclusiones se establecen los nexos entre la dirección del proceso educativo desarrollador de la Educación Física en la infancia preescolar y las acciones de capacitación para la transformación del accionar de las educadoras, como protagonistas del propio proceso que desarrollan, para propiciar el mejoramiento en lo profesional y en lo humano, a partir de establecer los nexos interdisciplinarios, identificar los problemas y potencialidades del contexto infantil, así como la inclusión de la autosuperación dirigida y la complementación colaborativa desde la práctica educativa.
Palabras clave: modelo; capacitación; educadoras; Educación Física; interdisciplinariedad; primera infancia.
O III Aperfeiçoamento do Sistema Nacional de Educação da Primeira Infância aponta como uma das principais aspirações a preparação dos educadores para liderar um processo educacional de maior qualidade; onde atendem todas as áreas de desenvolvimento, dentre as quais está a área de Educação Física. O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer um modelo de formação de educadores para o aprimoramento dos rumos da área de Educação Física, como parte do processo educativo na infância pré-escolar. O método dialético-materialista assume-se como o método mais geral, o que permite a determinação de um sistema de métodos teóricos, entre eles: métodos lógicos como modelagem, sistêmico e estrutural-funcional; bem como os procedimentos que compõem o método: análise e síntese, indução e dedução. A população selecionada foi de 32 educadores e 25 gestores. O resultado da pesquisa se expressa em um modelo de formação de educadores e revela os componentes nos níveis teórico, metodológico e processual. Como conclusões, estabelecem-se os vínculos entre a direção do processo educativo que desenvolve a Educação Física na infância pré-escolar e as ações formativas para a transformação das ações dos educadores, como protagonistas do processo que desenvolvem, para promover o aprimoramento profissional. o humano, a partir do estabelecimento de vínculos interdisciplinares, identificando os problemas e potencialidades do contexto infantil, bem como a inclusão do autoaperfeiçoamento direcionado e da complementação colaborativa a partir da prática educativa.
Palavras-chave: modelo; Treinamento; educadores; Educação Física; interdisciplinaridade; primeira infância.
One of the main aspirations of the third improvement of the National Early Childhood Education System is the preparation of educators to lead a higher quality educational process; since they attend all areas of development, among which is the area of Physical Education. This is expressed from the basic documents of early childhood for the implementation of the different areas of development, which corresponds to what is stated in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO 2015), states that "For Physical Education to be of good quality, all staff, both professional and volunteer, must have access to appropriate training, supervision and advice" (p. 8).
In this reality, this educational level is called early childhood or early childhood education, a term that the author of this study assumes, from the perspective of implementing the integral approach of the direction of the educational process developer and the introduction of a new curriculum organized in dimensions of education and development, which take into account the integrated way in which development occurs during early childhood. In the early childhood educational plan (MES, 2017) two stages of development are established: early childhood (from zero to three years) and preschool childhood (from three to six years), on which this research is focused.
In the investigations carried out by Gato (2012); García (cited by Infante & Breijo, 2017); Infante & Breijo (2017) and Burguet, N., Valcárcel & Burguet, I. (2017), on training, allow us to appreciate key words that determine the position with which this process is assumed, as long as its character of continuity is perceived, updating and improvement.
The training of early childhood educators has been widely studied from different themes. Among the most recent national authors, the following stand out: Pérez (2021); Hernández (2010); Díaz, López & Bermúdez (2015); Zayas (2019) and Zayas Valcárcel & Vento, (2019), who coincide in conceiving it as a continuous learning process in the short, medium and long term to develop knowledge, skills, attitudes and competences, which must solve current and future problems, be designed from the diagnosis of needs, in correspondence with the evolution and increase of social demands.
The training of educators for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, is aimed at providing educators with tools to learn to develop their learning potential and achieve their autonomy, independence, judgment critical and a great sense of reflection, according to Zayas (2019); In addition, it is essential to have mastery of the specificity of each area of child development and of the didactic and methodological resources, which allows them to conceive and direct a unique and integrated educational process, which evidences a developer approach and guarantees a teaching of Education. Quality physics for all children.
From the previous theoretical considerations, it is proposed that the training of educators for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education in preschool childhood is a process of permanent and continuous learning, planned in the short, medium and long term; to satisfy the needs of the educators in the cognitive, procedural and attitudinal order that are presented in the educational reality.
The training of educators in early childhood for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in Pinar del Río, reaches in the current context an inescapable priority that requires a renewal conception that guarantees stable pathways for completion , improvement or permanent and continuous updating of the educators in this area, from the cognitive, the procedural and the attitudinal; That this involves the entire educational community, in order to achieve a change in attitude towards the dynamics of training and its structure, highlighting the role of training educators from the workplace.
In current educational practice, studies are conceived in the development of pedagogical research that address the use of models as a scientific result. Among the authors consulted for this research are: Valle (2012), Legrá (2018), in which coinciding points are located that are assumed in this research.
The present article aims to establish a training model for educators to improve the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The selection of the sample is carried out from the random stratified probabilistic sampling, for which they are selected, from the 19 nursery schools of the municipality of Pinar del Río, 32 educators who work in the third year of life, from considering that it begins the stage of preschool childhood in which the educators work the educational process from Physical Education as a programmed activity and morning gymnastics, as it is an important moment in the formation of skills and abilities in children. In addition, it includes 17 educators in the fourth year of life, 18 in the fifth and 18 in the sixth year and preschool classrooms. From a population of 328 educators, a sample of 85 is randomly selected, for 25.91%.
From a dialectical-materialist approach, a system of theoretical methods is used that allows revealing the essential relationships of the training development process for educators, for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, which allowed to fulfill the objective. Among them were: modeling, which allows to reproduce and analyze the links and relationships of the elements that are immersed in the process under study, operate in a practical and theoretical way and explain the interrelationships between its components; the hypothetical-deductive method, which is used from the approach of the theoretical assumptions, from which the new theoretical and practical knowledge of the training model for educators was derived for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education, as part of the process early childhood education.
The analysis allows the conceptual theoretical study of the training development process and the determination of the theoretical basis that sustains this process in preschool educators. For its part, the synthesis makes it possible to discover the essential plans, phases and relationships of the training model, based on the results previously obtained in the analysis. Induction led to generalization and, through deduction, we seek to reach conclusions.
From the systematization carried out in the area of modeling as a method and models as results, it allows to raise the foundations of a training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of the area of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in childhood preschool in Pinar del Río, based on three levels: theoretical, methodological and procedural, which reflect the dialectical relationships between them, identifying on a theoretical level their purpose, the foundations, as well as the demands and principles related to the contextualization of the object of study, led to the training model.
Previous characterization of the current state of the training process of the educators for the direction of the Physical Education area and at the methodological level, the relationships that exist between the different phases and guidelines that make it up, the coordinating team, the educators and the different socializing agencies; At the procedural level, the four stages that make up its implementation strategy are designed to carry out the educational and social practice of the training actions for the expected improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in childhood. preschool, in the Pinar del Río municipality.
In this model, the collaborative complementation relationships that are manifested between the coordinating team, the group of educators and the different socializing agencies that are inserted in the execution of the model stand out, both in the process of characterizing the initial state and in the strategy. training. In addition, it concludes with the scope of the model and the feedback pathways.
The theoretical systematization of the research object starts from the contradiction that this study generated and in particular the scientific problem, in its scientific problem-solution relationship, which is the training model, to later reveal the bases that sustain it, allows the realization of the three plans that energize the model of training for educators for the improvement of the direction of the area of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood. They are the following:
This expresses the purpose of the model that is none other than: to perfect the current conception of training for educators on the direction of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in early childhood, which contributes to the integral formation of the child.
The philosophical foundation of the training model that is proposed has its theoretical and methodological basis in the Marxist-Leninist philosophy and in the dialectical-materialist and historical method, which allow the analysis and interpretation of the training processes for educators for the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood.
The dialectical understanding of the processes, through the law of universal concatenation, reveals the interactive nexus of the internal and the external in the dialectic, which is expressed in the successive character of the development and in the connections between the acting concepts and the proposed for the training of educators, conceived as a general process in the preparation, with a differentiated character and the need to conceive the training with an interdisciplinary and investigative approach, in order to improve the professional performance of the educators.
From the sociological point of view, the conception of education is assumed as a social phenomenon based on the preparation of man for life, in this case of the educators, to interact communicatively with the environment, transforming it and transforming itself, hence its social and active role.
The training model recognizes this as a social process, where communication and activity are associated with the interpersonal relationships that are established between the educators and their students, between the family and the pre-school childhood centers, whether through non-formal channels. institutional or institutional, which include kindergartens, as well as by primary schools that have the preschool grade.
The analysis of the psychological foundations of the training model is based on the historical-cultural approach and the main postulates of Vygotsky (1981) and his followers. One aspect to consider is the relationship established between the categories "personality activity-communication" (Leontiev, 1981). A determining link in the formation of the training model is the relationship between the affective-motivational and the cognitive-instrumental.
From the historical-cultural approach, the training model is aimed at self-learning, from the motivation that is generated in the educators to know and act on the direction of the Physical Education area, with a playful approach, an element that takes place through starting from group work, which enables educators to offer the levels of help for the professional and human improvement expected.
The theory of Advanced Education is a reference from the different organizational forms of improvement and / or training, it is contextualized to the challenges and social demands, where educators, as part of the actions of the training model, must learn to enhance the work with the family to practice motor actions for the healthy use of free time, which supports the expected quality of life in the population from healthy styles of behavior, an aspect that today finds greater development in the use of agents and sociocultural agencies.
From the pedagogical point of view, the training model is based on the conception of education as a factor of social practice, understood as an integral and integrating process, consciously organized and directed, which assumes the responsibility of preparing man for life, in which all educators and agencies are involved. Likewise, it is assumed that the training process is a complex phenomenon that exceeds the limits of the educational process, which transcends the development of the personality of the subjects who participate, through a process of socialization; This allows permanent and continuous training, the development of social capacity to face the problems of Physical Education.
In the process of shaping this model, the importance of an adequate organization of the training process is recognized in which a relevant place is granted to the children's institution and its links with socializing agencies. Correspondingly, the role of the educators and all the specialists who participate is essential to guarantee an integrated, conscious, systemic, permanent and planned preparation. The reflection on the educational practice and the interaction between the subjects allows to reach a developer character.
That is, the training process is aimed at promoting the instructive, the educational and the developer and the role of the children's institution as an educational agency of excellence in training, from interdisciplinarity and research, to improve professional performance, where it interacts and transform its environment, with the purpose of achieving the direction of the educational process from Physical Education, reflected in the integral development of the child.
From the theoretical, legal and contextualized framework used in the training model for educators that is based, some requirements are established that are basic in its execution, for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process; They are: theory and practice in the training process, as the main way to modify the work of educators; the systematic treatment of training, for the direction of the Physical Education area; attention to the integral nature of the work of the educators; interdisciplinarity in the direction of training and participatory management, a guiding approach and collaborative complementation, as the center of the training process for educators in preschool childhood.
In the training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of the area of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, five principles are based, which are derived from those proposed in the theory of physical education. Advanced Education and express the links with training in performance improvement; the principles of early childhood, which show the knowledge between the areas of development for the improvement of the curriculum and the principles of the Physical Education methodology, which express the bases of physical culture in the direction of the educational process.
These principles are the following: active and conscious participation of the educators in the direction of the educational process (Physical Education Area); integration of activity, communication and personality (interdisciplinarity); formative and developer character for the continuous training of educators, from training actions; attention to diversity (interdisciplinarity) and systemic and systematized character.
The characterization of the object of study on the training process for the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in the municipality of Pinar del Río, is carried out from the essential regularities that appear in the budgets theoretical and in the diagnosis made, such as the most stable relationships between its components and that, in their interaction, determine the dynamics of the area of Physical Education in preschool childhood. Among the features that distinguish the training process in the proposed model, the following stand out:
Flexible and open: by promoting its enrichment in the new conditions in which it is developed, by considering the diversity of educators in the training process and other educational agents who contribute new ideas, without causing changes in the essence of the training model.
Integrative: links theory with practice, as a continuous element of the training process and develops learning in real situations and with a playful approach, in life and work projects.
Differentiator: respects the individual characteristics of each participant (age, learning pace, academic level, accumulated experiences, among others.)
Cyclical: because these phases are related in ascending order and a dynamic process occurs that leads to qualitative changes in the training process, which means that it always implies the appearance of new learning, with a spiral behavior that goes from the knowledge of skills and values from a basic level to specialization, where not all educators reach the same depth.
Contextualized: by taking into account the characteristics of the acting model and the contexts where it is developed, as well as the very diversity of the educators who participate in the process, to assume collaborative positions in response to the needs of the educational process.
Dynamic: by allowing the establishment of new relationships between the components of the process and others that are necessary, from its implementation.
Interdisciplinary: it is manifested, as expressed by Valcárcel (1998), in the didactic, managerial and investigative dimensions, associated with training, which favors the integration of the contents of the direction of the educational process for action in the area of Physical Education.
For the foundation of the second plane, it starts from considering two phases through which the training must go through to achieve the desired result.
Phase I. Operationalization of the variable, training of educators on the direction of the educational process of Physical Education in preschool childhood.
To base the first phase, the parameterization of the variable training of educators is considered, it reveals the criteria that are assumed to solve the training needs in its three dimensions; are linked to the establishment of a close relationship between the present (current state of early childhood educators, to direct the area of Physical Education and their performance in this direction) and the demands of the early childhood model. It is found in the development of pedagogical practice, from analyzing the quality of their educational work. The theoretical and methodological domain of the educators and their level of incidence in the direction of the Physical Education area are determined, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood (diagnose, dose, plan, execute and control). It is thus linked to the concrete conditions of the context in which it takes place.
The fundamental method for obtaining preliminary information is the exchange, through the interview, the survey, the observation of the activities of the educators, the review of the documents, the participation in methodological activities and other spaces in which these problems are discussed. From them, the training needs and the instrumentation of the action system are specified.
In this sense, an active participation of the educators is facilitated in the elaboration and determination of the type of training and the system of actions to be developed to satisfy their insufficiencies. In this way, the treatment of the problems and the contents that arise from the debates and reflections that take place within the group of educators is prioritized and thus avoids including contents that are not of interest to them. These learning needs, theoretically, become the essence of training, since they encompass the demands and concerns of the protagonists of the direction of the Physical Education area.
The theoretical analysis of the results of the investigations carried out by the different specialists allows to determine the particularities of the professional activity of the educators in the direction of the Physical Education area and the levels of preparation and execution in which they are involved. These criteria constitute the basis for the direction of training actions.
Phase II. Direction of training actions, for the direction of the Physical Education area in preschool childhood.
For the foundation of the second phase, we start from the social demands on primary childhood, which demand from this a favorable position towards change and constant improvement; in this endeavor, the preparation of the collectives or groups of educators that make it up plays a decisive role. This reality, valid for any type of children's institution, currently reaches a special connotation in early childhood, as this is the first link in the national education system that children receive in the country.
This requires children's institutions to become the nucleus for the direction of the training of their educators, reinforcing their condition as a center for the transmission of culture in their context or social environment. All this makes it go from the perspective of the permanent and continuous training of the educational agents who work in it, to the conception of an open institution, in close interrelation with the community and with the rest of the educational, sports, scientific and educational institutions. surrounding cultures and the places where the "Educate your Son" program takes place and the self-employed workers who are dedicated to caring for children in the community; In this sense, it helps training in the direction of the Physical Education area.
To this end, it is proposed that children's institutions focus attention on the direction of the training of their educators, related to the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, through a system that proposes actions by three basic routes: the coordinating team, the group of educators and the different educational agencies. That is, in individual training, through directed self-improvement, and collective training, through collaborative complementation in the group, the most effective ways, forms and methods are conceived and, among them, that of research, to reach a higher state, in correspondence with the conditions of the environment and with the full participation of all, in order to achieve the transformations that allow the comprehensive training of the educators, without abandoning the development of the preparatory actions that they may be carrying out outside of this, combined with harmonic way.
This training must take into consideration the needs, interests and potential of the educators, in order to directly influence the transformation of their professional performance, relying on interdisciplinarity, in the content of the training, from considering the new forms of knowledge transmission that are committed to the integration of the different training areas. Everything to allow educators to learn to see reality in an integral way and related to the direction of the Physical Education area and its influence on the educational process, integrating the contents that the child needs to achieve motor development and its contribution to a fuller and higher quality education, as the main task in the context of this research.
All of the above, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a general culture in the educators, firstly, and to meet the needs in the theoretical order and, later, to emphasize their practical domain; That is, to establish the necessary links between theory and practice in the systematization of the actions and operations that make up the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, that give a concrete response to the demands that society imposes at this educational level.
In line with the theoretical assumptions raised, two fundamental guidelines are established for the organization of the direction of training actions:
Destined to satisfy the needs that educators present in the theoretical order. It includes actions for completion, improvement or updating of knowledge in a more specialized training. It covers aspects of postural, physiological, anatomical, therapeutic, biomechanical, pedagogical, psychological, didactic development and sports initiation from a playful approach, around the teaching of quality Physical Education.
Practical systematization of actions, for the direction of the Physical Education area in preschool childhood
Intended for the practical application of systematized theoretical knowledge, it implies the development of actions that allow educators to contrast, organize and integrate the objectives, contents and materials of each area; This is done from a systematization register where qualitative methods used in this study are shown. It is specified what to consider in this guideline for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education as part of the educational process in preschool childhood: identification of potentialities of the Physical Education area, to integrate content from the different areas; dosage of the Physical Education area, by integrating content from the different areas; planning of the Physical Education area, by integrating content from the different areas; execution of activities in the area of Physical Education, by integrating content from the different areas and control of the area of Physical Education, by integrating the content of the different areas.
With the use of the systemic and functional structural method, the roles that are manifested in the interpersonal relationships that occur in the training model for educators are determined for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in childhood preschool, as well as the links that are manifested between them. Elements that provide greater strength in the field of training to these educational theories and introduce a new role to be played by the professors of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" (UPR), the coordinating team, then stated as fundamental roles of training educators, with emphasis on the area of Physical Education:
Coordinating team, made up of at least the teachers / tutors of the UPR, a director of the children's institution, the Physical Education methodologists of the National Institute of Sports, Physical Education and Recreation (INDER) and Preschool Education. The teachers / tutors are represented by the teachers who teach Physical Education in the Bachelor's Degree in Preschool Education, in the initial and permanent training in said teaching. They have the responsibility of advising the preschool educators and carrying out the training actions; For this they must have specific knowledge of Physical Education and its methodology. In addition, they have the teaching function of motivating and promoting the independent and autonomous learning of a student (educators who are trained), or of the group where they are inserted.
Physical Education methodologists are those teachers who are specialists in this educational process, with the ability to guide and evaluate the educators of this educational level who carry out this activity. Early childhood methodologists are educators with training in different areas. They guarantee the organization, orientation and control of the curriculum at this educational level.
The managers are in charge in the children's institution to plan and control the training of the educators.
The group of educators, for its part, has as a social task the comprehensive education of children and the preparation of the family. It is the recipient of the model; therefore, the training process is structured around them.
In characterizing this group, it is essential to take into account: type of training, level of physical abilities and capacities, psychological development, mastery in locomotion, learning strategies, motivations, professional performance mode, precision in body response, motor coordination, precision in movements and communication skills, among others.
In the development of the training process, the equality of responsibilities of all those involved plays a determining role: UPR, children's institutions and other socializing agencies such as INDER and the educations of the different levels, among others. In this sense, their integration acts as a basic condition for the desired success.
The actions carried out by the educators in the direction of the Physical Education area fall on the preschool child, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood.
To support the third plane, a strategy is conceived that takes place in four stages:
Stage I. Planning
This stage is related to the actions that are necessary to ensure the design of the forms of organization of training, in its dialectical relationship with self-improvement, directed from the diagnosis of the educators and the direction of the Physical Education area, such as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, in the municipality of Pinar del Río, in correspondence with the interests of early childhood, the methodology of Physical Education and Advanced Education, as well as the material and human assurance for its implementation.
Stage II. Diagnosis
The implementation of the strategy based on the diagnosis allows promoting a favorable transformation of the training process of preschool educators, from adapting the execution of immediate actions to what it is proposed to achieve in the long term, aimed at modifying attitudes of those involved, to transform erroneous behaviors, to promote motivation and participation from a new perspective, stimulated by the awareness of the existing difficulties, the lack of training and the existence of possibilities in the UPR to offer answers to such needs.
Stage III. Execution of specific strategic actions
Having structured the fundamental ideas of the training model to be implemented, the diagnostic information allows us to gain clarity about the assumptions that initially base the need for its implementation, from which four specific strategic actions are proposed:
Specific strategic action 1. Preparation of the coordinating team
Objective: to train the coordinating team that participates in the research, from an integrative perspective and the elaboration of an interdisciplinary work in the projection of the actions aimed at the diagnosis, dosage, planning, execution and evaluation of the Direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood.
For this, the following operations are carried out:
Specific strategic action 2. Guides for targeted self-improvement
Objective: to systematize self-improvement aimed at preschool educators for the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process from the infant institution, through individual and group activities, which allow the educators to learn during educational practice.
To do this, the following operations are carried out:
Specific strategic action 3. Specialized conferences
Objective: to systematize the contents for the direction of the Physical Education area, based on the proposal of specialized conferences with an interdisciplinary nature.
For this, the following operations are carried out:
Specific strategic action 4. Integrative workshops with an interdisciplinary nature
Objective: to systematize the contents for the direction of the Physical Education area, based on the proposal of interdisciplinary workshops.
To do this, the following operations are carried out:
Specific strategic action 5. Manual of procedures for the individual preparation of educators.
Objective: to offer guidance to educators on the theoretical and practical aspects of the direction of the educational process from Physical Education, to achieve interdisciplinarity with the rest of the areas of the curriculum.
For this, the following operations are carried out:
Stage IV. Total evaluation of the strategy
Objective: direct the control of the process and assessment of the results in the application of each of the specific strategic actions.
To do this, the following actions are developed:
Based on these results, a final characterization of the educators is carried out, in order to determine the aspects in which they must continue training to fulfill their social task more efficiently, which is to achieve the integral development of the child as a whole.
Coinciding with the methodological specifications of Physical Education and Sport for All (2019-2020), of INDER (2019) in Cuba, referring to: "Strengthening the preparation of educators, promoters and executors in the area of Physical Education in their two types of care: institutional (kindergartens and preschool classrooms in primary schools) and non-institutional or Educa a your child Program "(p10), it is also considered the relevance of explicitly declaring, from the governing documents of early childhood, especially from the Early Childhood Education Plan (MES, 2017), as a result of the III Improvement of the National Education System; "Attention to the differentiated character that must characterize the training of all early childhood educational agents" (p 6). From these precepts the present investigation is channeled.
For this to be effective, it is required to establish coordinated relationships with all social sectors, the educators, the children's institution and the community, in order to ensure that the training transitions from basic training to a more specialized training, which has the method as its center. scientist for the comprehensive analysis of phenomena.
All this from individual directed training and collective training, from collaborative complementation, intensive, systematic practice in and from the children's institution, through the different forms and contents used, to improve professional performance and professionalization of these resources' humans and in tune with the curricular changes that are already implemented experimentally in early childhood; that contribute to the integral development of educators.
This work coincides with Blanco (2008), Infante & Breijo (2017), regarding conceiving training to improve the professional performance of human resources; in this case of the educators, to promote the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood. The training of educators is also considered as a systemic, planned, flexible and coherent process with their professional performance, in which children's institutions become agencies of excellence in training that manifests interdisciplinarity and research for the transformation of the actions of the educators, as protagonists of the own process that they develop. For this to be effective, the University, to respond to the dynamics of the educational reality of the educators in the direction of the Physical Education area as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, must direct postgraduate education, in order to resolve the fundamental contradiction that occurs. In this sense, it must contribute to meeting the needs of educators through permanent and continuous training, a consequence of social development and multilateral progress of human resources; that is to say, so that they can take on the new and constant changes that occur throughout their professional lives, which require the incorporation of more qualified specialists.
There is coincidence in terms of recognizing the legal institutionalization of postgraduate education through the Graduate Regulations of the Ministry of Higher Education of the Republic of Cuba (RM 140/2019), (MES, 2019), when establishing the concept of special training state interest, aimed at reaching higher levels of efficiency, quality and achieving an impact on the preparation for the improvement of the work performance of the cadres and workers in the services they provide. It is also included in this research that, in order to contribute to the development of training for educators on the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, it is necessary to start from the diagnosis of learning needs and potentialities individual training of each of the educators, as well as compliance with the individual development plan of each of them, which must be prepared based on their learning needs and with the intention of knowing the training received and its related content.
It agrees with Zayas, Valcárcel & Vento, (2019) in that the training of educators on the direction of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood, must guarantee the articulation of knowledge in the cognitive, procedural order and attitudinal, with an interdisciplinary nature, which contributes to the professional and human improvement of the aforementioned professionals, as well as to the responsibility and commitment to their permanent and continuous training. It is also added to promote a training that, from its content and its organizational structure, offers educators the knowledge, skills, values and methodological tools that allow them to assume their work from all areas of the institutional curriculum and from other organizational forms complementary curricular and extracurricular, to fulfill its social mandate: the integral education of the children and the preparation of the family.
In the present work, the materialist dialectic acts as a methodological scientific basis for the analysis of the object from each of its parts, to finally look for interrelationships and complexities in its integration. Next, the authors theorize some fundamental ideas about training educators.
The training of educators for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, is defined as a permanent and continuous process, based on the needs and potential of the educators they have an address; The professional and human improvement from an integrated teaching of knowledge, skills, values in a developing environment from collaborative complementation, intensive, systematic practice in and from the children's institution in a personalized way, fosters a change in the professional performance of the professional referrals.
In the training of educators for the improvement of the direction of the area of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, the interdisciplinary approach of the contents of the training for the area of Physical Education is revealed. This process not only works on cognitive problems but also on the skills and values associated with the profession of educators, based on the harmonious relationship between the direction of the Physical Education area, the educational process in preschool childhood and their training.
In the training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, regularities typical of the models are identified, such as: they establish theoretical bases related to the contributions of science; In this research, the training of educators for the direction of the Physical Education area from the educational process in preschool childhood is based on the theory of Advanced Education; They are structured through the purpose, the phases, the guidelines and the actions that refer to the implementation in the educational practice, from the process of diagnosing problems and potentialities, in the research that is carried out, related to the training of educators for management from the area of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood and establish relationships and links that manifest the inter and transdisciplinary link, for the improvement of the professional and human aspects of human resources.
The training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of the Physical Education area, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, based on these regularities, is defined as: abstraction process that, supported by The principles of Physical Education, Early Childhood and Advanced Education, allow the organization, development, evaluation of their permanent and continuous training and professionalization for the direction of the Physical Education area in the educational process of preschool childhood; It is structured from the purposes and phases planned in the training actions that promote the improvement in the professional and in the human, from establishing interdisciplinary links, identifying the problems and potentialities of the children's context, as well as the inclusion of the directed self-improvement and collaborative complementation from educational practice.
The training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, is scientifically managed by the coordinating team, and is the fundamental link that guarantees the functional dynamics between children's institutions and other socializing agencies, for training educators on the direction of the area of Physical Education and acts as a basic condition for the desired success.
The training model for educators for the improvement of the direction of Physical Education, as part of the educational process in preschool childhood in Pinar del Río, takes place in three planes that reflect the coordination relationships between how they carry out the direction of the educational process in preschool childhood and the area of Physical Education, dependency relations between the coordinating team, the educators and the socializing agencies that participate in the training in a collaborative complementation in a personal and collective way, and the subordination relations between the training actions carried out and What transformation must be achieved in the actions of the educators, call it the pedagogical performance of the educators. All this is achieved from the link of training as the basis of the integral formation of the child in the different areas of development; That is why when these relationships are worked on, internal logical coherence is offered from Pedagogy to these educational theories.
In these relationships, the meaning that Advanced Education offers to the definition of its object of study prevails: professional and human improvement from the different organizational forms of improvement and / or training, which favors a change in the professional performance of the educators; in this case, in the direction of the area of Physical Education in the educational process, so that in each one of them new qualities appear, which indicate if the educators need to include other methodological elements for the development of the educators.
The proposed model surpasses the acting one, by offering a training program, guides for directed self-improvement, specialized conferences and integrative workshops. Everything is organized by stages, objectives, specific strategic actions and operations to specify the major activities to be undertaken; promotes the practical-interdisciplinary nature that considers the methodological actions of the educators who intervene, based on directed self-improvement, collaborative complementation and intensive and systematic practice in and from the children's institution in preschool childhood, through the different forms of training used.
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Conflict of interest:
Authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Rasciel de la Caridad Zayas Acosta, Juan Francisco Pérez Torres, Faustino Camejo León, Gustavo Pacheco Ruíz