Mendive. Journal on Education, july-september 2021; 19(3): 778-793
Translated from the original in Spanish
Alternatives for professional pedagogical guidance by the psychopedagogue in 9th grade
Alternativas para la orientación profesional pedagógica por el psicopedagogo en 9no grado
Alternativas de orientação pedagógica profissional pelo psicopedagogo do 9º ano
Yoanis Arango Pérez1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8369-4110
Graciela Ramos Romero2 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0713-3549
1 Middle School "26 de Julio". Santiago de Cuba. Cuba. email@example.com
2 University of Oriente. Santiago de Cuba. Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: April 5th, 2021.
Approved: June 16 th, 2021.
With the intention of guaranteeing the training and development of future education professionals, the process of Pedagogical Professional orientation is carried out. In practice, there were limitations in its development, specifically in basic secondary schools and in particular in the "José Luis Tassende" of Santiago de Cuba, so this research was carried out with the aim of proposing alternatives to the psycho pedagogue to carry out Professional Pedagogical Guidance with the 9 th grade students. The theoretical foundations of this problem were systematized with their respective criticism by the author. A diagnosis was made using theoretical methods (analytical-synthetic, inductive-deductive, historical-logical, critical analysis of sources and systemic-structural-functional), empirical (observation, documentary analysis, survey of students and teachers, interview to students and teachers ) and the percentage calculation was used as a mathematical method, all of them demonstrated the existence of the determined professional problem and justified the application of the proposed alternatives, which can be generalized to the remaining 9 th grade groups of the institution, since its partial application corroborated the feasibility and viability of the proposal; evidencing favorable changes and substantial transformations in those involved in the investigative process due to the professional guidance work carried out by the psycho pedagogue, this reaffirms the usefulness and relevance of the proposed solution to the professional problem.
Keywords: orientation; professional orientation; Pedagogical Professional Orientation.
Con la intencionalidad de garantizar la formación y el desarrollo de los futuros profesionales de la educación, se lleva a cabo el proceso de Orientación Profesional Pedagógica. En la práctica, se apreciaron limitaciones en su desarrollo, específicamente en las Secundarias Básicas y en particular en la "José Luis Tassende" de Santiago de Cuba, por lo que se realizó esta investigación con el objetivo de proponer alternativas al psicopedagogo para realizar la Orientación Profesional Pedagógica con los estudiantes de 9no grado. Los fundamentos teóricos de esta problemática fueron sistematizados con su respectiva crítica por parte del autor. Se realizó un diagnóstico en el que se emplearon métodos teóricos (analítico-sintético, inductivo-deductivo, histórico-lógico, análisis crítico de fuentes y sistémico-estructural-funcional), empíricos (observación, análisis documental, encuesta a estudiantes y profesores, entrevista a estudiantes y docentes) y como método matemático se empleó el cálculo porcentual; todos demostraron la existencia del problema profesional determinado y justificaron la aplicación de las alternativas propuestas, las que pueden generalizarse a los restantes grupos de 9no grado de la institución, ya que su aplicación parcial corroboró la factibilidad y viabilidad de la propuesta; evidenciándose cambios favorables y sustanciales transformaciones en los implicados en el proceso investigativo por la labor de orientación profesional realizada por el psicopedagogo. Esto reafirma la utilidad y pertinencia de la propuesta de solución al problema profesional.
Palabras clave: orientación; orientación profesional; Orientación Profesional Pedagógica.
Com o intuito de garantir a formação e o desenvolvimento dos futuros profissionais da educação, é realizado o processo de Orientação Pedagógica Profissional. Na prática, houve limitações no seu desenvolvimento, especificamente nas Escolas Secundárias Básicas e em particular no "José Luis Tassende" de Santiago de Cuba, pelo que esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de propor alternativas ao psicopedagogo para realizar a Orientação Profissional Pedagógico com alunos do 9º ano. Os fundamentos teóricos desse problema foram sistematizados com as respectivas críticas do autor. O diagnóstico foi realizado por meio de métodos teóricos (analítico-sintético, indutivo-dedutivo, histórico-lógico, análise crítica de fontes e sistêmico-estrutural-funcional), empírico (observação, análise documental, inquérito a alunos e professores, entrevista a alunos e professores ) e como método matemático foi utilizado o cálculo percentual; Todos demonstraram a existência do determinado problema profissional e justificaram a aplicação das alternativas propostas, que podem ser generalizadas para as demais turmas do 9º ano da instituição, uma vez que sua aplicação parcial corroborou a viabilidade e viabilidade da proposta; evidenciando mudanças favoráveis e transformações substanciais nos envolvidos no processo investigativo devido ao trabalho de orientação profissional realizado pelo psicopedagogo. Isso reafirma a utilidade e relevância da solução proposta para o problema profissional.
Palavras-chave: orientação; orientação profissional; Orientação Pedagógica Profissional.
In today's Cuban society, there is a need to ensure that enrollments in different specialties and careers are in line with the demands of the economy and society; To guarantee that vocational training and professional orientation that is developed from primary education, in conjunction with production and service organizations with the participation of the family, enhance the recognition of qualified technicians and workers (Velázquez, 2020).
Professional guidance is conceived as a process of pedagogical help, aimed at offering adolescents and young people general and specialized information about the different professions, linking social needs with the vocational interests of the subjects, which allows them at the appropriate time selection of your future profession.
In the general and specialized scientific literature, in most cases professional orientation is addressed as a process prior to the selection, by students, of their future profession; however, it is also recognized as a process inherent to the stage of completion of the studies of the selected profession. Adequate professional orientation favors the development of motivation and professional reaffirmation, understood as the inclination of the subject towards a specific professional activity, taking into account the presence of interests, positive feelings and projects around this sphere of reality, which guide and they adequately regulate their behavior towards the tasks that are inherent to them.
On the professions there are different theoretical approaches. The concept of profession is socially constructed, in relation to the economic, cultural and ideological development of each country and contextualized in each territory. As it can be seen, professions have significant importance, since they allow the reproduction of society and, even more, the constant advancement and improvement of the country, in relation to the specific historical-social conditions and personal satisfaction (Chang, R . et to the. 2020).
The orientation as a function is controversial, since it falls in the plane of psychology and, therefore, some authors separate the counseling required of the psychologist as a trained specialist for it, the pedagogic guidance that can make the teacher and teacher Guidance, as a generalizing action, has an eminently educational character and is aimed at providing specialized help, accompaniment, in professional and human growth, in decision- making (Almenares, M. et al., 2020).
Among the actions of orientation as a professional pedagogical function are, among others, orientation to study activity, vocational or professional orientation and pedagogical orientation to the family, so this function has interdependent relationships with the teaching - methodological function. There are orientation actions that can be carried out in groups and others that require individualized attention (Delgado Guevara, E. & García Pérez, E., 2018; Barrera, I. et al., 2018).
In order to successfully carry out this function, the teacher needs, once the orientation area and the subject (s) to be guided are specified, seek information about the individual and/or group problem, as well as the family and the community in that the school is located, to answer the necessary questions that allow making objective analyzes around the problems of the subjects. This implies a process of characterization and diagnosis, as a necessary basis for an adequate pedagogical orientation.
The guiding work of the teacher is developed in all his work, both instructive and educational, but always in teaching the subjects have educational potentialities that are explicit or implicit. In both circumstances, the teacher must work to exploit these guiding potentialities of the content (Hernández, J. et al., 2018).
For their part, Doctors Kenia González González and Ramón Pla López consider that professional guidance is an aspect of the teaching - educational process that is still controversial; so much so that it is a problem that cannot be solved in the current Cuban school, in which efforts are made, and where only discrete results are achieved; That is why it is necessary to investigate this matter from the conception of the professional - pedagogical mode of action.
The study from this approach implies an enrichment of the conceptual, procedural, motivational and attitudinal components of the mode of action to give a specific treatment to the Professional Pedagogical Guidance (OPP).
It is a subjective configuration of the personality, whose representation responds to a specific profession on which the student is consciously oriented.
To achieve this it is important to consider:
1. The role of the educational institution.
2. Avoid formality, the external plane.
3. Systematic motivation.
4. A flexible and personalized process.
5. Develop professional intentions.
6. Consider the contradictions, frustrations, questions of the student.
7. Encourage the relationship between professional motivation and choice of profession.
In career guidance it is very important to consider:
Stages of career guidance:
1. Stage of General Vocational Formation. It manifests itself at an early age with the formation of interests and general knowledge. It is very difficult to find development of professional interests at this stage, although the child may speak of his intention to study one or another career. It can be said that this stage develops, essentially, during the first six or eight grades.
2. Stage of preparation for professional selection. In this stage, the work is directed to the development of cognitive interests, knowledge and specific skills, which are derived from those subjects or spheres of knowledge and social work towards which the adolescent has been showing inclinations or preferences. It will be necessary to prepare the student for self-determined professional selection, which guarantees the commitment of the subject with his selection and a subjective condition capable of facing the obstacles that will arise in the professional training process.
3. Stage of the formation and development of professional interests and abilities. This stage begins with the entrance of the adolescent or young person to the professional education center (middle or higher), where it is essential that the student develops interests towards the content of the profession and assimilates the essential professional knowledge and skills for their insertion in the workplace. The fundamental objective of the stage would be the achievement of professional identity, to which the entire curricular system must contribute. That is to say, in this stage the professional orientation acquires special characteristics that are expressed in the professional approach of the teaching - educational process.
The professional counselor must have extensive knowledge of these stages in order to develop his function, in correspondence with the demands that each one of them demands.
Career guidance work must address two fundamental directions:
The class constitutes the fundamental cell of the teaching - educational process , where professional guidance is developed through teaching, extra-teaching, extracurricular activities, in palaces, pioneer countryside, circles of interest and other routes, in correspondence with the level of education and, especially in the classroom, which is the interactive teacher-student space where the level of professional guidance can be raised the most, especially in the Computer class, which offers ample potential to develop it in all its dimensions.
This process is crystallized in Basic Secondary, as this is a determining link in the student's professional decision-making and that will decisively influence the determination of the career he chooses at the pre-university level. For this reason, it is necessary to specify a work strategy that allows the student, at the end of basic secondary school, to be in a position to choose the required profession according to their possibilities.
Professional guidance must also be supported by carrying out extra-teaching activities in which the student has the opportunity to analyze, discuss, and raise concerns about their future professional work, which will contribute to developing their knowledge, their active position, and their reflective capacity. In the analysis of the problems related to the profession, leading to a development of their professional self-determination.
These activities should constitute positive experiences for the students, so they should not be carried out formally; this implies the need for the adequate selection of teachers who direct these activities, who must be selected from among those with the greatest experience and professional prestige (Hernández Quesada, BA; Cardoso Barreras, MT & Thompson Zulueta, DT, 2018).
For these activities to meet their educational objectives, small, stable groups must be organized, which allow the development of positive affective relationships between their members and the teachers who direct them, so that adequate communication is established in the group and the student values this activity as useful and necessary for their professional training and not as an imposed activity of a formal nature. These groups constitute an effective way for individualized attention to the professional training of students.
In Cuba there have been many studies related to vocational training, orientation, motivation and professional reaffirmation. The contributions obtained have been of great value in the theoretical and methodological order for working with adolescents; criteria that have been used to base all the final work carried out in the sphere of orientation towards the pedagogical profession to date (Ronda, Oro; Infante Ricardo, AI & Pérez Almaguer, 2017) (Reyes, I. and Segura, R., 2019).
On the other hand, in the eastern territory governed by the University of Oriente, in direct articulation with the Ministry of Education (MINED), attention is given to matters related to the professional orientation of students entering pedagogical careers. In this sense, various scientific works are recognized through research projects, doctoral theses, masters and postgraduate specialties; as well as scientific-student works in the undergraduate of various pedagogical careers.
Relevant authors include in Santiago de Cuba, experts, tutors specialists who excel in the epistemological approach of this problem in educational institutions, such as: Caballero, AM; Matos, Z.; Mariño, J.; Ferrer, N.; Justis L.; Noriega, L., among others.
These researchers convey actions, programs, strategies, methodologies, conceptions and pedagogical models of great value for this work, where the importance of these results in the investigative activity in the affective-motivational sphere of the personality is weighed.
These authors, in their works, have assumed theoretical- conceptual positions regarding the orientation towards the pedagogical profession, providing scientific results that have been introduced into educational practice, in order to improve the training process, through the implementation of strategies that favor the adequate vocational training and professional orientation of the students of the institution and of other centers and levels of education (Velázquez, K. 2020).
The Vocational Guidance Education is a process that ensures the formation and development of future education professionals. The pedagogical professional performance mode defined by Pla (2001) is then assumed as:
The way of directing the pedagogical process, determined by the particularities of the pedagogical activity is formed and was structured to from the sequence of generalized actions to follow the teaching in its activity for its mission to educate, including the study, design, and driving, social interaction and further distinguished of the pedagogical process. As a stable and regular configuration, it needs the training and development of professional skills, expressed in capacities, motivations, attitudes and personality qualities, which give it its individual character.
For educational change, it is necessary to increase the responsibility of educational directors, promote self-reflection on their professional activity, determine successes and errors create the need to make modifications and, consequently, achieve their involvement in changing points of view and mode of action, in order to obtain greater efficiency in the work of education, all of which needs an adequate Professional Pedagogical Guidance (Ricardo Díaz, N.; Teruel-Torres, NT & Pérez Almaguer, R., 2018).
These approaches lead to reflect on the Professional Pedagogical Guidance as a multifactorial phenomenon in which the integrated work of the school, the family and the different socializing agents must be merged in which the relationship of help to the subjects is decisive for the process of familiarization, selection, study and performance of the pedagogical profession.
The Vocational Guidance Education through the following steps:
I. Familiarization with the pedagogical profession (development of inclinations, preferences towards the teaching profession).
II. Teaching vocational choice (development of motivations for the teaching profession and the process of choosing teaching career).
III. Study of the pedagogical profession.
IV. Professional pedagogical practice implies professional pedagogical reaffirmation.
Based on the references addressed, this author assumes Professional Pedagogical Guidance as: " a special type of professional guidance that, being a systematic and planned process of specialized help, is aimed at students learning to know themselves, to explore the pedagogical opportunities and to make professional decisions that support their professional pedagogical projects".
The study from this approach implies an enrichment of the conceptual, procedural, motivational and attitudinal components to give a specific treatment to the Pedagogical Professional Guidance (Ramos, G. and Despaigne, M., 2015).
Epistemological referents analyzed about Vocational Guidance Education detected limitations that manifest in the Secondary School " José Luis Tassende " with 9 no , grade students such as:
This situation allows for an investigation with the aim of alternatives propose to the psychologist for the Orientation Professional Education with students of 9no grade.
This purpose reveals the importance of the orientation for human growth as address for their development, and the significance of this work in the Basic Secondary , to achieve high coherence between the desired levels into the future profession selectable students and the action of teachers, specialists and managers to develop needs, interests and professional motives, specifically pedagogical, based on the social commission assigned to this institution for the actions they carry out in their daily professional activity.
From this perspective the importance and effectiveness with alternative proposals for development and / or resizing is meant Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9no grade of the Secondary School "José Luis Tassende".
MATERIALS AND METHODS
IT was only possible to achieve the aim of the research conducted by obtaining information accessed by theoretical methods and empirical methods and techniques, with the subsequent mathematical analysis at the necessary moments. This determined the selection and application of the following methods:
- Analytical-synthetic: when considering theoretical sources enabled further the object of study, as well as assessments of the results obtained with the implementation of the proposed alternatives.
- Inductive-deductive to infer relationships between contexts investigated.
- Historical and logical: Used for the study of the historical background that characterize the Vocational Guidance Education in Basic Secondary students.
- Critical analysis of sources: it was used for the study of sources, from analytical and critical positions.
- Systemic structural-functional: Allowed the design of the pedagogical approach and strategy for determining its subsystems, functions and relationships.
- Observation: to activities carried out by psycho pedagogues to verify the treatment of Professional Pedagogical Guidance.
- Documentary analysis: It was used in the review of syllabuses of 9no grade and psycho pedagogues documents, to verify treatment vocational guidance.
- Survey and interview with students: with the objective of detecting the knowledge that they possessed about professional orientation.
- Survey and interview teachers: To assess the knowledge and how they perform Orientation Professional Education.
Among the mathematical methods the percentage calculation was used, for the analysis of the results obtained in the diagnosis and assessment of the feasibility of the proposed alternatives.
The research methodology was applied flexibly, assessing its application in other contexts and complying with the ethical standards required for research of this nature.
A diagnosis was made with the aim of analyzing the particularities of Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9no grade and quality in the Secondary School "José Luis Tasende" from the role of the psychologist in the school.
The indicators of the diagnosis were:
It was used as population 17 teachers (100 %), an educational psychologist (100 %) and 264 (100 %) students of 9no grade and as a sign seven teachers (33.7 %), which are those that teach the subject Spanish in the grade, the school psycho pedagogue (100 %) and 89 students (29.6 %), considering that they are the groups with the greatest difficulties in the orientation order for their teachers.
Graph 1- Population and sample
Observation of classes and other activities show difficulties that warn that this practice needs improvement in this regard. For instance:
Of the teachers surveyed, only three (37.5 %) were able to provide some answers to apparent knowledge about the Education Professional Orientation, answers were generally oriented guidance and from quantitative criteria.
Students also demonstrate adequate Professional Education Orientation, as there is insufficient evidence of an intention in this regard.
In the documentary analysis, subject programs, lesson plans and Ministerial Resolution 306 of 2009 were reviewed.
The results of the interviews carried out are in correspondence with those obtained in the previous methods and techniques. Only two of the teachers were able to offer some theoretical information about Professional Education Orientation; the remaining answers correspond to the limitations indicated, also in the case of students.
None of the applied methods shows the involvement of the family and other institutions in this direction.
With the application of the methods used in diagnosing scientific research problem was ratified on How to contribute to raising the quality of Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9 no grade of the Secondary School "José Luis Tassende" ?
The results of the factual and causal diagnosis justify the need to introduce into pedagogical practice the alternatives that promote the development of Professional Pedagogical Orientation of Basic Secondary students towards pedagogical careers.
In general, it is found in pedagogical practice that the work in this sense is still insufficient, since in most cases the teacher limits himself to imparting knowledge without a sufficient professional approach where the involvement of the student as the main protagonist of the process is evidenced of Pedagogical Professional Orientation, wasting the potential offered by the class and other activities carried out by the institution. The results of the diagnosis serve as support for the proposal of the alternatives that are offered.
Alternatives for Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9no grade
As has already been stated in the theoretical references addressed, Professional Pedagogical Guidance constitutes a process in which several subjects are involved and requires demands that guarantee its effectiveness.
The diagnosis performed showed the current shortcomings in this process at 9no grade of the Secondary School "José Luis Tassende", which justified the development of alternatives for Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9 no grade, with the objective of: to offer activities that contribute to raising the quality of Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9no grade of the Secondary school "José Luis Tasende" from the perspective of the functions of the psychologist in the school.
Requirements to favor the alternatives:
Feasible: by the possibility of being applied in the training process of the Basic Secondary, adapting it to the specific conditions of students during their professional orientation.
Flexible: for their ability to adjust to change, corresponding to the conditions they may have or take in students and teachers of 9 no grade.
Integrators: integrates dynamically actions, at all times of the alternatives, guidelines and essential elements of student motivation toward the future professional's profile.
Psycho educational: allows the transformation of the direction of the process of Education Professional Orientation, on the database methods, procedures, methods and techniques, for training and personality development of the learner at a particular time, in particular their interests and professional pedagogical reasons.
Systematic: the conception of the alternatives is developed in a determined time, in an orderly manner, based on the interrelation that exists between its components: general objective, psycho-pedagogical activities and actions, following a specific order with precision and clarity; Each new action or activity that must be carried out depends on what has been achieved in the previous one and, in turn, is the basis for the subsequent one.
Finally, this researcher wishes to insist on the need for the alternatives to develop harmoniously and to show unity between them.
The score on the Orientation Professional Education, implemented after alternatives are made from the same indicators used for diagnosis, with the following results:
The quality of Vocational Guidance Education with students of 9 no grade:
Regarding the work done for the Professional Pedagogical Guidance in the school:
The proposed alternatives were applied following a working algorithm that allowed strengthening the Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9 no grade of Secondary School "José Luis Tassende", so that compliance is favored for the purpose of research conducted .
To carry out this work, the works of:
In the work of Cancio, E. et al. (2018) it was found a breadth in the deepening of the methodology used that starts from the dialectical-materialist approach as a general method, which is also the foundation of the article. It was possible to tell a vision, which was shared, on the principles, laws and categories of Professional Pedagogical Guidance.
From its study the research methods, the theoretical ones: analytical-synthetic, inductive-deductive and historical-logical, were shared , but mainly the use of modeling is valued to project the educational strategy that contributes, the determination of its essential features and the relationship between its components, on the basis of the model operating in Basic Secondary.
Also observation highlights for monitoring the process of Orientation Professional Education, analysis documentary for obtaining information related to the process in documents such as: basic Secondary Model, document " ABC of the process of Vocational Training and Vocational Guidance Education", study programs, Ministerial Resolutions and reports, among others.
This work delves into the process of Pedagogical Professional Guidance from a multifactorial approach, which takes into account the decisive influence of different contexts of action such as the family, the community, student and mass organizations (OPJM, FEEM, FEU, UJC, PCC, CTC, FMC, CDR), to achieve the expected success in Orientation Professional Education .
These references were taken into consideration in the work carried out, as a starting point for the elaboration of the system of actions that the psycho pedagogue proposes to carry out, which was not found in the work of Cancio and others.
The work of Velasquez-Saldarriaga has as objective research: to analyze the importance of counseling in education.
This work has a wide international theoretical deepening, related to the work of professional guidance of the psycho pedagogue, which values as support to all the educational work of the school institution, since it encourages teachers to guide educational activities from the first years of schooling until the human being reaches maturity, manages to adapt to changes, knows himself and can direct his life determining positive actions; thus, reaching self-realization, that is, the experiences of students affect educational development.
Among its references, it considers guiding the educational work in the best way, since it is immersed in a diversity of criteria, values, vision, objectives and life intentions, etc.
Theoretical deepening on orientation includes various models of orientation; the psycho pedagogical is one of them.
It is recognized that it delves into guidance, but does not insist on Professional Pedagogical Guidance and neither does it offer actions aimed at this purpose. In this aspect, the present article assumes their budgets, but what it exceeds the determination of actions to be performed by psycho pedagogues or with students to develop their professional motivation teaching.
It is recognized in this work conducting activities aimed at Vocational Guidance Education with students of 9ne grade of the Secondary School " José Luis Tassende", which was shown by carrying out various activities to this end, such as creating groups interested in the pedagogical profession, the selection of monitors and the holding of events with them, as well as class festivals, among others. This work had been carried out spontaneously and without the required systematic, so alternatives for Vocational Guidance Education in students of 9 no grade are new to the work presented.
After Implemented the alternatives they have been achieved superior results, towering preparing teachers for Orientation Professional Education, which is served during classes and are the result of graduate courses conducted. Students' knowledge of pedagogical careers and great pedagogues was also expanded. This has been favored by visits to this career at the Universidad de Oriente. The level of participation that has been achieved by the family, the community and the political and mass organizations in the activities carried out is very important.
Although we must continue to implement alternatives for Vocational Guidance Education by educational psychologist in 9no grade, it is considered that the proposals have helped to overcome the work done until this research was conducted.
The assumed theory from the philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical has been integral to the Vocational Guidance Education and work of the psychologist 9no grade, as theoretical support to the proposed alternatives, which have significant value for its novelty and its application in practice.
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Conflict of interest:
Authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.
Yoanis Arango Pérez: Conception of the idea, general advice on the topic addressed, literature search and review, translation of terms or information obtained, preparation of instruments, application of instruments, compilation of information resulting from the applied instruments, statistical analysis, preparation of tables, graphics and images, database preparation, writing of the original (first version), review and final version of the article, correction of the article, review of the applied bibliographic standard.
Graciela Ramos Romero::Conception of the idea, general advice on the topic addressed, literature search and review, translation of terms or information obtained, preparation of instruments, application of instruments, compilation of information resulting from the applied instruments, statistical analysis, preparation of tables, graphics and images, database preparation, writing of the original (first version), review and final version of the article, correction of the article, review of the applied bibliographic standard.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
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