Education in crisis situations, emerging pedagogies and teaching strategies. A bibliographical approach

Mendive. Journal on Education, april-june 2022; 20(2): 692-701

Translated from the original in Spanish

Review article

Education in crisis situations, emerging pedagogies and teaching strategies. A bibliographical approach


Educación en situaciones de crisis, pedagogías emergentes y estrategias docentes. Una aproximación bibliográfica


Educação em situações de crise, pedagogias emergentes e estratégias de ensino. Uma abordagem bibliográfica


Pedro Luis González Rivera1
1Universidad Politécnica Salesiana: Guayaquil, Guayas, Ecuador.


Received: September 07th, 2021.
Accepted: October 19th, 2021.



The complexity of the current context, accentuated by the global pandemic, has caused substantial changes in educational activity. Precisely, the objective of the work was aimed at assessing, from the analysis of bibliographic sources, essential aspects of the current situation of education and the different strategies derived from emerging pedagogies. The methodology was based on bibliographic research, which made it possible to recognize the content of a selection of publications on educational processes. The results reaffirmed that the development of innovative thinking from emerging pedagogies should be reflected in the various strategies within the framework of the teaching process, in order to make possible the readjustment in the operation of educational institutions in the post-pandemic stage. The conclusions summarized basic ideas on the context, emerging pedagogies and strategies for educational institutions to assume their leading role in the transformation of society.

Keywords: education in crisis situations; emergent pedagogies; teaching strategies.


La complejidad del contexto actual, acentuada por la pandemia global, ha provocado cambios sustanciales en la actividad educativa. Precisamente, el objetivo del trabajo se dirigió a valorar, desde el análisis de las fuentes bibliográficas, aspectos esenciales de la situación actual de la educación y las diversas estrategias derivadas de las pedagogías emergentes. La metodología se apoyó en la investigación bibliográfica, que permitió reconocer el contenido de una selección de publicaciones sobre los procesos educativos. Los resultados reafirmaron que el desarrollo del pensamiento innovador desde las pedagogías emergentes se debe reflejar en las diversas estrategias en el marco del proceso docente, para hacer posible la readecuación en el funcionamiento de las instituciones educativas en la etapa de postpandemia. En las conclusiones se resumieron ideas básicas sobre el contexto, las pedagogías emergentes y las estrategias para que las instituciones educativas puedan asumir su rol protagónico en la transformación de la sociedad.

Palabras clave: educación en situaciones de crisis; pedagogías emergentes; estrategias docentes.


A complexidade do contexto atual, acentuado pela pandemia global, tem provocado mudanças substanciais na atividade educativa. Precisamente, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar, a partir da análise de fontes bibliográficas, aspectos essenciais da situação atual da educação e das diversas estratégias derivadas das pedagogias emergentes. A metodologia foi apoiada por pesquisa bibliográfica, que permitiu reconhecer o conteúdo de uma seleção de publicações sobre processos educativos. Os resultados reafirmaram que o desenvolvimento do pensamento inovador a partir das pedagogias emergentes deve se refletir nas diversas estratégias no âmbito do processo de ensino, para possibilitar a readequação do funcionamento das instituições de ensino na fase pós-pandemia. Nas conclusões, foram sintetizadas ideias básicas sobre o contexto, pedagogias emergentes e estratégias para que as instituições educacionais possam assumir seu papel de protagonistas na transformação da sociedade.

Palavras-chave: educação em situações de crise; pedagogias emergentes; estratégias de ensino.



The complexity of the current context, accentuated by the global pandemic of COVID-19, demands certain changes in the substantive processes that take place in educational institutions, due to the transition from the face-to-face system to teaching with several variants that include virtual or blended teaching activities. This has made it necessary to put into practice the so-called emerging pedagogies, in order to make certain adaptations in the educational teaching process, so that educational institutions can continue to assume a leading role in the progressive transformation of society and thus contribute to the preservation of the human species.

Precisely, the objective of the work was aimed at assessing, from the analysis of bibliographic sources, essential aspects of the current situation of education and the various strategies derived from emerging pedagogies. For this purpose, it was convenient to apply the bibliographic approach in the research process of this educational reality, which allowed combining the use of a variety of methods and techniques in the documentary research and made possible the inquiry treatment around the topic. From the above, fundamental questions arise: what are the updated criteria on current education, emerging pedagogies and teaching strategies? What are the possibilities offered by innovative teaching strategies derived from emerging pedagogies in the integral education of students in the current context?

Thus, the importance of the study of the subject is framed in the need to investigate the current state of education, as well as the introduction of teaching strategies with an innovative approach to emerging pedagogies, in an increasingly changing global environment.

The methodology used was based on bibliographic research, which made it possible to recognize the content of a selection of publications on educational processes. In this sense, the bibliographic analysis favored the approach to the particularities of the application of certain strategies with an innovative approach, which make student learning possible. In general, publications in journals, books and other scientific dissemination media were analyzed. Of the total number of works, 59% were published in the last four years, which evidences the manifest topicality of the sources consulted. Similarly, the works analyzed corresponded to 50 authors, including individual and corporate authors such as UNESCO. The publications were published in 11 countries, 46% of which corresponded to developed countries and the rest to Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Similarly, the qualitative study made possible the analysis and synthesis of the main criteria expressed in the sources consulted. In this sense, we inquired about elements related to the understanding of the extraordinary diversity of points of view expressed in the sources, which are dialectically complemented with the factors that stipulate the humanistic approach to the processes of educational transformation in the current situation.

This makes it possible to assume certain positions to confront underlying phenomena that influence the development of educational work, such as issues arising from discrimination due to access to wealth, ethnic differences or gender issues. In this area, an important role is assigned to inclusive, quality, equitable and lifelong education. The conceptualization of strategies acquires new characteristics in the most current conditions of education, marked by catastrophic situations such as the health and survival crisis unleashed by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this direction, it is convenient to explore the current state of the social function of education.



The main results of the bibliographic study had as a starting point the background of the object of study that favored obtaining criteria for the diagnosis of the situation of education for several decades. In this sense, the discussion on the crisis of the school as a social institution (Bernal, 2009) and the treatment of cardinal issues such as citizenship education and human rights (Equipo Praxis, 2011) are interesting. However, in the assessment of this issue it is necessary to take into account various aspects, such as approaches based on the contextualization of the Sociology of Education and its object of study (Castillo, 2012). This includes the dialectical interrelation between social processes and the school institution, education as a social process, the social function of education, as well as the school's capacity to adapt to changes in social reality. To the above are added conflictive situations of strong impact on the school in the digital era, related to technology and violence (Castro, 2012).

More recently, the need to reinvent the school has been recurrently raised, according to Francesco Tonucci (2020). Today, the critical situation of the traditional pedagogical model is clearly reflected in the school institution. For UNESCO, the criteria for education in crisis situations state that armed conflicts, natural disasters and pandemics prevent millions of children from attending school, and the number of children affected for these reasons continues to increase. It has set among its objectives to promote more resilient and adapted education systems to cope with armed conflicts, social problems and natural disasters, as well as to ensure that education is sustained in the midst of crisis situations, during and after armed conflicts (UNESCO, n.d.).

It has also been proposed to strengthen education systems during crisis situations, to direct messages that save the lives of children and their families; to protect children and young people from aggression, abuse and exploitation; to reinforce peace building and provide children with physical and psychological security, as well as to strengthen resilience and social cohesion among different communities, from the crucial role in sustainable reconstruction (UNESCO, n.d.).

At the end of March 2020, it was estimated that more than 1.6 billion children and young people were not attending school in 161 countries due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Saavedra, 2020). The application of such precepts implies the need to consider essential aspects regarding teaching strategies and their application in the new conditions. In the Americas and the Caribbean, the impacts, policy responses and recommendations of COVID-19 in Higher Education have been analyzed, with a balance from the immediate effects to the day after (UNESCO, May 2020; Pedro , June 11, 2020).

UNESCO's Assistant Director-General for Education stated that:

   To be frank, we must admit that we were not prepared for a disruption on such a scale. Almost overnight, schools and universities around the world closed their doors, affecting 1.57 billion students in 191 countries. This unprecedented situation has cascading consequences in the lives of students, whether they are studying abroad or at home (Giannini, 2020).

The debate on strategies in the teaching framework has covered a wide spectrum of points of view for several decades. Thus, the criteria on strategies in the training of professionals acquire extraordinary dimensions since, according to de la Torre and Violant (2001), creative strategies in teaching should be prioritized, where the role of the innovative teacher is decisive, seen mainly from their role as social agents in charge of the education of human talent.

Based on the studies of Dí az Barriga (2002), regarding the conceptualization of strategies, it has been pointed out that they can be considered as the following

   Actions planned by the teacher with the objective that the student achieves the construction of learning and attains the objectives set. A didactic strategy is, in a strict sense, an organized, formalized procedure oriented to the achievement of a clearly established goal. Its application in daily practice requires the improvement of procedures and techniques whose detailed choice and design are the responsibility of the teacher (UNED, 2013).

The Education 2030 goals, expressed in the Incheon Declaration, were projected towards inclusive, equitable and quality education and lifelong learning for all (UNESCO, 2016). Undoubtedly, in teacher training, both in the initial stage and permanently, strategies for preparation in University Didactics should be prioritized based on institutional development criteria (Gonza lez, 2016).

The diversity of types of strategies in the teaching practice evidences the growing interest in developing educational actions to favor students' learning in various directions. This issue has provoked the debate between innovative and traditional didactic trends in the debated field of social sciences teaching (Dí az, 2019).

For authors such as A lvarez-A lvarez, C. & Pascual-Dí ez, J. (2019), didactic strategies around reading in teacher training in the initial phase can have a favorable impact on the teaching practices of future teachers in the classroom. Similarly, the idea about the role of the inclusion of didactic strategies in university teaching and learning processes has been reinforced (Casasola, 2020), as well as strategic actions aimed at the relationship between entrepreneurship and the development of logical thinking in university students (Gonza lez, Herna ndez, & Sabino, 2020).

In recent times, studies have intensified on certain experiences about the situation caused in teaching by the COVID-19 pandemic, with the transition from the classroom to the virtual university classroom (de Vincenzi, 2020) or in the search for equity in learning (Estrada, 2020). For their part, Mun oz and Lluch (2020) analyzed the collaboration of families in school tasks in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

From the problems of education, in recent decades a variety of concepts have emerged that have come to be called emerging pedagogies, with their concretization in innovative didactic strategies, without ignoring the background of such actions. These pedagogical conceptions have been studied from different angles; Nunez, Villamor, Longueira and Prats (2016) made a critical observation of emerging pedagogies from the angle of democratic teacher training.

Mora-Vicarioli, F. & Salazar-Blanco, K. (2019) set out to make a contribution to the topic of emerging pedagogies and their applicability to the e-learning context, taking into account the potentialities offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for academic processes.

Aparicio-Go mez and Ostos-Ortiz (2020) refer to emerging pedagogies, based on the analysis of the historical evolution of learning and teaching technologies from Antiquity to the present times with the use of ICT and connectivism. Garcí a Del Pozo, Paredes and Del Pozo (2018), study MOOCs as an emerging technology and pedagogy for the democratization of knowledge.

The most recent didactic strategies suggest taking into account aspects related to the Lesson Study (LS) methodology, which involves the analysis of educational practices in the classroom, the development of interpersonal relationships and habits, as well as learning tools. In its realization, attention is paid to the performance of individual and group activities. Its purpose is aimed not only at observing students' mistakes and difficulties, but also at reinforcing their autonomy and encouraging teamwork. (EDUCATION 3.0., 2020).

Similarly, the so-called Virtual Learning Communities are considered spaces in which participants cooperate and interact actively in the joint construction of previously defined learning objectives. As a strategy, it enables less isolation of students through the execution of shared tasks as part of the virtual and systematic encounter with their teachers and other students (EDUCATION 3.0., 2020).

An innovative strategy focuses on Game-Based Learning, which favors the introduction of games as a learning tool, whether analog or digital, in the virtual classroom space. For its part, the theory of multiple intelligences of the American psychologist Howard Gardner provides strategies based on the proposal of the eight intelligences associated with cognitive, linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, kinestheticcorporal, naturalistic, intrapersonal and interpersonal abilities (EDUCATION 3.0., 2020).

In turn, Thinking Based Learning (TBL) has been considered as a significant strategy to facilitate the development of learners' ability to learn to be good thinkers. This set of actions enables the process of logical and critical thinking, both in and out of school. In particular, the strategies for the development of Visual

Thinking are based on the use of graphic resources that enable the understanding of concepts and ideas and their purpose is focused on the student achieving the transformation of a textual or audiovisual content into graphic representations to achieve a more efficient understanding. In the development of visual thinking, the development of mind maps, logical schemes or other forms of graphic representation of knowledge may be appropriate (EDUCATION 3.0., 2020).

Another variant that can be used in current teaching is presented through Inquiry-Based Learning, considered as a useful teaching strategy in any subject and educational level, with numerous advantages for student learning. In the same vein, Problem-Based Learning assumes certain elements very similar to the previous strategy, since it aims, through research and discussion of a real problem, to activate the learning process of the learner.

The term Homeschooling refers to a teaching strategy that focuses on the recognition of the role of the family in the educational task, such as homeschooling or family schooling (EDUCATION 3.0, 2020). Its essence lies in the challenge assumed by the members of the household, outside the traditional educational model, for the education of their children. In this way, the family circle assumes direct responsibility for the integral education of their descendants (EDUCATION 3.0, 2020).

A significant mention is expressed in the so-called Service-Learning, considered as a strategy that privileges the connection between the learning process and the community, using concrete projects. In this way, students will be able to link the curricular contents with certain services to the closest social environment. This favors the fulfillment of certain objectives in the necessary citizenship training of children and young people (EDUCATION 3.0, 2020).

Similarly, there is a fairly broad consensus on the benefits offered by cooperative learning as a planned strategy to achieve the objectives set. A requirement in this sense is expressed in the need for the teacher to achieve adequate programming and for the students to be adequately prepared. From there, a system of actions that guarantees the cooperative work of the members of the small groups must be achieved (EDUCATION 3.0, 2020).



The updated criteria on current education, emerging pedagogies and teaching strategies, from the evaluation of the bibliographic sources consulted, show the importance of assuming the current crisis of education from a positive and developing approach, which makes it possible to assume the reincorporation and restructuring of the educational systems.

In the current context, new trends in educational processes have been manifested, in line with the new conditions of health emergency and other economic and social problems accumulated over decades. The social approach to education has been noticeably manifested in the new demands in the development of contemporary humanity, with a considerable weight of virtuality in the teaching-learning process.

The development of innovative pedagogical thinking from emerging pedagogies reflects the need to implement the various strategies associated with such developing pedagogical ideas, within the framework of the teaching process, in order to make possible the readjustment in the functioning of institutions in the postpandemic stage.

It is noticeable that both strategies and innovation have become recurrent concepts in the current pedagogical discourse, reaching significant levels in the work of teachers at all educational levels in the current global health crisis.

The application of strategies derived from emerging pedagogies has led to the implementation of various procedures in the pedagogical process, with the support of Information and Communication Technologies. This acquires an innovative approach according to the new needs of blended or hybrid teaching. The variety of strategies to be taken into account offers a wide range of possibilities within the framework of the students' formative processes.

Of course, the strategies proposed do not exhaust the wide arsenal of possibilities that can be implemented in the current circumstances. Some authors promote actions based on connectivism, referring to the variety of strategies to be used with the support of technologies.



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Conflict of interest:

The authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.


Authors´ Contribution:

The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.


This work is under a
licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Pedro Luis González Rivera