Mendive. Journal on Education,april-june 2021; 19(2): 418-431
Translated from the original in Spanish
Strategy of professional orientation towards agricultural careers in Pre-university
Estrategia de orientación profesional hacia las carreras agropecuarias en Preuniversitario
Estratégia de orientação profissional para carreiras agrícolas e pecuárias no Pré-universitário
Danigsia Larrondo Chacón1 http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2270-5530
1University of Oriente. Guama University center. Cuba. email@example.com
Received: September 30th, 2020.
Approved: March 23rd, 2021.
The present investigation arose due to the need to solve the problem of insufficiencies in the process of professional orientation towards agricultural careers in pre-university education. The main objective of this work is to design a strategy to improve the professional orientation process towards the agricultural specialties of higher education. The dialectical-materialist method was assumed as the general method, which supports the theoretical and empirical methods used. The results highlight current shortcomings in the professional guidance received by pre-university students and present a career guidance strategy that favors this process. The proposal was an effective way to increase the motivation of students towards agricultural specialties, as long as the extracurricular actions designed are developed in close connection with the curricular ones. It is applied at the Israel Pardo Guerra Pre university School "in the Guamá municipality. The proposal is pertinent because it responds to a social need, it offers the possibility of integrating the school, family and community factors under specific conditions of the territory, as well as the active participation of its actors, where each one assumes their role in a conscious way.
Keywords: community; school; strategy; family; professional orientation.
La presente investigación surgió debido a la necesidad de resolver el problema de las insuficiencias en el proceso de orientación profesional hacia las carreras agropecuarias en la educación preuniversitaria. Constituye el objetivo principal de este trabajo diseñar una estrategia para perfeccionar el proceso de orientación profesional hacia las especialidades agropecuarias de la educación superior. Se asumió como método general el dialéctico-materialista, que sustenta los métodos teóricos y empíricos utilizados. En los resultados se destacan insuficiencias actuales en la orientación profesional que reciben los estudiantes del nivel preuniversitario y se presenta una estrategia de orientación profesional que favorece dicho proceso. La propuesta constituyó una vía eficaz para incrementar la motivación de los estudiantes hacia las especialidades agropecuarias, en tanto las acciones extracurriculares diseñadas se desarrollen en estrecho vínculo con las curriculares. La misma se aplica en el preuniversitario "Israel Pardo Guerra" del municipio Guamá. La propuesta es pertinente porque responde a una necesidad social, ofrece la posibilidad de integración de los factores escuela, familia y comunidad bajo condiciones concretas del territorio, así como la participación activa de sus actores, donde cada uno asume su rol de manera consciente.
Palabras clave: comunidad; escuela; estrategia; familia; orientación profesional.
A presente investigação surgiu devido à necessidade de resolver o problema das insuficiências no processo de orientação profissional para carreiras agrícolas e pecuárias no ensino pré-universitário. O principal objectivo deste trabalho é conceber uma estratégia para melhorar o processo de orientação profissional para as especialidades agrícolas no ensino superior. O método dialético-materialista foi assumido como método geral, que apoia os métodos teóricos e empíricos utilizados. Nos resultados, destacam-se as atuais insuficiências na orientação profissional recebida pelos estudantes do nível pré-universitário e apresenta-se uma estratégia de orientação profissional que favorece este processo. A proposta constituiu uma forma eficaz de aumentar a motivação dos estudantes para as especialidades agrícolas, desde que as ações extracurriculares concebidas sejam desenvolvidas em estreita ligação com as curriculares. É aplicado no pré-universitário "Israel Pardo Guerra" do município de Guamá. A proposta é pertinente porque responde a uma necessidade social, oferece a possibilidade de integração de fatores escolares, familiares e comunitários em condições concretas do território, bem como a participação ativa dos seus atores, onde cada um assume o seu papel de forma consciente.
Palavras-chave: comunidade; escola; estratégia; família; orientação profissional.
In Cuba, attention to professional orientation has been a task of the first order since the triumph of the Revolution.
In this regard, in the guideline No.160 of the Project of Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of Cuba (2016) it is stated: "To project the training of a qualified workforce in correspondence with the current demands and the development of the country, to which it is necessary to correct the deformations that the structure of the training of higher-level specialists, middle technicians and qualified workers presents today" (Communist Party of Cuba, 2016).
The foregoing evidences the priority given by the Cuban State and Government to educational development.
Agricultural careers are considered a social priority due to their importance, if one takes into account that Cuba, as an agricultural country, needs to develop agriculture, which has been depressed in recent years, also causing the deficit of the qualified labor force for this sphere of production.
The professional orientation activities allow students to make a conscious choice of their profession, based on the needs of each territory.
However, in the Guamá municipality, despite the efforts made, such purposes are not fulfilled, since on many occasions the entry plans to agricultural careers are not complied with, the students who enroll do so with low levels of motivation and identification with the career and in others the students leave in the first years and some, after graduating, look for other sources of employment and do not practice their profession.
This situation has within its causes: the existence of shortcomings in the process of vocational guidance is carried out in pre-university education, the limited information students have about agricultural careers and their characteristics, disinterest and lack of motivation towards this group of careers, poor use of the potentialities of the classes to form professional interests in students, apathy of the family towards agricultural careers, protected by their ignorance; In addition, there are shortcomings in the professionalism of teachers for the management of this process, which are manifested both in the order of their pedagogical preparation, as well as in their professional performance.
Although agricultural professional guidance is a process that can be conceived and directed from different school and extracurricular settings, the most important, without a doubt, is the one that is carried out systematically from the curriculum subjects themselves, an issue addressed by authors such as Despaigne (2010); Domínguez, Betancourt and Becalli (2016); Pérez (2017); Espinosa, Villanueva and Rodríguez (2018); Hernández, Becalli and Rouco (2018), Dueñas, Sánchez A, Rodríguez, A, (2018) and Mestre and Lazo (2018), who highlight the role of the teacher and assign the class a leading role in the professional guidance process, as well as the process of agricultural vocational training in pre-university students.
It cannot be lost sight of the fact that the professional orientation carried out in the pre-university education stage has the essential purpose of achieving the preparation of the student to select a certain career and identify with it; that is, creating true interests and emotional ties with the future profession, which requires offering the necessary help to successfully face and solve the conflicts that this complex process generates.
The school in this process is not alone, it prepares, coordinates and systematizes the work with the rest of the contexts of significant action (family, community, social, political and student organizations), so that they can positively influence the students in the career guidance process.
It is valid to highlight the value of organizing the process of agricultural professional guidance in a coherent way; As it means, in addition to the interaction between the actions, the determination of elements that, in the author's opinion, are key to the proper performance of the aforementioned process, they are: the actors who will lead it, the forms to be used for the development of the activities, the content to be discussed and the contexts to be used.
The research is carried out from the detection of deficiencies in professional motivation towards higher-level agricultural specialties presented by pre-university students and their limitations to fulfill their social mandate.
In this way, this research constituted an effective way to increase the motivation of students towards agricultural specialties, as long as the extracurricular actions designed are developed in close connection with the curricular ones. It is applied at the "Israel Pardo Guerra" pre university School in the Guamá municipality. The proposal is pertinent because it responds to a social need, it offers the possibility of integrating the school, family and community factors under specific conditions of the territory, as well as the active participation of its actors, where each one consciously assumes their role.
The main objective of this work is to design a strategy to improve the professional orientation process towards the agricultural specialties of higher education.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research is based on the materialist dialectic, taking assumptions from quantitative and qualitative research, which allowed the conception of the process of agricultural professional guidance in all its complexity.
The research process was supported by the theoretical methods of system approach, analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction to systematize and develop the career guidance strategy with its components and relationships. In addition, the empirical methods of observation, student and teacher survey, documentary review, and manager interview were used to characterize and assess the career guidance process.
Research is contextualized in pre - university education in the municipality of Guama province Santiago de Cuba, with the population 10 th grade of the Pre - University Institute "Israel Pardo Guerra" with an enrollment of 166 students, of which a sample was chosen from 55 students, which represents 33.13 %. In addition, a sample of nine teachers of the same grade was taken, three with more than five years of experience, four with more than three years of experience, and two graduates.
The criterion for the selection of the sample was intentional, since the initial grade of this education is the one that meets the ideal characteristics for agricultural professional guidance work and where this process materializes, which allows its verification more easily.
Through the use of scientific methods, the application, processing and interpretation of the data obtained yielded the following results:
The strategy designed as a scientific result, which improves the professional orientation process towards agricultural specialties, consists of three stages:
1. First Stage. Definition of interests and needs.
2 Stage professional guidance.
3. Stage of reaffirmation of its choice of study, related to the agricultural profession.
It is necessary to emphasize that the strategy, its components, relationships, rationale and specific actions, aimed at improving professional orientation towards agricultural specialties, are the main novelties of this work.
In conceptualizing the strategy for the development of the process of professional orientation towards agricultural careers in students 10th grade of the Mixed Center "Israel Pardo Guerra" were taken into account the criteria set by a group of researchers, In different educational contexts, they have provided defining elements in terms of strategy as a scientific result; such is the case of: De Armas & Valle (2011); López, Martínez & Carbonell (2013); Tejeiro, Pérez & Rodríguez (2014); Ochoa & Borroto (2015); Camejo, Rojas & Camejo (2016).
However, this research grants new qualities to the understanding of the process under study: professional orientation towards agricultural specialties, providing new elements in the conception of the strategy that is presented:
Conceiving this process of professional orientation towards agricultural specialties, from this point of view, means giving new perspectives to the understanding of this process in its relationships with other concepts that are linked, from the theoretical and the practical, to the subject.
The proposed strategy expresses the interrelation between the pedagogical process and the professional guidance process, taking into account its elements, relationships and stages through which it passes.
Similarly the problem, the resources that are available, alternative programs, organizational structure and systematic preparation of personnel influences individual analysis to accept changes flexibly and thus will operate are defined.
It is conceived and designed from the participation of key stakeholders: students and teachers from 10 grade, so it is the result of participatory action-research.
The strategy is also characterized by a series of general requirements that respond to the current demands of the teaching - educational process in the training and orientation of future professionals:
- Objectivity. It is objective because the actions arise from the result of the diagnosis applied and the needs of preparing teachers to guide effectively the teaching professional interests.
- Applicability: It is possible to be applied, adapted to the specific conditions of each site or region, it is easy to use by all those involved in it.
- Flexibility: It is susceptible to change, their ability to redesign argument in correspondence with the results of the diagnosis, goals and needs.
- Contextualized Character: The actions are able to adapt to the characteristics of each school teachers.
- Experiential Character: The experiences of teachers and students are important and permanent elements of the system content.
- Character of the system: The design of the strategy of the interrelationship between its components, diagnostics, general and particular objective, steps, actions and evaluation.
Consequently, the strategy is designed with the following structure:
Professional orientation strategy towards agricultural careers
Objective: To contribute to improving the process of professional orientation towards Agricultural careers in senior high school students, from the systematic preparation of these circles of agricultural interest analysis sessions and debates on the subject and involvement in joint actions with school, family and community.
Stages of the strategy
The proposed strategy consists of three stages
1. First Stage. Defining interests and needs
The starting point is the study of the particularities of adolescents, the determination of their needs and interests, as well as their potential.
Objective: to determine the current state of interests and needs of students, school, family and community in relation to professional orientation towards agricultural careers.
In this stage of the strategy, the first phase of the work is complemented where their needs and potentialities are detected in the adolescent; it is from these results that the possibilities of the same to guide their professional training are evaluated, taking into account the necessary conditions for said process.
Taking into consideration the criteria expressed by the different factors, the following are defined as necessary conditions for this professional guidance process at this stage:
Preparation of all those involved (educational and agricultural managers, teachers, students, family members and other community participants).
The change in attitude of the family constitutes an important premise for the strategy to fulfill its purpose. This change can manifest itself in a number of ways:
Teachers must play an active role in the evaluation of this condition and in the execution of actions aimed at raising the level of preparation and family support in the process of orientation towards this profession, which will lead to a more protagonist and conscious participation of the family in it.
An important moment of this stage is to ensure the levels of interrelation between the pre university Institute, the Municipal University Center and the Agricultural Company, which should positively influence the preparation of teachers in the establishment of the material base of specialized study, where favorable conditions are guaranteed in the environmental, emotional and professional order that motivate and guarantee the attraction of students and satisfy their perspectives and interests for the profession.
Actions. Methodological suggestions
Identify the professional interests of adolescents and the community environment
The professional interests of the students and the family are diagnosed, which will provide the essential elements between these factors that interact with each other.
This reveals the needs and potential of the students, family and community in this profile, which will allow us to make decisions.
The actions corresponding to this stage are updated in the period of September-October, during the familiarization stage of each school year as part of the pedagogical delivery process, which will serve to update the vocational interests of the students and redesign the actions to undertake.
This moment must be preceded by a direct, systematic and intuitive observation by teachers and other factors involved. The observation will allow to collect criteria of how students' self- assessment of this profession is manifested, their development during activities, their analysis and reflections on our object of study, their potentialities, abilities and real possibilities, their levels of communication, responsibility and, finally, his personal training and development of this, manifested in his way of acting.
The exchange with the family and the community in general constitutes a fundamental link to know their points of view and commit them in their cooperation with the success of the strategy.
Provide guidance on the agricultural profession. Preparation alternatives offered by the community school together with the community
Taking into account that at this stage of personality development there is an urgent need to reinforce the professional orientation of students to contribute to the success of their future professional selection, the teacher and other factors have to operate as guidance based on their experiences and knowledge about the profession and exchanges made during the training in question. Also exploiting, in the case of teachers, the potentialities of the contents of classes and extra- teaching activities, where circles of interest and scientific societies play an important role.
In this orientation process, the support of the pedagogical group, the family and the community in general is decisive, which must be able to integrate the potentialities with the conditions and possibilities offered by the pedagogical process itself.
To guarantee this action, it is essential to achieve the training of teachers in the basic and elementary contents of the agricultural branch and in this way they would be in a position to guide students about this profession using the development of the content of their classes as a way, linking them with our object of study, the organization and development with efficiency of the programs of scientific societies and circle of agricultural interest; all this in coordination with the Municipal University Center.
Exchange with students about their motivations, needs and professional possibilities
For this exchange with the students, the information they have on the different professions that are developed in the different work centers of the territory where the school is located and their places of residence will be used, specifying those in greatest demand at the present time. For the success of this action, it is important to carry out a systematic action on the motivation of schoolchildren so that they remain stimulated and if not, carry out an individualized analysis of the causes that originate it to be able to address it successfully.
2. Stage for career guidance
Objective: to develop practical skills through the use of different alternatives and work areas, which guarantee the preparation of students in the agricultural profession.
In this second moment, the following aspects must be taken into account:
Actions and methodological suggestions
Build, promote and develop specialized basic areas based on the cooperation and leadership of all factors
Work will be done on the construction of organoponics, compost, vermiculture, a garden of medicinal plants and a variety garden, where a high economic culture prevails and advances in agricultural technology are applied, which will allow them to develop their capacities, abilities and skills, forming habits and work discipline that will allow to reinforce professional orientation.
Prepare students in the agricultural profile
Its purpose is to prepare students in transit through the previous actions with respect to this profile.
Visits will be made to the Municipal University Center, the University of East and different agricultural centers, standing out the importance of each. In the Municipal University Center, exhibitions will be mounted based on the productions obtained in the territory and the specialized study material base that they have, where extensive information will be offered on the techniques and procedures used in obtaining the productions with high scientific rigor.
In addition, visits will be held to peasants and workers who have children in high school, performing exchange with them, extending the visit to farmers who have their children studying at the University of East and the Municipal University Center
Familiarizing students with the Municipal University Center (CUM) the community enterprises
This action will be performed since 10th grade from the coordination established between the institutions involved.
To use audiovisual programs for the treatment of other aspects related to the agricultural profession
The observation of videos in the subjects of Chemistry, Biology and Geography allows to enter into some aspects of great interest for the specialty of Agronomy, these can reinforce knowledge and processes that are developed in it and also put them in contact with different plans and agricultural investigations, where the student will have the opportunity to learn about other aspects of the profession in a more interesting way.
Evaluate the results achieved in the familiarization process with the agricultural profession
At the end of this stage, an evaluation will be carried out by the commission created for this purpose of each of the students involved, highlighting the behavior of the indicators previously raised for each component that is analyzed and especially how they have evolved, their motivation in the activities, degree of responsibility, industriousness and potential in this profession.
It is important to always start from the student's self- evaluation, which should be guided in a simple way by the teacher.
Select and locate the career on the career request slip
This will depend on the effectiveness of the actions carried out previously and is the responsibility of the commissions created in the territory and in the school in particular.
It will take into account the characteristics of the family, interests, personal expectations, and the state of his volitional and affective sphere, among others.
To prepare the family and community context for the study of the agricultural career
Its purpose is to guide the family and the community in general about this profession, its possibilities and potentialities in the order of the formation of the personality of the new generations, the importance and contribution to the development of our Socialist Revolution.
To fulfill this purpose, an orientation program for the family and community representatives is recommended.
3. Stage of reaffirmation of its choice of study, related to the agricultural profession
Objective: to guarantee the conscious incorporation of students and their permanence in agricultural careers and the support and monitoring of students incorporated into agricultural careers.
During the development of this stage it is important that each student has the support of the family, the new school and the community in general, that they feel stimulated, motivated and committed to their selection, with a high level of responsibility and affection.
The conscious choice, from its auto valuation and motivational state by profession, is a process whose complexity is a challenge and a challenge to the pre - university, in order to ensure their permanence and continuity, as in this new center it will continue with the professional orientation work.
It is necessary that, at different times, the teaching group that oriented them towards the profession, share with them in the new institution, taking advantage of the spaces offered by the morning, productive, cultural and recreational days, student assemblies, emulation checks, thesis and graduation acts, where all the factors involved in this purpose are counted on.
The success of the stage depends, to a large extent, on the educational and guiding function of the family and the community, as well as the support of the pedagogical group of the new center as an essential condition to reinforce and support the decision of the students.
The pre- experiment was developed according to the following phases:
1. Initial finding
2. Introduction of the pedagogical strategy
3. Final finding
It is assumed for this phase the diagnosing results of the initial finding; after completing the initial verification expressed in the results of the diagnosis, the actions of the strategy were applied.
First, a general workshop is held with all the members of the sample, in which they are informed of what the strategy will consist of, what elements will be taken into account in its implementation, the duration of the strategy, the stages and actions, the contents to be treated, how the evaluation of the stages will be carried out, as well as the results of the initial verification diagnosis.
In a second moment, an assessment of the existing problems is carried out based on their own criteria in educational practice.
Teachers and managers received significant preparation through an advanced course on career guidance. The personal involvement and willingness with which they incorporated the concrete actions planned created a very pleasant atmosphere during the work.
Of the 55 families selected, 31, for 56.3 % also received their guidance in workshops and parent meetings, where techniques for professional guidance and comments based on a series of aspects related to the agricultural profession were applied. The results were satisfactory, since in their opinion they rated the workshops as very important for them and also that they learned questions that had never been explained to them about the agricultural specialty, the characteristics of the study plan and the possibilities of their children.
The actions carried out in agricultural centers of the community had the participation of professors from the Pre-university and the CUM of the territory, as well as political and mass organizations inserted in the school and community. Community Work was performed and visits to farmers with school - age children in the pre - university level. Discussions and analysis were held about agricultural careers, which was very well received by the families of these communities. A very positive dialogue was established and they expressed their points of view on the subject.
The use of specialists in the locality in activities and workshops preparation of the agents involved in the use of the strategy obtained that 95.3% of participants would appropriate the necessary knowledge to develop vocational orientation towards the agronomy engineering career.
It is achieved that 94.3% of teachers and administrators show the necessary preparation for creating circles of interest, scientific societies, organization of professional activities, the use of educational media support in the Information and Communications Technologies, as well as in the didactic way of organizing activities with the participation of specialists.
It is possible to increase the motivation for the Agronomy Engineering career from a low level (0 %) to medium represented by 17 students, which constitutes 30.9% of the total, a result that indicates the progressiveness of the transformation achieved by the application of the strategy of professional orientation towards the planned career for students of the upper secondary education level.
83.6 % (46) of the students showed an adequate selection of the contents of the subjects they receive with the contents of agronomy, establishing links with the economic and social development of the territory, signifying the importance and need to carry out agronomy studies.
At the end of the activities, each of the teachers evaluated the strategy through the elaborated rating scale of 1 (ineffective), 2 (not very effective), 3 (effective), bearing in mind the knowledge received. The results obtained were the following: six teachers evaluated it as 3, two of them evaluated it as 2 and one evaluated it as 1, because they consider this task unimportant from the IPUEC; argue that interests should be developed when the student is already inserted in the university, in the same way they consider that preparation is not achieved overnight, that they need time to systematize the knowledge received.
It is evidenced as a positive aspect that, from the strategy implemented with teachers and students in educational practice, an increase in the levels of professional interest of the students was obtained, an aspect that corroborates the effectiveness of the proposal in practice.
The interpretations made constitute elements of confirmation of the formulated scientific problem; as from the implementation of the strategy, a better professional orientation towards the agricultural specialties of the students of the pre-university where the pre- experiment was developed was favored. Similarly, the extent to which strengthened and deepened, the participants came to express their conviction that, when applying it in educational practice, their actions conduct to the transformation of the existing state and therefore significantly increases the Pre-university students orientation towards the career and, in correspondence with this, the possibilities of choosing the career for these students are greater, with which it has a positive impact on the National Education System of the country.
The current development of education in the Guatemalan territory and the changes that have occurred in the mountainous areas in recent years, as well as the accumulated experiences and the results achieved so far in career guidance work, demonstrate the need to prioritize careers farming as one of the specialties most needed in the territory.
The professional guidance strategy developed is pertinent because it responds to a social need, offers the possibility of integrating school, family and community factors under specific conditions of the territory, as well as the active participation of its actors, where each one assumes their role of consciously and in a multiplying dynamic of actions, projection and evaluation of its results.
Furthermore, with the implementation of the strategy greater preparation of teachers and managers was achieved to develop efficiently, the process of professional, Guidance towards agricultural careers, achieving an increase in interest, motivation, increased uptake of students to participate in agricultural scientific societies, as well as in the selection of this career group.
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Conflict of interest:
Author declares not to have any conflicts of interest.
The author assumed individually the elaboration of this article.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Danigsia Larrondo Chacón