Extraclasses system activities to contribute to the process of Teaching Vocational Guidance in the pre-university

Mendive. Journal on Education, january-march 2021; 19(1):227-245

Translated from the original in Spanish

Extraclasses system activities to contribute to the process of Teaching Vocational Guidance in the pre-university


Sistema de actividades extraclases para contribuir al proceso de Orientación Profesional Pedagógica en el preuniversitario


Sistema de atividades extraclasses para contribuir para o processo de orientação profissional pedagógica na educação pré-universitária


Lázara Raymelys Martínez Hernández1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3514-9986
Isbel Barrera Cabrera1

1 University of Pinar del Rio "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca". Cuba. lazara.martinezh@upr.edu.cu , isbel.barrera@upr.edu.cu


Received: August 31th, 2020.
Approved: February 1st, 2021.



The article is part of the research project entitled: Vocational and professional orientation in lower secondary and upper secondary education, in correspondence with the needs of local development in Pinar del Río. Its objective was to develop a system of extra-class activities that contributes to the process of professional pedagogical guidance in the high schools of the municipality of Pinar del Río. It is an experimental investigation, in its pre-experiment variants, in which the dialectical-materialist method was assumed as a methodological basis, which supported the use of theoretical level methods, used in the determination of theoretical referents; Methods of the empirical level were used, which together made it possible to verify the initial state of the problem. Descriptive statistics techniques were used in the processing of the information. The system of extra-class activities is based on a system of principles, based on which extra-teaching and extra-curricular activities are developed that allow modeling the process of pedagogical professional guidance. Its implementation in practice made it possible to obtain a more organized, systematic and systemic process, where the joint work of the degree teachers allowed the students to appropriate the content related to the pedagogical profession and the work of the teacher, awakening interests and motivations for pedagogical careers, which shows the validity of the proposal.

Keywords: extra-class activities; professional pedagogical guidance; system.


El artículo forma parte del proyecto de investigación titulado "La orientación vocacional y profesional en la educación media básica y media superior, en correspondencia con las necesidades del desarrollo local en Pinar del Río". Tuvo como objetivo elaborar un sistema de actividades extraclases que contribuya al proceso de orientación profesional pedagógica en los preuniversitarios del municipio de Pinar del Río. Es una investigación experimental, en su variante preexperimento, en la que se asumió como base metodológica el método dialéctico-materialista, que sustentó el empleo de métodos del nivel teórico, utilizados en la determinación de los referentes teóricos; se emplearon métodos del nivel empírico, que en su conjunto permitieron constatar el estado inicial del problema. En el procesamiento de la información fueron utilizadas técnicas de la estadística descriptiva. El sistema de actividades extraclases se sustenta en un sistema de principios, a partir de los cuales se elaboran actividades extradocentes y extraescolares que permiten modelar el proceso de orientación profesional pedagógica. Su implementación en la práctica posibilitó obtener un proceso más organizado, sistemático y sistémico, donde el trabajo conjunto de los profesores del grado permitió que los estudiantes se apropiaran de los contenidos relacionados con la profesión pedagógica y labor del docente, despertando intereses y motivaciones por las carreras pedagógicas, lo que demuestra la validez de la propuesta.

Palabras clave: actividades extraclases; orientación profesional pedagógica; sistema.


O artigo faz parte do projeto de investigação intitulado: "Orientação vocacional e profissional no ensino básico e secundário superior", em correspondência com as necessidades do desenvolvimento local em Pinar del Río. O seu objectivo era elaborar um sistema de atividades extraclasse que contribuísse para o processo de orientação profissional pedagógica nos estudantes pré-universitários do município de Pinar del Río. Trata-se de uma investigação experimental, nas suas variantes pré-experimentadas, em que o método dialético-materialista foi assumido como uma base metodológica, que sustentou a utilização de métodos do nível teórico, utilizados na determinação das referências teóricas; foram utilizados métodos do nível empírico, que como um todo permitiram verificar o estado inicial do problema. No processamento da informação, foram utilizadas técnicas estatísticas descritivas. O sistema de atividades extracurriculares baseia-se num sistema de princípios, com base no qual as atividades extracurriculares e extraescolares são desenvolvidas para modelar o processo de orientação profissional pedagógica. A sua implementação na prática permitiu obter um processo mais organizado, sistemático e sistémico, onde o trabalho conjunto dos professores da classe, permitiu aos alunos apropriarem-se dos conteúdos relacionados com a profissão pedagógica e o trabalho do professor, despertando interesses e motivações para as carreiras pedagógicas, o que demonstra a validade da proposta.

Palavras-chave: atividades extraclasses; orientação profissional pedagógica; sistema.



The teacher training is a priority for the Cuban state, by the important role of the teacher in society and the answer to be given to the need for this professional to the educational development of the country. This entails that in the different educational levels it will be played special attention to the process of Pedagogical Professional Orientation (OPP), where the figure of the teacher is a irreplaceable model as a member of the society and as a person.

The student is always in need of guidance, even if he does not show it; that is why the teacher must understand that professional guidance has a procedural, systematic, dynamic and continuous nature, in the individual and group direction. There is a close relationship between orientation and education during the teaching-educational process; In this regard, the criteria of Sagardoy (1992) are shared when he states that "orientation and education are fully identified, that is, guiding one educates and educating one orientates; the teacher should not despair if the results are discreet or do not go according to his planning, this will force him to resize the work"(p. 2).

Each teacher must be aware that "when he is guiding towards the profession he is not just any person, he is a person who depends on his timely advice, who is the son of someone who is trusting of him, who has on his shoulders the great responsibility to help someone decide their future life, therefore, it is not a game, a word, a gesture, an action can be decisive in the choice of the profession by the student" (Gabasa, 1992, p. 3).

Based on these criteria, during the OPP not only it has been taking into account individual differences of students, that relate to their needs, motives and attitudes, but those derived from the family context and community, so that the personal example of the teacher plays an essential role in shaping modes of action and ideals that point to the development of motivations for pedagogical work.

In spite of the progress achieved in this field in Cuba, it has still not fully achieved the motivation of students toward   teaching careers. Authors such as Merino (2016); Valido, Cueto and Piñera (2017); Barrera, Reyes and Cueto (2018); Hernández, Becalli and Rouco (2018); Cancio (2019); Caro, Cueto and Sánchez (2019) and Rojas, Torres and Pérez (2020) have investigated professional orientation by identifying different problems manifested in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education and in universities. For this, various proposals based n on the approaches: personological, problematize, group, artistic, family and multifactorial, with the intention of contributing to the development of motivations, interests, aspirations and life projects that demonstrate the importance of social and community actors in the formation of the subject as a personality, in constant change, formation and development have been developed.

To address the process of OPP, the teacher not only should have mastery of the subject, but must be prepared for the planning, implementation and monitoring of educational activities, extra teaching and out, that approach the students more and more for the purpose of educational work; In addition, it must test its professional qualities, abilities, aptitudes and attitudes.

During the OPP process, teaching activities are essential to contribute to the solution of educational problems that arise in the school context, including those related to the motivations, interests and projects of the students, which are the basis of the professional selection process.  However, the characteristics of the syllabi, these alone are not enough, It requires planning in which predominate extra teaching and extracurricular activities.

The criteria of Pérez (2017) are shared, when, when referring to the professional guidance process, he explains that it has great complexity, since "it is of great importance for the formation and systematic development of professional interests that lay the foundations for the motivation of the subject to a profession" (p. 192).

The guiding role of the teacher goes beyond chatting, conversing or explaining elements of the profession. In this regard he needs to act, both at the individual and group, it should become the main guiding professional and work should generate changes and changes in behavior and awareness of students, so that when it comes time to choose a profession it becomes a conscious and self determined professional selection process to be teachers.

The studies of  Martínez de Osaba, Paula and Hernández-Cruz (2020) point to professionalism in the OPP in pre-university based on professionalization strategies that take into account the figures of professional improvement, articulated with methodological and investigative consultancies, which attend to the development of professional competences in the cognitive-affective, guiding-persuasive, investigative-technological and managerial-evaluative order.

The OPP has been defined by several authors, who, taking into account the particularities of the process they are investigating, contribute to its improvement. In this regard, the criteria of Pino, Manzano, González and McPherson (2009) are shared, who define it as "the system of educational influences aimed at stimulating the pedagogical vocation in students, their entry into the careers of this profile and their permanence and development in them. It must include helping the student in the complex process of defining his life project, taking into account this social priority" (p. 26).

The studies carried out by Cedeño, Palma and Echeverría (2019); Almeyda and García (2019) and Velázquez and Hernández (2020) report that, sometimes, during the time of professional selection, pre-university students present little motivation, interests and professional projects for careers with a pedagogical profile, and manifest prejudices and stereotypes about teaching work, an aspect that is associated with the little use of the potential offered by the teaching- educational process, to insert PPO activities within and out of teaching hours.

For the development of the OPP in the educational centers that integrate the Upper Secondary Education, a work strategy must be elaborated that includes the planning of extra- class activities (extra-teaching and extra-curricular), which guarantee the motivation and admiration of the students for the pedagogical profession and that they see their social utility in the formation of the new generations.

From an exploratory study conducted in senior high schools of the municipality Pinar de Rio, during the second half of the year 2017 -2018, it could be seen that the process OPP presents insufficiencies in planning activities that favor the development interests, motivations and lifestyles in students, related to educational work, which has as its main cause not to be executed and as an ongoing, systemic, active and systematic process during the teaching learning process The foregoing is in contradiction with the need for a PPO process that responds to the needs of the territory, since the actions that are carried out do not favor achieving such purposes.

From this study, it is defined as a research problem: how to contribute to the PPO process in the high schools of the municipality of Pinar del Río?

With the purpose of solving the problem, it is the objective of the article to elaborate a system of extra- class activities that contributes to the OPP process in the high schools of the municipality of Pinar del Río.



It is an experimental research, in its pre- experimental variant, in which the dialectical-materialist method was used as a general method, by allowing the study of the object as a process, the determination of its components, as well as its contradictions.

Theoretical level methods such as historical and logical analysis were used, which allowed the study of the evolution of the OPP process in Upper Secondary Education and thus analyze the main antecedents; the induction and deduction made possible the empirical verification of the problem once the instruments were applied, to measure the variable to transform ; The hypothetical-deductive one made possible the formulation and validation of the working hypothesis, referring to that: if a system of extra- class activities of OPP is introduced during the educational process of the pre - university students of the municipality of Pinar del Río, it contributes to the development of motivations, interests and professional projects in the students, by the careers of the pedagogical profile; The system approach was used to analyze the results of the diagnosis, in the theoretical foundation of the subject under study and elaboration of the proposed system; and modeling, in the design of the activity system and its constituent elements.

From the empirical level, methods such as documentary analysis were used to develop the theoretical framework and evaluate the initial state of the problem from the review of the documents: educational strategies of each grade, work plans and minutes of the group assemblies. The observation, surveys and interviews were used in the initial diagnosis and assessment of the results of the extra classes' activities system and the experimental method, in its pre experiment variant allowed evaluating its effectiveness in practice.

Descriptive statistics techniques such as percentage analysis and measures of central tendency were used in the information processing.

For the study of the to variable transform  determined three dimensions were defined:

- The  procedural dimension, defined as the development of actions during the teaching - educational, directed to students to take ownership of knowledge related to the work of teachers and details of the teaching profession.      

- The cognitive dimension, defined as those knowledge, values and attitudes that the student possesses, related to the pedagogical profession and the work of the teacher, which allows them to identify emotionally with it.      

- The motivational dimension, defined as the identification of motivational formations in students, which express their affective- behavioral orientation through the study of one or more pedagogical careers, attending to a certain hierarchical structure.      

The study was conducted at the Pre university School" Frederick Engels" of the municipality Pinar de Rio, in the period between October 2018 and June 2019. A population of 192 students from 11 grade 6groups) and 12 teachers who work with the level were used. The sampling was made up of 112 students (monitors of the subjects of the grade) and the 6 guide teachers

The sampling is not probabilistic with intentional character, based on the criterion of selecting the degree of traffic in high school and include monitors of each subject of the level, which brings together the ideal characteristics for the work of OPP and the teachers who are more responsible for the management of the teaching- educational process in the school.



The individual analysis of each instrument and the integration of the results made it possible to obtain information on the behavior of the variable to be transformed and its dimensions. In this regard, the following weaknesses were identified:

- 100 % of teachers guide suggest that the process of OPP in the grade, is not executed as a continuous, systemic, active and systematic process.      

- In 100 % of the educational strategies of the groups, do require concrete actions to strengthen the development of interests, aspirations, intentions and life projects for pedagogical careers.      

- 87.5 % of students show little knowledge related to the teaching profession and the characteristics of educational work skills; Furthermore, they fail to identify the historical legacy transmitted by the great Cuban pedagogues over the years.      

- 88.39 % of the students do not recognize the importance of the educational work of the teacher for the development of society in economic, political and social terms.      

- Only 36.61 % of students express motivations for studying a pedagogical career, identifying it as one of their priorities for the selection process.      

The results indicate that there are shortcomings in the PPO process in pre-university, which demonstrates the need to develop actions during the teaching-educational process in a planned, systematic and systemic way, with the adequate articulation of extra-teaching and extra-curricular activities, which allow students to provide knowledge related to educational work and develop positive affective experiences, so that once the time has come they can choose a pedagogical career, based on their personal interests and the social needs of the territory.

Extra classes activities System

To solve the problem and achieve the objective of the article, a system of extra classes activity was prepared, consisting in extra teaching and school activities, to contribute to the process of OPP in high school, from the criteria of Lorences (2009, p. 46), who defines the system as a "more or less theoretical analytical construction that attempts to modify the structure of a certain real pedagogical system (aspects or sectors of reality) and / or the creation of a new one, the purpose of which is to obtain superior results in a certain activity".

The system of extra-class activities is presented as a structure: general objective, foundations, system of principles, proposal of activities and form of instrumentation. The graphic representation of the activity system is presented in figure 1.

Graph. 1- Graphical representation of the extraclasses system of activities.

From Philosophy, the activity system assumes the dialectical - materialist method, which is based on the Marxist - Leninist theory of knowledge, which has been a basic condition, since it guides the logical path of scientific knowledge in the search for the objective truth that According to Lenin (1964, p. 165), it goes "From living perception to abstract thought, and from this to practice..."The principles, laws and categories of the materialist dialectic are assumed; meanwhile, the OPP is a consequence of many factors; it is the result of the economic, political, social and cultural conditions of a given historical period or moment. In substantiation of the proposed system criteria are shared Chavez and Perez (2015, p. 12) when raised that "philosophy of education is the essential purpose of teaching, which allows to orient the rest of their foundations and to educational action".

The system of activities is based from pedagogy, when conceiving the process of OPP in high school as part of the educational process (Merino, 2016). besides, from the criteria of Chávez and Pérez (2015) it is supported generally, in their categories, principles and laws, to contribute to the training of students  from the cooperated actions of teachers, the integration of socializing agents and agencies, and the coherent combination of instruction, education and teaching, during the development of extracurricular and extra teaching activities.

From the Sociology the criteria of Blanco (2001) and Chavez and Perez (2015) are assumed, those who study education as a social phenomenon and function of society; also recognizes the importance of social relationships within the school context, the participation of agencies and socializing agents and, mainly, the relations intergroup, for the socialization of the student takes place through the teaching-learning process, in which the Group plays a vital role in personality development. It is recognized, in the same way, the close relationship between education and politics, economics, law, environment, social communication and culture in a  dialectic inter action, conditioned by these social spheres and, in turn, is a determining factor of its future projection. For this reason, education is a determined and determining social phenomenon.

From Psychology, the activity system is based on the criteria of Vygotsky (1987) and his followers, related to the historical- cultural approach and that takes into account elements such as the laws of human psychic development.

The system activities proposed is based on the system of principles of the process OPP, defined by Barrera, Reyes and Cueto (2018), contextualized to the particularities of Higher Secondary Education, such as: personological character; the problematizing character, the work with professional group learning situations; the procedural, systemic and systematic nature of the OPP; the integration of this as part of the teaching-educational process; the unity between learning opportunities and personal experience conducive to the development of professional interests; guiding character of the grade group in the OPP process and the group nature of the OPP process.

Proposal for extra-class activities

The extra classes system activities was implemented in the educational reality school of the IPU "Frederick Engels" in the town of Pinar de Rio, during the school year 2018-2019, from extra teaching and extracurricular activities that took  part of the actions of the educational strategy of 11 grade, under the direction and work of the  teachers of the grade.

Throughout the process, a favorable environment for participation and learning prevailed, taking into account the criteria of those who during the school year were protagonists of the changes, by appropriating knowledge, and experiences that were socialized from relationships with the others, in the context of the group and taken into account for the elaboration and improvement of the proposed system of activities, a source of social construction.

Each activity has the following structure: title, type of activity, specific objectives, orientation techniques, methodological orientations, evaluation, and activity for the next meeting. The methodological guidelines are used to explain the procedure when applying the system of extra-class activities in each meeting.

Activity # 1. Cinema Debate

Title: Viewing and discussion of the film Conduct.

Type of activity: extra-teaching.

Specific objective: discuss the role of the teacher in society and in the formation of the new generations, after viewing the film Conduct, in a way that will contribute to the development of motivations and interests for educational work.

Technical Guidance: movie debate.

Methodological guidelines: For the development movie debate, it is necessary for teachers to visualize the film before. After creating the necessary conditions for its viewing it, is recommended to be given to meet the student's aspects to consider for discussion of the film: title of the film, main actors, theme of the film, main features of teachers involved, importance of the teacher in society, and instruction transmitted to future educators. After the screening of the film, 30 minutes will be devoted to debate and reflection based on the different situations that could be observed, as a way to recognize the importance of the teacher in society.

Evaluation: the execution of activities from the responses of the student interventions is checked. They respond according to the breadth of knowledge acquired. Each answer requires individual thought and will reflect the meaning it holds for him. Student participation is encouraged based on self-evaluation, co-evaluation and hetero- evaluation. The technique applied is Positive-Negative-Interesting (PNI).

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Explore which Cuban films exist where the role of the teacher, his qualities, content and details of the teaching profession is reflected.

2. Read the article related to Fidel and Education entitled "Fidel soldier of ideas" (printed). Summarize the main advances in Cuban education.

3. Search progress and achievements of Cuban education in newspapers, you check, videos etc.

Activity # 2. Panel

Title: Panel on the importance of education in Cuba.

Type of activity: extra-teaching.

Specific objective: to reflect on the importance of education in Cuba after the triumph of the Revolution, based on the analysis of Fidel's article on Education, published in "Fidel soldier of ideas", in such a way that it contributes to the students to recognize the importance of education and the development of the country and it emerges interest in the teaching profession.

Technical Guidance:  assignation of responsibilities.

 Methodological guidelines: It is recommend starting the activity retaking the content of the previous encounter before and check whether students performed reading the article and summarized the one indicated, as this will be the basis for the development of the panel, where students play a leading role. Is performed  a discussion where the following topics are worked: situation of education in Cuba at the triumph of the Revolution; the most significant advances of education; amount of graduates in the careers of pedagogical profile; exodus of teachers is and importance of education in Cuba for the development of society.

Evaluation:  The execution of the activities through the answers given by each student interventions is checked. They respond according to the breadth of knowledge acquired. Each answer requires individual thought and will reflect the meaning it holds for them. Student participation is encouraged through self-evaluation, co-evaluation and hetero-evaluation. The PNI technique is applied.

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Investigate in your study center which is the actual demand for teachers, which the existing needs and what alternatives are taken to ensure that in each classroom will be a teacher there.

2. Study the life and work of Rafael María de Mendive and José Marti.

Activity # 3. Workshop

Title: Workshop about the pedagogical ideology of Rafael María de Mendive and José Martí and its validity for Cuban educators.

Type of activity: extra-teaching.

Specific objective: To think over the validity of the educational ideas of Rafael María de Mendive and José Martí, from the group reflection and exemplification, contributing to the development in pupils the love for the teaching profession.

Technical Guidance:  group reflection.

 Methodological Guidelines: it is recommended that the teacher start the meeting checking whether students conducted the study of the life and work of Rafael María de Mendive and José Martí, trough the analysis of sentences that reflect the educational ideology these personalities.

In preparing for the workshop and during its development, the students will have the help and advice of the Cuban History teachers. To the workshop, they can invite professors and specialists of Marti's work in the province, which can make a significant contribution to the enrichment of the different aspects analyzed. You can organize teamworks, work with magazines, books and materials that deal with the pedagogical ideology of Rafael María de Mendive and José Martí, a topic to be deepened for later discussion. It is important that in the workshop the reflection and discussion will be carried out based on the following topics:

Evaluation: the execution of the activities is verified through the answers given by each student in the interventions. They respond according to the breadth of knowledge acquired. Each answer requires individual thought and will reflect the meaning it holds for him. Student participation is encouraged through self-evaluation, co-evaluation and hetero-evaluation. The PNI technique is applied.

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Investigate other personalities that are worthy examples as educator.

2. Develop a set of questions designed to learn, the role of the teacher, their qualities, content and details of the teaching profession.

Activity # 4. Conversation

Title: Conversation with teachers.

Type of activity: extracurricular.

Specific objective: to reflect on the professional role of the teacher, based on the exchange with prominent teachers of several generations, contributing to the development of interest in the pedagogical profession.

Technical Guidance: group reflection.

Methodological Guidelines: it is suggests to developed this workshop  in collaboration with the University of Pinar de Rio "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca" or in the teacher educator school; if these spaces are not available, it can be developed in the Municipal University Centers. The presence of retired teachers, who have belonged to the "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" pedagogical detachment and others with more recent training, should be achieved, if possible with experience in the training of teachers, students in pedagogical training, family members who dedicate themselves to teaching and members of the community in which the school is located, where each one clearly and entertainingly expresses their experiences as a teacher. The exchange should promote a deep understanding of the professional role of the teacher and his qualities, in addition to providing information on the particularities of the pedagogical profession. After teacher interventions, the students will perform the questions they deem necessary.

Evaluation: the execution of the activities is verified through the questions asked by the students. A return of the activity is made, where the results of the discussion are recorded, based on the reflections made by the students, which allows collecting testimonies that support possible successes and mistakes. In addition, it will be applied a PNI and performance observation.

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Write an essay, where it expresses what "A teacher" means to you.

2. Investigate on the internet, by interviewing teachers, relatives and neighbors who have fulfilled internationalist missions in countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Haiti, among others, in what is the literacy method "Yes I can".

Activity # 5. Conversation

Title: Conversation with internationalist's teachers on the literacy method "I yes can".

Type of activity: extra-teaching.

Specific objective: reflect on the role of the Cuban teachers and their impact on the world, from the exchange with internationalist teachers on the literacy method "Yes I Can" contributing to the development of knowledge and experience in students, who are based for the formation of motivations for educational work.

Guidance technique: Group reflection.

 Methodological Guidance: The activity can be developed in any area of the center, if it has the necessary conditions to achieve the integration of all participants. The preparation of the students for the activity will be checked, performing a set of questions about the literacy method "yes I can".

A discussion with internationalist teachers will be delivered, which will share their living, experiences, content of their work and achievements. After the interventions of the teachers, the students will ask the questions they consider necessary.

Evaluation: the execution of the activities is verified through the answers given by each student in the interventions. They will respond according to the breadth of knowledge acquired. Each answer requires individual thought and will reflect the meaning it holds for him. In addition, it would be applied a PNI and performance observation.

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Investigate  in your community whose  education professionals have fulfilled internationalist mission, carried an interview with one of them and collect the following aspects

- Significant anecdotes during the mission.         

- Happier moments.         

- Achievements achieved.         

2. Prepare a system of questions for university students, aimed at knowing the particularities of each of the pedagogical careers.

Activity # 6. Conversation

Title: Exchange with students and teachers of pedagogical careers, of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca".

Type of activity: extracurricular.

Specific objective: to discuss the particularities of the study of a pedagogical career, from the exchange with students in training, in such a way that it contributes to the development of motivations and interests for the teaching profession.

Guidance technique: Group reflection.

Methodological Guidance: the activity must be the result of prior coordination with the University of Pinar de Rio "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca", to achieve the selection of all participants, so that it is integrated by students and teachers, according its potentialities, allow leaving a clear and favorable message about the study of the pedagogical career. The activity will begin with the presentation of the university students. There will be a representation of each career.  Each of them will expose the specifics of each plan of study as well as the professional model of education, activity scientific and the activities carried out by the Federation of University Students. In addition, they will present the reasons that motivated them to choose that profession and the experiences they have had in the course of their university studies. After the interventions, the students will be given the floor to ask the questions they consider necessary.

Evaluation: the execution of the activities is verified through the questions asked by the students. A return of the activity is made, where the results of the discussion are recorded, based on the reflections made by the students, which allows collecting testimonies that support possible successes and mistakes. In addition, a PNI and performance observation will be applied.

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Investigate   in your community, with the students of the Faculty of Secondary Education, the following what motivated you to choose the teaching profession? What expectations do you have of the profession? What experiences did they acquire in the years of study? What are your paradigms as teachers? What will transmit to the new generations of the teaching profession?

Activity # 7.  Directed visit

Title: Tour trough the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" .

Type of activity: extracurricular.

Specific objective: to assess the opportunities offered by the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" for the study of pedagogical careers, based on a specialized visit to the faculties and the spaces it has for teacher training (Headquarters " Rafael María de Mendive"), so as to contribute to the formation of professional pedagogical motivations and interests.

Technical Guidance:  group reflection.

 Methodological Guidelines: it is advisable to make the visit, after coordination with the administrative of the University of Pinar de Rio "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca", mainly deans and heads of departments of the faculties: Media Education and Child Education. The activity begins by taking a tour through the institution, classrooms,  laboratories, specialized classrooms, teachers' rooms, the University Student Federation and the Young Communist League, student residence and sports areas. In each of the tours, there are students who will explain the operation of each area.

As part of the visit, it s and held a discussion with students featured in the scientific activity, which will explain each of the events in which they can participate and how the scientific research is conducted throughout the career.

Evaluation: the execution of the activities is verified through the questions asked by the students, their criteria and opinions. In addition, a NIP and performance observation can be applied.

Activity for the next meeting:

1. Conduct a research on some  of the issues lines which are listed below

Advances and achievements of Cuban education.         

Validity of the pedagogical ideology of Félix Varela and José de Luz y Caballero.         

Achievements by the literacy method "I yes can"         

Paradigms of Cuban education.         

Role of the teacher in society.         

This activity will be the basis for the development of the Student Scientific Society that will be developed in the next meeting, so it is necessary to guide the students in the selection of topics that are related to the thematic lines that were presented previously, with the help from their teachers and family.

Activity # 8.  Student Scientific Society.

Title: Student Scientific Society: Knowing the Cuban Education.

Type of activity: extra-teaching.

Specific objective: to disseminate the results of research carried out by students on the achievements of Cuban education and the role of teacher in society, based on reflection and discussion of the main topics discussed, contributing to the development of knowledge, feelings and attitudes related to the teaching profession.

Technical Guidance:  Group reflection.

Methodological Guidance: For the development of the activity, it should be created necessary conditions related to space, material conditions and to have a program of the Scientific Society to ensure efficient implementation. The students will present their scientific research at each of the selected topics. The presentation will require coherence, creativity, clarity of ideas, depth of the topic addressed and the participation of all students will be recognized.

Evaluation: a return of the activity is made, where the results of the debate and the reflections made by the students are recorded, which allows collecting testimonies that support possible successes and mistakes. In addition, a NIP and observation of performance

Activity for the next meeting will be applied:

1. Carry out teaching aids in a selected subject, to present at the teaching aids event that will take place in the next meeting.

Activity # 9. Event

Title:  Creative Event on the Educational Media

Type of activity: extra-teaching

Specific objective: develop teaching aids for the subjects of the grade, from the joint work of students and support teachers so as to contribute to the development of interest  for the pedagogical work.

Technical Guidance:  Group reflection.

Methodological Guidance: for the development of the activity it is necessary to guarantee the conditions for the exhibition of teaching aids ; a stand for each subject will be prepared, A jury will selected with teachers  and students of the Student Federation of High School. When presenting the teaching aids, the students will clearly state what each one consists of, the subject it represents, the content that is given out and the advantages that its use brings during the class. It is important to stimulate the participation of students according to the interventions carried out. Reinforcement constitutes a procedure in this activity, which allows recognizing the achievements made by the students.

Evaluation: an exchange of ideas is carried out by the participants, where experiences, opinions, personal criteria and points of view are expressed that allow making a record of the results of the debate and the evaluations of the students, which allows collecting testimonies that support possible successes and mistakes, in addition the PNI technique and observation of performance will be applied

Activity for the next meeting:

1. With the help of teachers of different subjects, prepare a class to be exposed in front of your classmates in the Festival of the class to be held at the next meeting.

Activity # 10. Class festival

Title: Monitor movements

Type of activity: extra-teaching

Objective: to teach a class of the subjects of the grade based on the participation of the monitors and selected students, together with the teachers, in a way that it stimulates motivational incentives in the students for the educational work and the direction of the teaching - learning process.

Technical Guidance:  Group reflection.

Methodological Guidance: This activity requires joint efforts of teachers and monitors, so that the latter are prepared to teach a class of the subjects of the grade. Other selected students can participate, in such a way that students are involved in the activity, exploring their motivations and interests. At these events, they are offered rewards for their efforts, spontaneity, fluency, mastery of content and creativity, rewarding those who have obtained the best results.

The class festival allows:

- Expand the knowledge and skills acquired in classes.    

- Awaken the desire and will to learn in students.    

- Learn to exchange ideas, solve new and difficult situations.    

- Increase interest in pedagogical careers.    

Reinforcement constitutes a procedure in this activity, which allows recognizing the achievements made by the students.

Evaluation: a return of the activity is made, where the results of the debate and the reflections made by the students are recorded, which allows collecting testimonies that support possible successes and mistakes. In addition, a NIP and observation of performance will be applied.

 Instrumentation system forms

The introduction into practice of the system of extra-class activities was carried out from the adequate articulation of extra-teaching and extra-curricular activities, included in this article as components of the OPP in pre-university. For management, organization and implementation of the system activities proposed are taken into account as a starting point the diagnosis of students. The activities were organized in throughout the school year 2018 2019, taking into account the psycho educational characteristics of students and characteristics of the teaching-learning process in the pre - university, so that each one contributed to the achievement of the objectives proposed.

Once the activity system was implemented or in practice, the methods declared in the initial diagnosis were applied. The students proved to have mastery of content related to the teaching profession and the work of teachers, greater affective link with the teachers and they expressed the opportunity to study a teaching career, as one of the alternatives of continuing study, once the moment of professional selection has arrived.

With regard to its impact, it managed to increase the number of activities OPP in high school, in a planned and systematic way and with system character, in which in the system of educational influences was integrated and changes were shown in the cognitive sphere and affective of the students, with respect to the profession.



In the direction of the process of    pedagogical Professional  Guidance in high school, it must take into account the peculiarities of psychic development of the subject is consolidated in youth, specifically to coincide with the entry of the student in a center of secondary education, where the development of cognitive interests, knowledge and specific skills are foundations for the gradual construction of what can  become affective-motivational inclinations, by one or more professions.

The study carried out in this article has made it possible to verify that the OPP in pre-university continues to be a priority to guarantee a self-determined pedagogical professional selection process, where motivations and professional interests that respond to the needs of students prevail , which can guarantee a study of the successfully profession during the training process (Barrera, Reyes and Cueto, 2018; Hernández, Becalli and Rouco, 2018; Cancio, 2019 and Martínez de Osaba, Paula and Hernández-Cruz, 2020).

The OPP in high school is conceived as a participatory process playing a significant role the interpersonal relationships among students, with teachers, family and other agents socializers, from which students can go closer, of gradually, to the object of the profession. In this regard, the criteria of Barrera, Reyes and Cueto (2018) are shared, who argue that interpersonal relationships "allow the exchange of knowledge, and experiences and the development of emotions and feelings of attraction for the pedagogical profession" (p 530).

The criteria of Inocêncio (2016) are shared when he states that it is "necessary to increase the entry into pedagogical careers (…) and stimulate the development of interests and professional motives in these students to improve their permanence in the training process and their quality as graduates" (P. 169).

The use of materials and methods demonstrated weaknesses in the process of OPP in senior high schools in the province of Pinar de Rio, expressed in the few actions that take place during the educational process, aimed at students from appropriating knowledge related with the work of teachers and particularities of the pedagogical profession, which negatively affects the formation of interests and motivations for pedagogical careers.

The system of extra-class activities proposed allowed to take advantage of the potentialities of extra- teaching and extra-curricular activities from the active participation of students and teachers of the grade, for the development of activities in a systematic way and with a system character, which is implemented, with satisfactory results, in the school educational reality of the IPU "Federico Engels" of the municipality of Pinar del Río.

The effectiveness, in practice, of the system of extra-class activities was verified in the results of the pre- experiment, when significant changes were found in the PPO process in pre-university, expressed in the quality of the activities that were developed as part of the educational strategy of the grade and the impact it had on the students, based on the development of interests and motivations that allow the pedagogical profession to be recognized as a career of great social significance.



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Conflict of interest:

Authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.


Authors´ Contribution:

Lázara Raymelys Martínez Hernández: Conception of the idea (60 %), authorship coordinator (60 %), general advice on the topic addressed (40 %), literature search and review (60 %), translation of terms or information obtained (50 %), preparation of instruments (50 %), application of instruments (60 %), compilation of information resulting from the instruments applied (60 %), statistical analysis (60 %), preparation of tables, graphs and images (50 %), preparation of the database (60 %), writing of the original (first version) (50 %), review of the applied bibliographic standard (40 %), review and final version of the article (40 %), correction of the article (50 %).

Isbel Barrera Cabrera: Conception of the idea (40 %), authorship coordinator (40 %), general advice on the topic addressed (60 %), literature search and review (40 %), translation of terms or information obtained (50 %), preparation of instruments (50 %), application of instruments (40 %), compilation of information resulting from the instruments applied (40 %), statistical analysis (40 %), preparation of tables, graphs and images (50 %), preparation of the database (40 %), writing of the original (first version) (50 %), review of the applied bibliographic standard (60 %), review and final version of the article (60 %), correction of the article (50 %).


This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
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Lázara Raymelys Martínez Hernández, Isbel Barrera Cabrera