The podcast as a feedback tool in evaluating virtual activities

Mendive. Journal on Education, january-march 2021; 19(1): 16-29

Translated from the original in Spanish

The podcast as a feedback tool in evaluating virtual activities


El podcast como herramienta de retroalimentación en la evaluación de actividades virtuales


O podcast como instrumento de feedback na avaliação das atividades virtuais


Rossana Felipa Andrade1
Meivys Páez Paredes2

1 North Private University. Peru.
2 University ofe Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca". Cuba.


Received: August 4th, 2020.
Approved: November 12th, 2020.



Evaluation and feedback are closely related processes that make up an important part of the binomial teaching learning. In virtual learning environments, the realization of this task become essential and translates into a huge challenge for educators. This proposal was conceived as a response to the limitations presented by teachers at a private university in Lima, Peru, when accompanying students in achieving significant learning in virtual courses. Along the same lines, it is an attempt to make the use of ICT as a functional alternative to achieve ambitious learning achievements. The objective of this article is to review the effect of the use of the podcast in the learning process of first cycle students of transversal subject of Language. In turn, it exposes the results of the implementation of the use of podcast as a feedback tool in the evaluation of virtual activities, based on a pre-experimental study method. The most representative results indicate that the intervention of this resource allowed a significant number of students to reach levels of performance with outstanding achievement.

Key words: assessment; feedback; teaching; learning; ICT; podcast.


La evaluación y la retroalimentación son procesos estrechamente relacionados que conforman una parte importante del binomio enseñanza-aprendizaje. En los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, la concreción de esta tarea se vuelve fundamental y se traduce en un enorme desafío para los educadores. Esta propuesta se concibió como respuesta a las limitaciones que presentan los docentes de una universidad privada de la ciudad de Lima, Perú, al momento de acompañar a los estudiantes en el logro de aprendizajes significativos en cursos virtuales. En esa misma línea, se intenta visibilizar el uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones como una alternativa funcional para alcanzar logros ambiciosos de aprendizaje. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo revisar el efecto del uso del podcast en el proceso de aprendizaje de estudiantes de primer ciclo de la asignatura transversal de Lenguaje I. A su vez, expone los resultados de la implementación del uso de podcast como herramienta de retroalimentación en la evaluación de actividades virtuales, a partir de un método de estudio preexperimental. Los resultados más representativos señalan que la intervención de este recurso permitió que un número importante de estudiantes alcancen niveles de desempeño con logro destacado.

Palabras clave: evaluación; retroalimentación; enseñanza; aprendizaje; Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones; podcast.


Avaliação e feedback são processos estreitamente relacionados que formam uma parte importante do binómio ensino-aprendizagem. Em ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem, a realização desta tarefa torna-se fundamental e traduz-se num enorme desafio para os educadores. Esta proposta foi concebida como uma resposta às limitações apresentadas pelos professores de uma universidade privada na cidade de Lima, Peru, ao acompanharem os estudantes na realização de aprendizagem significativa em cursos virtuais. Na mesma linha, procura tornar visível o uso das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação como uma alternativa funcional para alcançar realizações de aprendizagem ambiciosas. Este artigo visa rever o efeito da utilização de podcasts no processo de aprendizagem dos alunos do primeiro ciclo no tema transversal da Linguagem I. Ao mesmo tempo, apresenta os resultados da implementação da utilização do podcast como instrumento de feedback na avaliação de atividades virtuais, com base num método de estudo pré-experimental. Os resultados mais representativos indicam que a intervenção deste recurso permitiu que um número significativo de estudantes atingisse níveis de desempenho com resultados excepcionais.

Palavras-chave: avaliação; feedback; ensino; aprendizagem; Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação; ICT; podcast.



The ways of learning have changed over the years. Simultaneously, teaching has done the same, the same happens with the evaluation process. In the 21st century, information and the communication means have acquired an important role and the advancement of technology leads us to rethink education at its core: teaching, instructing, learning and evaluating. In this scenario, technology plays a key role and interferes in these processes. The Technologies of Information and Communications (ICT) form a concept closely related to students called digital natives.

While this article is not intended to dive into the debate about the accuracy or imprecision of this terminology, it does highlight the time that today's students spend browsing the internet and interacting with other online tools. In the same way, they find in front of them infinite possibilities to access to information thanks to the presence of a wide range of online resources. However, despite the benefits that ICT can provide, it is fundamental to understand that they have not come to save us. Its attributes and benefits can be taken advantage of, only if it starts from a correct management of the teacher and an appropriate predisposition on the part of the student. If in this context, referring to the teaching- learning processes is very complex, approaching the evaluation results is a great challenge.

The evaluation could be defined as a process of collection of what information that finishes in the valuation of certain performances exercised by students. Brian Scott, Freeman and Patel (as cited in Dorrego, 2016) suggest that the assessment of learning is seen by students as an activity that allows them to gain in understanding their own skills and progress, and as a tool for qualified. On the other hand, Quesada (2006) points out that the evaluation of the student during their learning is essential to overcome difficulties even in conventional education in which there is frequent face-to-face contact with which the clarification of doubts and feedback is possible immediate in its advances and stumbles.

That is why the assessment is not is only a challenge of education in itself, but it becomes also in more challenging learning teaching in virtual environments. Online education presents particularities that distinguish it from the traditional process, on the one hand, face-to-face contact between teacher and student is lost, which is now managed through technological resources that enable subject-subject and subject-object interaction. From this, many people consider that possibilities such as expression through body language, oral, gestural and communication in real time are lost. On the other hand, the student becomes a manager of his learning, since he conveniently manages his times to achieve the expected learning, while the teacher is in charge of facilitating the methodological route and provides the class with the necessary resources so that the academic results are reached.

If the evaluation condition does not change in the virtual mode compared to the face-to-face mode, it is necessary to highlight the importance of this process in the consolidation of the students' learning. Accompaniment and feedback constitute transcendent information for the learner. There are many concerns that revolve around what are the appropriate conditions for an evaluation process to be carried out successfully in an online environment.

Therefore, approaching feedback in the context described involves some questions. For one thing, is there effective feedback online? Does technology provide relevant resources to facilitate this task for the teacher? Is the teacher really prepared to use and manage these resources? Will this positively influence student learning? Before addressing these concerns, it is critical to understand the synchronic and asynchronous nature of these processes. It is not the same to provide feedback in a video conference in real time than a deferred assessment. Impact, understanding, and outcome can vary widely.

The foregoing has its expression in higher-level educational institutions, where evaluation processes are not managed properly (Cabaní, Carretero, Palma and Rafel, 2000). The common result: every twelve years they evaluate according to their perspective and apply the criteria they know to assess learning. One of the great challenges that higher education continues to face is finding the meaning of a relevant evaluation process that actually favors student learning.

In a virtual environment, the challenge becomes greater, since, in addition to the aforementioned limitations, a relevant and functional route has not been configured to provide timely feedback to students. It is evident that there are many factors that intervene in this path, among them, the understanding of the meaning of the evaluation, the definition of a simple but functional feedback process for the students and the management of virtual tools that provide support to the task of assess. This is how the idea of using podcasts as effective feedback tools arises from the need for an undeniable reality: the teacher evaluates and values learning, but does not necessarily plan or regulate the process.

Private higher education institutions, unlike public ones, have virtual platforms that allow the implementation of appropriate instructional designs to manage and evaluate student learning. However, virtual platform administrators, academic management leaders, as well as teachers themselves are unaware of the potential that these resources can provide. One of the recurrent scenarios in the reality of private higher education is related to the primary use that is given to virtual platforms; these are converted into digital repositories in which information is deposited and downloaded, and it has become the main function of the management of virtual classrooms. However, these resources provide other alternatives at the level of online activities and tasks that facilitate the teaching - learning processes, and with it the evaluation.

One of them is the podcast, a resource that belongs to the group of the least used tools and, therefore, wasted in the virtual teaching system. Platforms such as MoodleBlackboard Chamilo, among others, are presented as intuitive and friendly sites for all types of users. This means that both teachers and students have the opportunity to quickly detect the characteristics and benefits of the digital interface of these platforms. On the contrary, the habitual use does not go beyond the basic level: dissemination and discovery of information (slides, readings, links and videos).

The description of the previous reality encourages the search for functional resources that promise great impacts in the teaching-learning processes and in those of evaluation and feedback. In this scenario, the podcast is a "means of distribution of content of any kind so that they can be heard or viewed both on the computer and on a portable player or mobile phone" (Santiago & Bárcena, 2016). In simple terms, it is an audio piece that reproduces certain content around a particular theme, in a defined context.

The podcast is an acronym that is made up of pod that is associated with IPod, a portable mp3 player created by the Apple Company and broadcast, which means to broadcast, transmit or broadcast. This fusion allows describing the technology of the transmission of audio content in digital format through the Internet. Dave Winer and Adam Curry began broadcasting the podcast in mp3 format in 2000. Thus, it is considered one of the pioneering podcasters of the 21st century, in a season in which other resources / applications were simultaneously emerging in Internet. (Yzidi, 2019).

Some of the most representative characteristics of this resource are the following (Solano & Sánchez, 2010):

In the field of education, the podcast can be considered as a didactic resource that supposes the existence of a sound file with educational content and that has been created from didactic planning (Solano & Sánchez, 2010). At this point, it is important to emphasize that the design and implementation of this tool effectively responds to a careful or organizational process and, therefore, must respond to the achievements/learning objectives that the teacher has proposed. Likewise, the teacher is one of the protagonists in the management of this resource, but not the only one. The student becomes an active agent in the design and effective use of the podcast for learning purposes. Although the intervention of the student in this process is transcendental, this article focuses on the management of this resource by the teacher.

The foregoing leads us to think about the implications when considering implementing this tool in the teaching-learning processes. To achieve this end, a series of considerations that the teacher cannot and should not ignore are listed below:

Review of these considerations occurs before, during, and after resource design and implementation. The content and characteristics of the podcast must be permanently evaluated for continuous improvement.

As can be seen, information and communication technologies make up an important support for the teaching-learning process in 100 % virtual environments. With this, it is not intended to deny or dismiss its important intervention in the face-to-face teaching modality. However, this research focuses on the reality of first cycle students, who are enrolled in subjects such as Language I, whose nature is completely online.

In this scenario, technological tools, correctly managed by the teacher, can serve as a bridge to reduce the gap in interaction and feedback: student-student and teacher-student (García, Guajardo & Valdez, 2014). On this condition, the instructional designs of virtual courses should be organized and implemented considering feedback as an essential moment, since it is a process that allows assessing each stage on the way to the realization of learning (from the teacher's point of view) and makes it possible to reflect on the ways in which one learns (from the student's perspective). This process, in many cases, is absent in the different moments of evaluation in a virtual subject. On the contrary, there are several positive effects from its practice (Herrero, 2016):

Although the above represents an ideal scenario for the evaluation process, finding the most functional technological tools to carry out this management is still considered a challenge. As a result of this lack, it is intended to address the possibilities offered by ICTs to specify these processes. One of these alternatives is the podcast, the use and dissemination of which is commonly part of content development, as part of the instructional guide for a subject.

However, faced with the problems of practice in the evaluation of the learning of higher education students, the following problem arises: What is the impact of the use of the podcast as a feedback tool in the evaluation of student learning in virtual environments determined as the objective of evaluating the  podcast in student learning within the framework of virtual teaching-learning.



According to the conditions established in the objective of this research, an experimental study was applied. The term experiment keeps its essence in two meanings. In the beginning, the idea of carrying out an action is used to observe the effects. On the other hand, it is understood as the execution of an investigation in which one or more independent variables are deliberately manipulated to evaluate the consequences (Hernández-Sampieri & Mendoza, 2018). The study is within the framework of the application of a methodology (the use of the podcast) to review the impacts on the learning of students who are enrolled in virtual courses.

The pre-experimental method was used, because, following Hernández and Mendoza (2018), it can be used to control a single group of individuals, which aims to make a median assessment of reality. The foregoing does not deny that in the future a deeper investigation of the subject can be carried out, taking into account the results obtained.

For its part, the universe was made up of 240 students from the Basic Language course. In this research, a group of 32 students of the Basic Language course, enrolled in the first cycle, from different careers belonging to the Engineering, Architecture and Health faculties were considered, as it is a general (transversal) course. The selection of the sample was simple random. The study was performed at a private university in Lima during the academic semester 2019-2020, between the months of August and December.



The course is structured in four process evaluations, which present some specific characteristics. The evaluation format is managed through the homework tool, whose delivery is specified by uploading a document with the development of the activity in the virtual classroom. On the other hand, each evaluation/task has a period of no more than seven days for its execution and formal delivery. Finally, the student has two attempts to upload the correct file to the virtual platform.

Exposed the shape characteristics of the evaluations in the subject, it is convenient to specify that the research was carried out in three important phases:

Execution of the first evaluation without the intervention of the tool

During the first unit of the course, which consists of four weeks, significant time was invested to get to know the virtual learning environment and provide synchronous and asynchronous guidance to students regarding time management in an online course. At the end of this phase, the first evaluation of the course was applied (task 1). The results were duly observed and analyzed.

Implementation of the tool and application of the second evaluation

The second unit of the course was developed in four weeks/work modules. Upon completion, a preliminary version of the second evaluation (without formal qualification) was applied in conjunction with the implementation, for the first time, in the feedback stage (once task 2 was delivered)(Figure 1). The support provided to the students consisted of verifying and ensuring that all (32) have access to the content of this resource. The medium used was the Blackboard platform, with the support of the audio resource / podcast project, which was embedded in the comment box.


Fig. 1. Homework Feedback Podcast 2

Evaluation and readjustments of the implementation of the tool; application of the third evaluation

After collecting the students' impressions of the content and the assessment they gave to the feedback process with the support of the use of the podcast, and analyzing the results of the previous evaluation, we proceeded to plan and implement adjustments that improved the experience in its access and usefulness. Then the trial held in the previous step:  during the third and last unit of the course, the first version is used (preliminary without qualification) of the task three to complete the feedback process described in podcast usage support.

Moreover, the script of the podcast (for the three virtual tasks) was organized in order to dimensions valued in the assessment rubric:

1. Organization and structure of information

The written text presents a coherent organization of ideas and structures the information according to the components studied: introduction, development and conclusion.

2. Content development

The information presented in the text is rich and sufficient for the development of the relevant ideas of the text.

3. Lexis and grammar

The use of formal and precise vocabulary is evidenced, as well as the correct construction of sentences.

4. Spelling and punctuation

The text is clean in that the rules for marking and the use of punctuation marks are correctly applied.

The data collection technique was observation and the instrument, the evaluation rubric. In each of the tasks, whose main task is the writing of academic texts; a rubric was designed and implemented (see annexes). The performance intervals defined in the evaluation and feedback process are as follows:

Finally, the MegaStat software, a Microsoft Excel add-on, was used to enter the data obtained, as well as to process them.

The implementation of the podcast as a feedback tool in the framework of the evaluation of the competence of writing texts in university students allowed access to valuable information regarding the evolution of the learning development of first cycle students.

The results of the application of the three virtual tasks, in a period of 13 weeks, have shown significant progress in the development of written production skills.

1. In general terms, it has been found that the intervention of the podcast as a feedback tool for the virtual tasks assigned in the Language I course has been functional for first cycle students, as the indicators register an increase in the average of grades per assignment. In the first activity rated, the mean was 15.44 calculated on a twentieth basis (0-20 points). Subsequently, it was detected that the average of the following task presented a very slight increase (15.47) with a difference of 0.03. Finally, in the last activity, the increase was noticeable, given that the average of 16.6 was reached. The following table gathers the data described above.

Table 1- Averages of the grades of the virtual tasks in the Language I course


Homework 1

Task 2

Task 3









Fig. 2 - Stockings ratings virtual tasks in the course Language I

In the first task, in whose preliminary process the use of the podcast was not implemented as part of the directed feedback, no student reached the outstanding performance level, which includes the range of grades between 19 and 20. For their part, 88 % of students obtained grades represented by sufficient achievements (between 14 and 18). In turn, 6 % were located at the level in process and the last 6 %, in the beginning.

Table 2 - Frequencies and percentages of the performance levels of Task 1 in the Language I course

Performance levels



Outstanding Achievement (19-20)


0 %

Achieved enough (14-18)


88 %

In process (10-13)


6 %

On start (0-9)


6 %

Fig. 3 -  Frequencies and percentages of the performance levels of Task 1 in the Language I course

3. In the second task, in whose preliminary process the use of the podcast was implemented for the first time as part of the directed feedback process, 16 % (5 students) reached the performance level with outstanding achievement. On the other hand, 81 % of students were at the level of sufficient achievement, while 3 % were at the beginning.

Table 3 -  Frequencies and percentages of the performance levels of Task 2 in the Language I course

Performance levels



Outstanding Achievement (19-20)


16 %

Achieved enough (14-18)


81 %

In process (10-13)


0 %

On start (0-9)


3 %

Fig. 4 - Frequencies and percentages of the performance levels of Task 2 in the Language I course

4. In the third and final task, in whose preliminary process the use of the podcast was readjusted, improved and implemented as part of the directed feedback process, 34 % of students reached the performance level with outstanding achievement. For their part, 38 % were at the level of sufficient achievement, while 13 % achieved performance in progress. Finally, 16 % resulted in the starting level.

  Table 4 -  Frequencies and percentages of the levels of performance of Task 3 in the Language I course

Performance levels



Outstanding Achievement (19-20)


3. 4 %

Achieved enough (14-18)


38 %

In process (10-13)


13 %

On start (0-9)


16 %

Fig. 5 - Frequencies and percentages of the levels of performance of Task 3 in the Language I course



The methodology applied in the implementation of this educational experience, around the use of the podcast as a feedback tool, has notoriously transcended the common pedagogical practices related to the use of this resource, whose popularity has increased in the last two decades. On a regular basis, investigations record antecedents regarding the use of the podcast as a useful and very valuable means in facilitating learning in classes / face-to-face courses. In some cases, the tool reports positive effects due to its use outside the classroom, as it reinforces the topics reviewed in the face-to-face session.

Frequently, this content is shared on external digital platforms and not on those managed by educational institutions (Moodle, Blackboard, Chamilo, among others). An example of the described scenario is the platform of the BBC page, in its 6-minute English section, in which users have access to different menus: courses, series on grammar, vocabulary, news, pronunciation and an animated series that teaches how to communicate in the labored sphere. In all these options, there is the possibility of selecting the level and different exercises to work on the different skills (Ortega, 2019). The above allows us to appreciate that, indeed, the usual learning experiences mediated by the podcast are implemented with the support of external tools / platforms within the framework of the strengthening of learning.

A similar case is linked to the Program for the Production of Audiovisual Material (PPMA) of the National University of Distance Education through Sound Cloud. In 2013, a podcast service was offered for students to download audios related to their subjects / subjects. "However, this platform has become technologically obsolete. It stopped playing the audios and videos, constantly asked for an update of the Flash Player and did not allow the consultation of its materials from mobile devices " (Grau, 2019).

This research projects an important benefit in relation to the type of experiences reviewed above, since there are no varied scientific studies on the implementation of the podcast as a feedback tool in the evaluation process. Referring to the use of this tool in the setting of the learning evaluation process implies little-addressed implications. The method was carried out in two important stages of the assessment of learning. In principle, the revision of the preliminary version of the expected product was experienced, which was an accompaniment that is supported by appraisals and qualitative results and that allow the learner to improve the first product / draft. Subsequently, the formal evaluation took place, with the intervention of the podcast as a central resource to provide feedback on the performance achieved by the student.

The results obtained in this research show the importance of implementing effective strategies in the feedback process of tasks; this aspect becomes transcendent if one considers that online teaching learning acquires unique nuances, as well as challenges to face. One of the greatest, perhaps, is to accompany the students and encourage reflection in them, regarding the stages of their learning, the characteristics of the process and the reading of the achievements achieved and to be achieved.

From the first experience in the implementation of the podcast as part of the feedback processes, the students developed significant experiences because the audio piece was a warm resource, although delayed, that provided them with qualitative information about their academic progress. Although a trend towards acceptance of the resource was perceived, it is necessary to permanently evaluate if the student obtains improvements in the academic field or an increase in their performance for the sake of their academic performance (Sigüenza, Montánchez and Palta, 2018).

A transcendental factor that cannot be ignored in this process was related to the autonomy condition that the student's activity represents in an online course. Although this type of virtual subjects still reserve a space for synchronous interaction, it is clear that students practice autonomy from the beginning of the process, since they are the main person in charge of organizing and managing their time to specify the learning tasks, in response to the flexibility offered by virtual courses. There are many experiences around the world in the framework of the use of podcast as a tool that strengthens people's learning. The use of this resource is very common in the teaching of foreign languages. Of course, outside of traditional teaching, the podcast is a very useful resource to learn self-taught or to preserve the knowledge acquired within the classroom. Not surprisingly, right now, students can listen to podcasts dedicated to any topic we can imagine, including those that interest them the most; an aspect that always favors learning. In addition, since it is a novel element, it exponentially multiplies the motivation of the learners (Galan, 2018).

On the other hand, the results show that the intervention of the podcast in the feedback process marks a before and after in the ways of teaching and learning. The teacher integrates an unusual resource into his practice and, to achieve this end, he has investigated, has prepared himself, has carried out technical tests with the tool and has guided the group of students in this process. In the same scenario, the student has understood that the evaluation process is not restricted to the qualification of a task and the delivery of a formal grade. The student has had the opportunity to repair the first revised versions, in a merely qualitative follow-up, which set aside the numerical indicators, to reflect on their strengths and on their opportunities for improvement. The implementation of this type of communication tools requires teacher training for incorporation into educational practice, so as to guarantee the quality and relevance of the training process in the virtual environment (Saborío, 2018).

Another point to highlight in this implementation has been the importance of content planning, which starts from the identification of an educational situation that allows the establishment of a work slogan. From this determination, the dimensions to be assessed are established with the support of the evaluation instrument. These dimensions must be communicated before the evaluation and ratified as a fundamental basis of the activity evaluation process. For the creation, publication and subscription of the podcast it is important to develop the planning and production phases ; They take into account aspects that maximize the quality of the podcast , for example, the type and quality of content (according to the audience) and technical aspects (sound, voice, required equipment). It is also important to develop a script that leads to the optimal organization of the content, prior to the recording of the podcast (Saborío, 2018). As in any process, there are successes, and some limitations. Among them, it was detected that students encountered difficulties in accessing the podcast at the beginning of the process, given that the tool was a complete novelty, and this includes the ways to reach the resource on the virtual platform. This involved great efforts on the part of the teacher to delimit short and pragmatic routes in the pursuit of the objective: that the students access the podcast content in a simple way. In that sense, it was appropriate to take advantage of one of the possibilities offered by the Blackboard platform, by having the resource to record the audio piece directly in the feedback area (comment box) without having to go to external elements , as free software for the production of podcasts and for the dissemination of its content.

The reality studied in this research presented a complex scenario that places teachers facing a great challenge in the execution of the learning evaluation processes. On the one hand, the facilitators do not implement feedback actions, a transcendental piece in the students' learning cycle, because they do not have clear guidelines that mark a route and a meaning for the action of evaluating. Commonly, each educator applies, in his capacity as an expert judge, certain criteria that allow him to assess the level of performance of the apprentices and in many cases; they do not effectively communicate the strengths or opportunities for improvement in the performance of academic activities. This situation is more complex if it is analyzed in the reality of completely virtual subjects. Although higher-level educational institutions establish general guidelines for these processes, they simultaneously offer freedom for their implementation, which results in non-recurring actions and, therefore, not very significant.

In this sense, the essence of the proposal of this study was based on the use of virtual tools accessible and available in institutional platforms, to which academic actors have full access. This first condition avoids the use and management of external sites that do not guarantee optimal operation and performance for resource management. Therefore, the central proposal focused on the use of the podcast as a tool that facilitates the execution of feedback processes for the optimization of the evaluation of the learning of students who take completely virtualized subjects.

Regarding what was mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, it is concluded that the use of the podcast as part of the feedback process of virtual tasks generated an important impact on the performance of the students and in the realization of their learning. Although the initial stage posed some difficulties regarding the effective reproduction of the content of the resource by the learners, the timely induction allowed the tool to be used to the maximum. The culmination of the continuous assessment process resulted in the achievement of outstanding performance levels in a significant number of students.



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Conflict of interest:

Authors declare not to have any conflicts of interest.


Authors´ Contribution:

Rossana Felipa Andrade: Conception of the idea (100 %), authorship coordinator (100 %), general advice on the topic addressed (60 %), literature search and review (70 %), translation of terms or information obtained (60 %), preparation of instruments (80 %), application of instruments (80 %), compilation of information resulting from the instruments applied (80 %), statistical analysis (80 %), preparation of tables (80 %), graphs and images (80 %), preparation of the database (80 %), writing of the original (first version) (70 %), review of the applied bibliographic standard (50 %), review and final version of the article (60 %), correction of the article (60 %).

Meivys Páez Paredes: Authorship coordinator (40 %), general advice on the topic addressed (40 %), literature search and review (30 %), translation of terms or information obtained (40 %), preparation of instruments (20 %), application of instruments (20 %), compilation of information resulting from the applied instruments (20 %), statistical analysis (20 %), preparation of tables, graphs and images (20 %), preparation of databases (20 %), writing of the original (first version) (30 %), revision of the applied bibliographic norm (40 %), revision and final version of the article, correction of the article (40 %).


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Rossana Felipa Andrade, Meivys Páez Paredes