The teacher, his practice and continuous education: ideology and educational reform in Mexico

Mendive. Journal on Education, january-march 2021; 19(1): 199-213

Translated from the original in Spanish


The teacher, his practice and continuous education: ideology and educational reform in Mexico


El docente, su práctica y formación continua: ideología y reforma educativa en México


Professores, a sua prática e formação contínua: ideologia e reforma educacional no México


Inés Lozano Andrade1
Pedro Emiliano Miranda Garcia2

1 Escuela Normal Superior de México.
2 Centro de Actualización del Magisterio.


Received: June, 30th, 2020.
Approved: January 18th, 2021.



This article aims at understanding and interpreting from a critical perspective the ideology behind the educational reforms on professional development for basic education teachers in Mexico. For that purpose, the discourse in the national 2017 basic education programs is analyzed closely with a critical and hermeneutic perspective. Three aspects are focused: being a teacher, his teaching practice, and his professional development. The research findings reveal two dominant ideological categories consistently present in this discourse: the normalization of technical-instrumental rationality as the legitimized one, and the Toyotism, as a practical mechanism disguising the dominance of a legitimate "democratic control".

Key words: educational reform; ideology and education; hermeneutics; teacher practice; teacher education.


Este artículo tiene como propósito, comprender e interpretar, desde una perspectiva crítica, la ideología subyacente en las reformas educativas de educación básica en el campo de la formación continua de docentes. Para ello se realiza un análisis del discurso desde la perspectiva de la hermenéutica crítica que se aplica al modelo educativo mexicano de 2017 para educación básica. La investigación se centró en tres aspectos: el ser docente, su práctica y la formación continua. El análisis de resultados da cuenta del predominio de dos grandes categorías ideológicas recurrentes en los discursos: la naturalización de la racionalidad técnica-instrumental como una racionalidad legítima y el toyotismo, como mecanismo práctico de ocultamiento del dominio a través de un "control democrático" de legitimación.

Palabras clave: reforma educativa; ideología y educación; hermenéutica; práctica docente; formación de profesores.


O objetivo deste artigo é compreender e interpretar, de uma perspectiva crítica, a ideologia subjacente nas reformas educativas na educação básica no campo da formação contínua de professores. Para este efeito, é realizada uma análise do discurso a partir da perspectiva da hermenêutica crítica aplicada ao modelo educativo mexicano de 2017 para o ensino básico. A investigação centrou-se em três aspectos: ser um professor, a sua prática e a sua educação contínua. A análise dos resultados explica a predominância de duas grandes categorias ideológicas recorrentes nos discursos: a naturalização da racionalidade técnico-instrumental como uma racionalidade legítima e o toyotismo, como um mecanismo prático de ocultação do domínio através de um "controlo democrático" de legitimação.

Palavras-chave: reforma educativa; ideologia e educação; hermenêutica; prática pedagógica; formação de professores.


"There is no more ideological discourse than that
Which is presented as non-ideological"?

Karl Mannheim (Ideology and Utopia)



There is no policy that is aseptic, objective, scientific, or ideologically neutral. All express interests of socially organized groups interested in spreading their perception of the world and, in this case, of education. It is obvious then that educational policies, which are manifested in reforms, principles, laws, regulations, etc., have this ideological character.

We could define the ideology in different ways and with different trends (Hernández, 2015; Díez, 2019; Torres, 2016). For this document we will understand it from the neo-Marxist perspective as a classist conception of the world politically biased to defend the interests of the class in question. This conception includes a coherent set of representations, beliefs, and values that reflect its interests. Since the ruling class possesses the means to reproduce its ideology, the dominant ideology at each stage is said to be that of the ruling class.

How is it that this ideology is imposed in a quasi-natural way on the subordinate classes and manages to direct social practices without major problem? According to Torres (19 81, 2016) there are three ways or characters for its achievement:

1. The character of opacity: its content is intended to prevent the verification of the real social content of the practice that each agent performs.

2. Character of validation, legitimating and concealment. This character allows the justification of the social context in which the individual moves. In the capitalist economic - social formation, concealment and legitimating relations of domination and class exploitation.

3. Technical nature: it allows people to articulate a series of normative guidelines of conduct that can lead and guide their own practice" (pp.10).

Returning to the realm of education, if we apply the three forms mentioned  above, we can see clearly that this discourse has emerged as a reality "natural, desirable and normal" and even, that the school is a achieved demand by the struggles of the same classes subordinate to the dominant ones , when from the critical perspectives it is an institution where the future citizens are educated according to the demands of the labor market and , above all, to train them in the ideological aspects ad hoc of those in power over this institution. Thus, the school has achieved an almost unquestionable status of legitimacy for the actors who work in it.

Since the teacher is a most important factor in this sphere, we have given ourselves the task of analyzing how there is ideology in the educational reform of 2017 in Mexico, which emerged from a neoliberal government and , therefore , with characteristics for the achievement of pre-established indicators . In addition, during this period of government, a series of measures were developed to regulate their access, permanence and promotion based on criteria developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which were contrary to human rights historically achieved by teachers in this country.

In addition, since the relevant from the ideology in this case it is to know how it is imposing a new reality to these actors and how are assigned new social practices we ask: ¿ How is it displayed the teacher in training and its practice within this reform? It is obvious here that training and practice go hand in hand.

In the review of the scientific literature, carried out in this regard, the notion of ideology in relation to educational policies and reforms was started, specifically on teacher training and practice. It can be said that the production on this object that concerns us is, at least in the last five years, in fact non-existent. That is not remarkable since the object is bounded. What is to be appreciated is the tiny amount of texts that propose to analyze ideology in education. We found only seven of them, of which four are trials and only three refer to some type of field analysis. None of them is found in Mexico. The majority refers to Institutions of Higher Education and how they have been appropriating of a neoliberal ideology.

Hernández (2015), in his essay-type text, deepens and discusses the concept of ideology and how it can be appreciated its relevance in the analysis of the educational phenomenon; In this regard, he distinguishes certain political tendencies in this political discourse that, to say about him, have always persisted, one of them being the dominant one at a certain stage and place.

The trial Torres (2016) reveals how neoliberalism has been appropriating academic culture in universities and their organizational and administrative processes in different ways. She mentioned seven theses among which are the following: the "naturalization" of the neoliberal and globalizing discourse on the premises of the free market and the primacy of this over the interests of the groups; the promotion of an ideology of human capital and free competition between people and institutions; the imposition of a vision where the universities should privilege technical training and the production of knowledge in the same vein, which serves to solve practical problems of companies rather than of the community or of the underprivileged classes; in this way, humanistic and social knowledge are demerited, among other aspects. It concludes with the need to promote this type of reflections in educational actors in order to achieve critical thinking that allows, not only to realize it, but to take a position and action in this regard.

Moreno (2016) studies how Critical Analysis of Discourse (ACD) allows the analysis of how reforms and educational policies are tailored to the decisions of international agencies like the World Bank (WB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), among others. It suggests that the use of this tool implies identifying the assumptions, the contradictions, the hidden meanings and the way in which these policies are legitimized in the educational field. This article argues about the importance of ACD in understanding the discourses and practices that emerge from the educational field.

Díez (2019) affirms that a new historical moment of capitalism is being seen in which persuasion is more important than violent imposition and that this occurs predominantly in education, where schools are in charge, unconsciously, of promoting ideologies appropriate to the neoliberal system. In this regard, he affirms that "… neoliberal ideology is installed in the educational system through the logic of entrepreneurship that turns selfishness into a vital and transcendental impulse. The educational reforms that are being implemented in much of the world, following the guidelines of international economic organizations with a clear neoliberal orientation, introduce this logic into the current educational systems" (pp. 222).

With respect to the theoretical -empiric  work , we find the document of Cornieles and Villegas (2018), which is designed to interpret the notion of educational development in Venezuelan school in official documents of the initial government of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela ; this in order to reveal his ideological background and his attachment to international politics. Above, based on the idea of all educative policy speech is - ideological revealing interests of the groups in power.

The study by Casillas (2019) is prepared in Mexico in the context of higher education, where educational policies are conditioned by neoliberal, globalizing economies and based on education by competencies. In this sense, it is proposed to recognize the educational practice and the role of the present ideology from the hidden curriculum and the possibilities offered by the conformation of the critical capacity in the individual and collective transformation of the university teaching staff. In the conclusions, the possibility of forming a critical capacity from its practice appears.

We can say that the analysis of Diaz (2020) is the closest to our intentions since in his study, prepared at a Spanish university, it is raised to account in the process of initial training of the teachers, the way they spread the values and dominant ideologies appropriate to the neoliberal society and its main dogmas. The predominance of technical teaching, the emphasis on aspects centered on "class control", competition and the competencies to be promoted, among other aspects, are revealed as notions of a dominant neoliberal ideology that permeate training and teaching practices.

Training, in effect, as it is proposed in this last work, as a heteronymous and formal process, as an educational act and as a social relationship, is evidently loaded with this ideology that supports a vision of the world where the teacher must be, possess and do according to existing parameters that correspond to the hegemonic interests at a discourse level. Teacher training policies are obviously highly verticalized in this sense and denote a series of impositions that enable the autonomic possibilities by the responsible actors for the educational process: teachers, who from these policies seek to be regulated in thought and action.

These policies are embodied in curricular reforms (which manifest non-neutral educational intentions) and labor (which propose rules of access and permanence according to hegemonic needs), in study plans and programs (cultural arbitrary established through symbolic violence) and regulations that reveal and guarantee the operational plan of all of the above. Instrumental technical rationality is, in these aspects, the weapon that pretends to pass off as a scientist discourse, objective, unobjectionable and necessary to solve the problems that are experienced (Díez, 2019; Casillas, 2019).

Since Mexico is a Latin American country, it is, as the dependency theorists say, a subordinate country. Hence, a multiplicity of social, economic and political aspects is strongly influenced by companies and transnational organizations such as the OECD, which issues various "recommendations" regarding educational policy, training and hiring of teachers the same ones that have been taken up in the great majority by national politics in its most recent reforms. We affirm that these reforms can appreciate the domain of technical rationality to the various speeches that adopts and raises. With this, there is an intention to train teachers with characteristics that are specifically adequate for the neoliberal conditions of the economy.

The discourses in relation to the teacher, his continuous training and the practice that he is expected to exercise, can be observed through various documents that essentially have not been modified for years and that continue to be used in their original meaning until the reform 2017, which will become our empirical reference. In this regard, they can be seen from the policies of the National System of Continuing Training and Professional training of Teachers in Service (SFCSP)1; these have been based on the idea of professionalization, through strategies among which are: the systematization of processes based on diagnoses and training paths, defining skills, not only of teachers, but principals, supervisors and technical -Pedagogical support, the involvement of other higher education institutions in the task of continuous training and the updating and articulation of the plan and programs of basic education studies.

Regarding teacher training and practice, we can identify three levels in educational policies at which this ideology is taking shape:

1. The first level, that of pedagogical action as intentionality, as a substance for training, through a series of principles associated with being a teacher, professional practice and continuous training, which not only base and situate the practice, but also legitimize it. .

2. The second level, the translation of that intentionality, these principles to practical issues, represented by educational and pedagogical models aimed at forming a type of teacher (Bourdieu, 2018).

3. The third level, that of individual speeches issued by the subject of the school, as learning, in relation to being, to become a teacher.

Due to the previous arguments, focusing on the first level already mentioned is that we ask ourselves what are the ideological aspects explicitly and implicitly present in the documents of the educational reform of 2017 to basic education around the teacher, their continuous training and its practice.

In this process of ideological transmission we can identify two great intentions, which, although they are not exclusive to this educational field, can be perceived with greater force and clarity: on the one hand, as already mentioned, the implantation of a rationality instrumental where you see scientific discoveries2 as natural, historical, objective and legitimate, and on the other hand, the ideology of "toyotism" as a new capitalist trend of labor exploitation in which the worker is involved in discussion and decision-making, disguising this with a halo of democracy work in which the "other" is being considered rather than deleted.

The purpose of this article is to communicate the results of research on the subject of study, which was presented as objective the analysis of the ideology in the continuous formation processes of the teachers of basic education, through pedagogical action at a first level, that is, that of intentionality, deployed in the educational policy contained in said reform.

Investigation methodology

This is a qualitative research, as seeks to understand and interpret the meanings and underlying meanings in political discourse implicit in the documents of educational reform for the Mexican basic education by 2017. Since every document is drawn up by social persons, is bearer of subjectivity and political interests. To give an account of how it manifests itself and what that subjectivity is, as well as to reveal those interests, is the purpose of this work.

Therefore, the hermeneutical method which allowed  us to realize of  the non - visible content in speech to interpret, depending on the subject that issues and the context in which it develops was used. In that sense, we start from the premise that official documents in that reform, are produced by a kind of organic intellectuals who are at the service of the State and the ruling classes and, for both, seeking in his speeches, to legitimize such hegemony. The hermeneutic used in this sense is criticism, which comes from the Frankfurt school, predominantly from the works of Habermas (1982) who considers it necessary to make an interpretation of what he calls univocal or hegemonic discourse, in order to reveal in it, the intentions of domination and reproduction on the part of the classes in power.

A qualitative discourse analysis technique is used and they are interpreted based on critical theory (Moreno, 2016). For this we proceeded to review the educational model 2017, in order to find information concerning the concept we have of the teacher, and their practice and their continuing education, as we believe that this aspect will take into account the context in which neoliberal interests permeate said reform and, with it, their intentions to create a "legitimate culture" through cultural arbitrariness and symbolic violence, disguised as "myths" and "illusions" that are intended to pass as absolute, impartial and necessary truths for everyone in this country.

The analysis of the speech was carried out based on the assumption of that there are a number of categories that impact the teachers, his practice and continuous training, these categories are the impact of technical-instrumental and toyotism rationality.

Technique research validation is given by a triangulation of interpreters, as this guaranteed the agreement between them to make a report more scientific (authors are interpreters of the first order and it was given to check the work of two other readers who made some comments to improve the analysis).



Being a teacher: the apparent "autonomy of the professional"

A relevant discussion in the field of education is about whether or not the teacher is a professional. Conceptually speaking, the professional is the one who in his practice puts into play the theoretical and methodological knowledge acquired in his formal training process; ALSO it is autonomous with respect to the State, and among other requirements. At least in these two mentioned, the teacher couldn't be considered as such for obvious reasons.

Politically and ideologically speaking, the teacher is mentioned and considered as a professional, who may even be able to develop and make their own decisions in the workplace, but who, on the other hand, needs to be permanently professionalized. This is called professionalization. That is not to say that other occupations do not live these circumstances, but we are talking about the teacher and, in this regard, what is worth mentioning is that it has been subjected to this process to fulfill two functions: with professionalization (including courses, workshops, conferences or postgraduate programs, even validated and determined by educational authorities) learn and implement the techniques, mechanisms, resources, theories, models, etc., which are essential to carry out the planning, teaching and evaluation processes. In this sense, the domain of the State towards the teaching and practices by way of professionalization is promoted. On the other hand, the idea that, since he is not considered professional, since he is in constant professionalization, he can be skimped on income and labor benefits that are subjected to a permanent meritocratic process is also promoted.

The pedagogical principles, as references of being a teacher, appear in an approach in which Toyotism emerges as a new "inclusive and democratic "culture work, since "… it is necessary to overcome the old vertical and prescriptive model to move towards one more flexible. Thus, the educational model promotes the strengthening of educational communities through curricular autonomy, faculty of each school to actively choose the content and within a part of the curriculum "(SEP, 2017a, p.77).

It has gathered a rhetoric that promotes predominantly technical adjustments practice teaching in the name of autonomy, emphasizing training methods and the substance that gives legitimacy, that is to say, didactics, as seen in one of the characteristics of the model: "… presentation of new training modalities for the transformation of pedagogical practices; as well as the importance of didactic training in specific disciplines" (SEP, 2017a, p.21).

When mentioning the modalities, they refer to new continuous training schemes for professional development and the transformation of practice, which, in the name of teaching as a profession, emphasize the technical aspects of the training process (which can be schooled, virtual, mixed or open ) and assessments corresponding to the profiles, parameters and indicators that houses "characteristics of what constitutes a good teacher" (SEP, 2017B, p. 41), established in the Law of the professional teachers Service (LSPD), which is conceived teacher "... as a professional focused on student learning, which environments generates inclusive learning, Engagement  with constantly improving their teaching practice and able to adapt the curricula to its specific context" (SEP, 2017a, p. 30).

Conception that implies:

   … Stop considering them preponderantly as transmitters of knowledge prescribed in a vertical curriculum, not very open to creativity and adaptation to different environments. The premise of the Educational Model is that teachers are agents capable of discerning about the application of the curriculum in front of students with heterogeneous characteristics and active participants in the learning process.  (SEP, 2017, pp. 131-1 32).

Obviously, this idea looks "re raise" the docent figure and its practice and training, in apparent contradiction to history teachers and their role played in the school, which has been characterized as a reproduction job in which he has limited himself to being a transmitter of knowledge in the formal curriculum and of values and ideologies in the unseen. In the political discourse it is established that their role consists of being a traditional teacher, but also a technical one: the intention is to apply the plan and study programs under the concept of adaptation, through a capacity for discernment, empowered by a margin of decision, product of reflection, accumulated experience and creativity; however, these decisions are the seat and destination of merely didactic, technocratic issues, decided in advance by authorities and "experts" in the prescriptive documents. All this disguised as an apparent "teaching autonomy", derived from a reflection on the choice of the most appropriate means to achieve the ultimate goal: the achievement of the expected learning, since " The main function of the teacher is to contribute with their capacities and experience in the construction of environments that promote the achievement of the expected Learning by the students and a harmonious coexistence among all the members of the school community , in this lies its essence " (SEP, 2017b, p . 114).

Toyotism and teaching practice

The toyotism can be seen through two distinctive concepts: efficiency and effectiveness. These are intended to achieve through the flexibility and achieving predetermined goals. In relation to practice teaching, the above can recognize it in clearer way, through the ideological discourse in which the flexible curriculum with the key learning, concretized in expected learning is mentioned:

It should be noted that, unlike previous study programs that were organized by bimonthly blocks, this Plan gives the teacher widely freedom to plan their classes, organizing the contents as it suits them... It is intended that at the end of the grade each student has achieved the expected learning, but the strategies to achieve it can be diverse ... Based on the context of each school and the particular needs and interests of the students in a group, the teacher will be able to select and organize the contents - using the expected learning as a guide structuring each study programs, in order to design teaching sequences, projects and other activities that promote the discovery and appropriation of new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values as well as metacognitive processes (SEP, 2017b, p 122).

Although, given the idea of accompanied flexibility of teaching freedom, a margin is noted for decision making, it is also true that the margin of freedom to decide what is promoted, it is bounded around how and in What time  expected learning will be approach. This implies recognizing that the latter, when considered the fundamental referent of the practice, portray a freedom of a technical, instrumental nature.

From this logic, the ideological discourse regarding planning class plays an important role, because:

This process is at the heart of teaching practice, as it allows the teacher to anticipate how the teaching process will be carried out. It also requires the teacher to think about the variety of ways his students learn, their interests and motivations. This will allow them to plan activities that are more appropriate to the needs of all the students in each group they serve (SEP, 2017b, p. 121).

Thus, although it is suggested about a planning related to the idea of flexibility to consider different ways of learning, needs and interests of students; this merely seek to contextualize or adapt, from the didactics, that is to say, flexibility is reduced to the technical - didactic choice, but not to resignificate or reframe deeper aspects such as training internationalities let alone learning or prescribed competences. The foregoing becomes more evident when what is intended is "to adapt the didactic situations to the different contexts of the country, to the levels of knowledge of their students and their particular learning needs" (Ibídem, p. 126); based on the teacher's book, since "the teacher's book will favor informed decision-making, teacher autonomy and reflection on their pedagogical practice (SEP, 2017b).

In addition to planning, evaluation plays an important role, since:

Planning and evaluation are undertaken simultaneously; they are two parts of the same process. When planning an activity or a didactic situation that seeks for the student to achieve a certain expected learning, it must also be considered how that achievement will be measured. In other words, a teaching sequence will not be complete if it does not include a way to measure student achievement.

A key challenge for the teacher is to have control of both processes. For this reason, it must ensure that neither planning nor evaluation is an administrative burden, but true allies of its practice, vehicles to achieve educational purposes. (SEP, 2017b p. 121).

Fit to highlight these elements from toyotist ideology, while not only the teacher aims to achieve the continued role of time and movement of students, but that, with it, the authorities gain control of the teaching and practice . The previous one, in order of reducing bureaucracy and, with it, increasing effectiveness and efficiency. Even when paradoxically it is mentioned that teaching autonomy is being promoted.

Considering the above, it stands out in this analysis how educational speeches policies shown, intended to see the teacher as a professional able to make their own decisions in their practice, but if you comply with the plans and programs stipulated and, of course, with the achievement of the expected learning. What matters is the result or product. It is to say, practice understood as what a teacher does before, during and after and for the class, is oriented from these policies, plans and programs of study, by certain philosophical, social and politic principles, besides, of strategies more or less defined and aimed at achieving the learning objectives. There, although the teacher is empowered to decide, he cannot do it about antroposociologic and philosophical foundations that guide education; not even in content, timing or other aspects that are reserved for experts and politicians.

Continuous training: the new forms of technical rationality

The pedagogical principles raised in the educational reforms contain, explicitly or implicitly, references for practice from the conception that is recognized in relation to being a teacher, and in the same way, it happens with what will guide continuous training, which has been raised from two training schemes:

1. Outside of school, which involves:

   ... Meet the needs that the Educational Model and the curriculum pose to supervisors, technical-pedagogical advisers, principals and teachers, as well as the particularities of the educational levels and their different modalities, both in basic and upper secondary education. A wide and adequate continuous training offer allows teachers to take ownership of the process and make decisions towards the realization of the vision that the curriculum proposes; and encourage them so that, in turn, they motivate and promote the improvement of students (SEP, 2017a, 136).

2. At school, where:

The objective of this on-site strategy is for schools to become learning communities that make collective reflection on school life and pedagogical practice an inherent job of the teaching profession and the daily work of schools. Through face-to-face meetings of academies, circles and study groups or technical council for reflection, contextualization and solution of doubts. This effort also implies the creation of comprehensive didactic proposals for the solution of students' learning difficulties (SEP, 2017a , p. 138).

Regarding the first scheme, it is evident to appreciate how the proposals are oriented and anchored in the technical - instrumental rationality, because in it the essence of continuing training it is identified with the method of training that, in the broad sense of the term, is translates into interiorize and apply in this case, the educational model and the curriculum vision. In other words, it is a training aimed at correcting problems related to the application of the study plan and programs.

In relation to a second modality, training based on reflective processes suggests the development of a "community" that enables dialogue and reflection on the current problems of the school and of each of its actors, including the teacher. However, It is important to emphasize what is it hiding behind the ideological speech. Specifically, it is promoted to make from the collective reflection the means to turn schools into learning communities oriented to the design of strategies, to solve different problems, which bring us back to technical rationality. It seeks to address the problems detected through a process of "detection of needs" to intervene accordingly. In this, the core point in relation to training is that from that community and the reflective process, what is proposed to be resolved is from the didactics; that is to say, again the technical as the beginning and end of the reflection. Moreover, it should be added that, although the promising sounding speech despite the above writing, the practice is plagued by a top- down direction in which the agenda and is already designed by the authorities so that the good intention dilutes and disappears in the discourse itself.

In both cases, the new forms of technical rationality are assisted by a rhetoric that recovers two schemes of continuous training, apparently with different purposes; However, maintaining a common denominator: a formation and practice with strong tintestoyotistas, underpinned by the idea of  collaborative work, seeking to form learning communities understood from mutual support to make efficient processes aimed at targets with an integration view from the dominant ideology, through a speech disguised and contradictory, on behalf of inhibiting bureaucratic aspects, because "... in the administrative approach about education and school, an educational relevant project to promote complex learning typical of the 21st century, has little viability. Therefore, the Educative Model seeks to transform the school culture in order to achieve the centrality of student learning" (SEP, 2017a, p. 100).

While it is true that, in essence, with proposals for continuing training it tries to go of the paradigm of teaching to that of learning, with the center to the student, not the teacher, in addition to seeking to exchange individualist attitudes  by collaborative ones and provide a privileged place to the experience and reflection of teachers, both individually and collectively, on their own practice; it is also true that these proposals fall away being determined in the instrumental field, technical, remedial, didactic or at the meeting contextualized s about the realization of the curriculum to achieve expected learning, since "The main purpose of the teaching function is to accompany the students' training processes to achieve the expected learning . This will set the standard that guides their ongoing training" (SEP, 2017a, p.135).

In short, schematizing the empirical evidence previously exposed, we will be happy pointing out that the approach of the educational model 2017, as an extension and reorganization of other reforms and "other models" , it has a material and symbolic basis that, through discourse as a Ideological device, seen from the referents of Toyotism and technical rationality as ideological intentions , promotes practices and meanings in relation to being a teacher, professional practice and continuous training.



When we started this work, we took on the task of finding recent studies s that addressed the critical perspective from the object. The result was disappointing. Only a work analyzed a near phenomenon in a Spanish university (Díez, 2020). The other texts found were predominantly theoretical essays on ideology and education or educational reforms as educational policies in the neoliberal context.

We think, somewhat speculatively, that this was due to the fact that neoliberal capitalist economic policy ended up imposing a more or less uniform view of educational reforms in which criticism from the neo- Marxist point of view was seen as obsolete or negative and that the hegemonic educational discourse (that which comes from transnational organizations such as the OECD or UNESCO itself, with their due differences) was imposed as a normality that lends itself to debate in technical-instrumental aspects, but not in educational purposes (once again the predominance of this rationality in Toyotism).

In this same vein, we appreciate that the Marxist and neo- Marxist concepts were largely in disuse within the investigation of this phenomenon, exceptions made. In particular, the concept of ideology was in little used. Even those who use the concept do not allude or refer to one of the classics on the subject: Karl Marx.

This review allowed understand us that this study, where ideology became the benchmark for primary analysis to study political speeches around the teachers and dimensions already mentioned in the article, stood us in a not only fertile land but abandoned. For the same reason, it was necessary to pay more in this regard, since we cannot conceive of the training process, nor the educational practice as a "natural or normal or correct" phenomenon, as it has been consistently pointed out by these authors, as a neoliberal objective that it is reflected in educational policies.

The original and novelty of this work lies in its analysis of documents and in some of its findings. One is that it reveals that the categories officially recognized in relation to being a teacher: professional practice and continuing training of the basic education teachers, as well as his proposal: reflection on practice for processes transform, are mostly associated with rationality, by antonomasia, technical academician or rational technique.

Said implicit rationality in the speeches, favors the identification of the teaching being, the practice and the continuous training with aspects of an instrumental nature ; even though in the same discourse it is emphasized that this could become a reflective, creative, experiential, flexible process, with a wide margin for decision-making. However, as we have seen, this is centered around the didactic ; as if practice were reduced to purely technical matters; where although the teacher mainly will appeal to his experience, creativity and reflection, this  elements remain subject to the guidelines set in the policy and practice mediators instruments, that is to say plans and curricula.

It is important to point out that the fundamental problem is not that rationality of this nature remains in force, but that by action or omission it is naturalized as the only reference, as the only reasoning on which the sense of being a teacher is built, from the practice and continuous training.

For this reason, it would be necessary to recover the idea that it is necessary to promote a true communicative rationality among politicians, experts, teachers and other actors involved in the educational field, in such a way that it is possible to build, from a true dialogical participation, the mechanisms of development and implementation of a curriculum in which participation and inter subjectivity are genuine and not disguised as discourses that, in addition to being biased towards the search for "democratic control" of school times and movements, promote social verticality and the desired cultural reproduction , but they are also (despite its elaborate speech that proposes ideals, proposals and strategies, now considered today as vanguard), contradicted almost always a reality that exceeds and prevent its realization.

Finally, it is important to emphasize that although it is true that there is sufficient evidence to affirm that symbolic violence is exercised through pedagogical action, seen from a first level, as intentionality, based on the establishment of official categories, associating being a teacher, professional practice and continuous training with technical-academic rationality; It is also true that we cannot affirm that this occurs in practice: first of the training or continuing education proposals and not even in the teacher's practice itself.

Hence the importance of considering the combination of the three levels where one can appreciate the teaching action: in the first level, pedagogical action as intention; the second , as the translation of this intention to didactic questions through educational and pedagogical models; and the third level, that of individual discourses issued by the subject of the school, as learning, as a result of the pedagogical action as a whole. This provides guidelines for developing new lines of research that complement the work that has been presented.



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1 This study was conducted in Mexico, where it is conceived as " a set of institutions, agencies, services, products and relationships, Articu - sides and regulated by the Ministry of Public Education (SEP) under the direction of educat authorities ivas state, with a high degree of adaptability to the needs and crazy conditions - them, which drives the professionalization of teachers active as a way to improve the quality and equity of services educació basic n in the country " (SEP, 2017A , p. 37).

2 We refer to those prescriptive discoveries that come from the scientific findings of positivist psychology and pedagogy , which permeate all areas of academic production, exceptions made, and which promote the creation of an education guided by these "sciences" and of a teacher "trained" adequately in these findings and trends (See; Habermas, 1982, Torres, 2016).


Conflict of interests:

The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.


Authors' contribution:

Inés Lozano Andrade: Conception of the idea, general advice on the topic addressed, coordinator of the authorship, literature search and review, preparation of instruments, application of instruments, review of the application of the applied bibliographic norm, review and final version of the article, article correction.

Pedro Emiliano Miranda: Conception of the idea, general advice on the topic addressed, coordinator of the authorship, literature search and review, preparation of instruments, application of instruments, review of the application of the applied bibliographic norm, review and final version of the article, article correction.


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Inés Lozano Andrade, Pedro Emiliano Miranda