Family orientation activities for the development of the ability to talk in preschool age

Mendive. Revista de Educación, july-september 2019; 17(3): 437-453

Translated from the original in Spanish

Family orientation activities for the development of the ability to talk in preschool age


Actividades de orientación familiar para el desarrollo de la habilidad conversar en la edad preescolar


Belkis Moreno Corrales1, Julio Antonio Conill Armenteros2, Ramón González Calero1

1Municipal University Headquarters of the University of Pinar del Río ¨Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca¨, Mantua Municipality. Cuba. E-mail:

2University of Pinar del Río ¨Hermanos Saíz Monte de Ocas¨. Cuba. 


Received: October 3rd, 2019.
Approved: July 2nd, 2019.



The need to guide the family on the development of the pre-school girl and boy skill in conversation and the inadequacies in the theoretical and methodological order to conceive the developing educational process, in the conditions of the home, are the motives that lead to the elaboration of a proposal for family orientation activities aimed at this end. As a starting point, an assessment is made of the different positions in the study and orientation of the development of the ability to converse, investigating the current situation through observation of the children and the survey of the parents, in addition to an interview that was applied to the parents to verify the effectiveness of the actions developed. The proposal contains a set of educational orientations, conceived with a direct, clear and accessible language; seen through all the procedures that are considered to give treatment to this important communicative ability, in the conditions of the home. In this sense, the development of the ability is facilitated in a timely, conscious and planned manner, while at the same time favoring the protagonism of the family. All of this makes it possible to encourage parents to play an educational role based on their active character in the education and development of their child, as well as providing valuable reference material for researchers or other people interested in this subject.

Key words: conversation; family; skill; orientation.


La necesidad de orientar a la familia sobre el desarrollo de la habilidad conversar del niño/a de edad preescolar y las insuficiencias en el orden teórico y metodológico, para concebir el proceso educativo desarrollador, en las condiciones del hogar, son los móviles que conducen a la elaboración de una propuesta de actividades de orientación familiar dirigidas a este fin. Como punto de partida se efectúa una valoración de las distintas posiciones en el estudio y orientación del desarrollo de la habilidad conversar, indagando a través de la observación a los niños/as y la encuesta a los padres, la situación actual, además de una entrevista que se les aplicó a los padres para constatar la efectividad de las acciones desarrolladas. La propuesta contiene un conjunto de orientaciones educativas, concebidas con un lenguaje directo, claro y asequible; visto a través de todos los procedimientos que se consideran para dar tratamiento a esta importante habilidad comunicativa, en las condiciones del hogar. En este sentido se facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de manera oportuna, consciente y planificada a la vez que favorece el protagonismo de la familia. Todo ello permite incentivar en los padres el rol educativo a partir del carácter activo en la educación y desarrollo de su niño/a; además de significar un valioso material de consulta para investigadores u otras personas interesadas en esta temática.

Palabras clave: conversación; familia; habilidad; orientación.



Cuban educational policy focuses its efforts on a fundamental objective: the harmonious and multilateral formation of the individual, from an early age.

It can then be argued that the purpose of education is unique, but in each evolutionary period specific tasks are proposed according to their characteristics.

In this sense, the development of the communication of the child of (0 6 years), is one of the most serious tasks of Preschool Education, since the command of the mother tongue is closely related to the development of his conscience, with the knowledge of the surrounding world and the development of all spheres of personality.

It corresponds to the communication a determining place, by means of which the individual enters into relation with his fellow men to coordinate mutual actions, exchange ideas and influence each other, demonstrating it through conversation.

The school is then entrusted with the beautiful task of teaching children to freely use their mother tongue in their relationships with the people around them, to speak correctly and to express their ideas in a way understandable to others.

So, the teacher in her work with the child, have to take care that the language used is correct and that each word is pronounced with cleanliness, clarity, accuracy, always making them observe the correct pronunciation of the phonemes.

The model that the child has for the imitation of his language is the people that surround him, the teacher constitutes the fundamental model for the teaching of the pronunciation and intonation of the words of the language, his communication must be characterized by the appropriate intonation and rhythm precise, frank, correct and clear diction.

However, when referring to the development of communication of preschool-age children, the fundamental task on which adults should be focused is the understanding and activation of the conversation for which activities are drawn up that allow unifying educational influences.

Therefore, teachers based on their potential and based on all established methodological requirements should organize different activities that allow family guidance to enhance the integral development of their children.

Of course, the influence that the child receives is not limited only to the teachers, classmates, workers of these centers in general, but to the members of the family, as the first nucleus with which they establish social relations.

It is precisely in the family where the child begins his activity as a social being, participating with the adult in the different situations of daily life. To ensure that the family can face the education of their children, with greater possibilities, it is necessary to improve the guidance they receive, to stimulate the development of their children's conversation from the earliest ages.

The social support that the child has will be related to their psychosocial well-being and the coping they carry out in stressful situations. Adequate social support has positive direct effects in relation to health and is also a great help to compensate for stressors related to vital transitions. »For a child, social support increases the feeling of belonging, improves self-esteem and generates the perception that if needed, they will have help.» (Gallardo, 2016, p. 67).

The school institution is not prepared, nor designed to take the place of parents; In essence, it is known that family and institution complement each other, but they are not substituted, since they are social institutions associated with the same purpose, but different in their origin, composition and form of internal cohesion.

According to PM Rosenthal, the family constitutes the basic cell of society, that is, the simplest institution, based on the ties of the conjugal and consanguineous kinship established by the means of marriage and the procreation of children. (Rosenthal, 1981, p. 1690).

For this, the unification of criteria in the development of knowledge and skills in parents that allow them to stimulate the development of their children's language in a timely, conscious and planned manner must be guaranteed.

All of which corroborates that we are facing an issue that has not yet been exhausted and that demands pedagogy to deepen it, by virtue of contributing to the improvement of the Preschool Education Subsystem.

On the other hand, from the results achieved in the area of language, in the National Research on Growth and Development, where Pinar del Río was studied, it is found that in the pedagogical reality, there are inadequacies in the parents to enhance the language development of their children in the preschool age and within this in the ability to talk, limiting their corresponding roles in the education of their children during this period of life, so transcendental in this area of child development.

We consider that the family has a decisive role in the process of formation and development of communication, since this is the medium where the child receives the first information about the world, in addition to the need to communicate with their peers makes children from their incorporation into the family group develop their expressive and communicative potential in general (express, receive, and interpret message); This in turn develops the child's personality and interpersonal communication patterns are consolidated based on the style of relationships that exist between family dynamics, which are transferred to other contexts in which the child is subsequently incorporated.

From here, both the educational institutions and the pedagogical collection play a key role in having a significant impact on children. Despite not being able to replace the role of the family, they cannot supplant the emotional needs of the child, even if they cover all the material deficiencies and the cognitive demands of the students.

The authors also point out that the role of the family is basic in shaping the social situation of the child's development, since it is determined not only by the historically formed demands of the social environment, but also by the demands placed on the child in the framework of a specific family with specific objective and subjective living conditions.

School performance, school integration and adaptation, student autonomy and facilitating behaviors of the learning process, depend largely on the involvement of parents in their children's school activity, both in the family environment and in participation of the activities that schools dedicate to families. (García, 2014, p.31 ).

The researcher Elsa Núñez, of the ICCP, qualifies family orientation as a «systematic educational modality», which prepares the family to fulfill their intra-family functions and, on the other hand, strengthen ties between parents and pedagogues (Núñez, 2010, p. 13).

Based on the significance of adequate family orientation, preschool education prioritizes within its guidelines the preparation of the family; both institutionally and non-institutionally. In this sense, joint activity is the main way of preparation. Of course, there are many edges that include family orientation; however, the development of communication in children is an aspect of singular importance, because language is the material envelope of thought.

From inspections, joint methodological aids, controls, carried out it has been possible to verify elements that enhance this important task, such as:

Although the weaknesses that affect this process have also been reflected in these same reports, such as:

The results reflected in the different reports show the need to deepen the joint work of the school as a social entity that transmits guides and supports this process; hence it was identified as an objective to socialize the proposal of family guidance activities that contribute to the development of the ability to talk in preschool children.



In the theoretical order they were used:

Historical-logical: which allowed an analysis of the origin and evolution of the ability to talk until the present time, facilitating the understanding of the historical and social conditions that characterized the confrontation of the ability to talk, thus establishing the links between this aspect and the different educational agencies (school, community, and family, among others)?

Analysis, synthesis: it led to the evaluation of the studies developed on the subject in the international, national and territorial context, facilitating the understanding, explanation and generalization of the main tendencies in terms of conversational ability. It was useful in the analysis of the sources consulted, as well as in the interpretation of the results of the diagnosis in the desire to organize and structure the proposal of family orientation activities.

Modeling: its use allowed making a theoretical, methodological and practical representation of the conception that underpins the structural organization of the proposed family orientation activities.

Systemic approach: it provided us both in the design of the family orientation activities proposal and in its implementation, those general elements to take into account, as well as the chronological order to be established in this proposal of educational orientations.

Documentary study: in order to make an analysis of the content of the preschool program, to verify what is referred to the ability to talk.

In the empirical order they were used:

The observation of the children: a total of 20 observations were made, with the objective of verifying the development of the ability to talk in the children of the preschool grade of the school Francisco Gómez Toro, which were carried out under natural conditions, they were carried out in different activities that the child performs during their stay in the institution, they did not notice this observation, since they did not intervene in the educational teaching process so that nothing It was forced.

Survey of parents: one was carried out for each selected parent, which total 20, for 100%, in order to verify the level of preparation that the family possesses to develop the ability to talk from home. This was carried out as follows: it was previously collected with the family regarding the time and date of completion. The instrument was applied to the child's mother at home, since these are the ones that spend most of the time with the child. It had a spectrum of 6 questions, which allowed knowing the level of preparation that the family has in terms of knowledge of the particularities of the development of the ability to talk about their children and the influence they exert on such development.

The processing was carried out taking into account each of the items, quantifying their frequency of occurrence from the percentage analysis in each question, which allowed an intuitive analysis of the main regularities found in the following categories conceived.

Interview with parents: each one of the selected parents was carried out, with the objective of knowing the level of preparation that the family has on the stimulation of the development of the ability to talk and the particularities in their children, after the orientations received. It was done in the same way as the previous instrument.

For the quantitative analysis of the information, the descriptive statistics that were used for the information processing were used, based on the distribution of frequencies and the creation of tables.

The information obtained in each of the instruments was put into tables based on the frequencies in the behavior of each of the evaluated indicators, performing a percentage calculation, which reflected the level of representativeness of each conceived indicator, both in the expiration of children's achievements in language development in terms of the ability to talk as in the level of influence that the family exerts on that development.

From this tabulation, the qualitative analysis was carried out, which describes the main difficulties presented by the children sampled, as well as the preparation that the family has to exert a positive influence on their children in order to stimulate the development of the child's conversation.

For the development of this proposal, the observation of the children of the preschool grade of the school was taken as an analysis unit: Francisco Gómez Toro of the Mantua municipality, and the survey and interview of the families of these children, considering these as the population which is confirmed by the following structure:

For the sample, 20 children of the preschool grade were taken into account, with their respective families representing 25%, being this intentional.

We consider that because of the intentionality that we pursue, it acquires an applied research character and within this, the experimental one: it is used in that kind of scientific experience in which some change is deliberately provoked and its result is observed and interpreted, with some cognitive purpose. It is characterized by the control of variables. Within it, the pre-experimental one was used, since only one experimental group is used to compare the values of the dependent variable before and after the independent variable is acted on.



Main results of the development of the ability to talk, taking into account the instruments applied in the initial diagnosis:

Through the observation of the children and the survey of the parents, different irregularities were found:

In the observation of children regarding the development of the ability to talk, it was found that 60 % still have difficulty expressing their ideas and desires intentionally clear, and following a logical order, as well as correctly pronounce all the sounds of language. In addition, 55 % of them are not yet able to express themselves correctly in the past, present and future, following the grammar rules, as well as using a broad vocabulary related to the objects of the world that interacts. It could be seen that only 40 % of them do not feel pleasure and satisfaction when using the different beautiful forms of literary language and express simple evaluations when appreciating the natural beauties of the surrounding world and works of art.

In the survey conducted to parents it was found that 30 % of them know the development achievements that their child must achieve with regard to the ability to talk in this grade, although in a very superficial way. 64 % state that children talk with the family; but 67 %, it is of the opinion that it is the adults who initiate this conversation, doing it at different times of the day and especially in bed, in the bathroom and in the collection of the school. The most frequent topics of conversation for 57 % are family, play and how to speak correctly. In addition, 75 % are of the opinion that they always attend to them, although sometimes they ask the child to say it quickly or leave it for later.

All the analysis carried out so far, shows that the family knows in a very superficial way the achievements that their child must overcome in relation to the development of the ability to talk in the preschool grade, which prevents them from treating them at home and It is shown that, although some moments of the day are used to develop this ability in children, most parents attend to them, but sometimes they ask the child to say it quickly or leave him for later.

This verification consolidates the principles of the authors of the necessary precision to better orient the families, in order to provide them with all the necessary ways to strengthen more and better the development of their children's conversational ability, from birth.

In this sense, this article offers a proposal of family orientation activities, in order to solve the problem defined above.

The consultations carried out, the application of the theoretical methods and the results obtained, led to the determination of the most important aspects that should constitute the proposal of family orientation activities.

Basic methodological theoretical elements. Basis for the proposal

Children develop not only through the accumulation of knowledge obtained through the way of contemplation, the active route is very important, aimed at mastering different skills and forms of human activity. The more varied their activities, the more multilateral the paths of knowledge of their surroundings and the development of their potential.

In the preschool grade the essential foundations are laid for the subsequent learning of the codes of literacy, of the understanding of the addition and subtraction in the first grade, in addition to other knowledge of the affective, volitional and social spheres.

To study the orientation of the family at these ages, it is necessary to apply actions that take into account the above and therefore have a cycle approach, that is, with a logical sequence, different levels of complexity and in correspondence with the family orientation pathways.

The family plays an extraordinary role in the formation and development of their children. The patterns of behavior that the child perceives, the knowledge that is transmitted to them and, above all, the affection and communication, which is established with the children from the first years of life, constitute the basis of subsequent development.

In this sense, in children's institutions teachers must prepare parents from different ways, that is, groups of parents, consultation of parents, home visits, among others, on the peculiarities of the development of their children, as well as the role they should assume in such development.

An edge of the integral development of children is communication, where in the preschool age, from the understanding of adult language, their own skills are developed that will allow the child to activate more and more the words, all of which are produced by accelerated way. The main thing in this age is not only to assimilate the words, but to learn to use them according to their meaning. However, at the present time the handling that adults make of children's conversation becomes evident, in many cases they use diminutives to refer to objects, animals or people, giving a smaller sense to the real development of the child. On the other hand, it is very common for parents to rectify the pronunciation errors of the children taking the error itself as a reference.

On the basis of this problem described, the idea of this proposal of family orientation activities, aimed at the development of children's conversation, arises, since the family constitutes a great potential in achieving such an effort, as the first school and first teachers, is called to enhance and stimulate the development of their children, from the first years of life. At the same time, the family to carry out this compromising objective demands to be prepared in equal measure to perform its function more optimally.

In addition, the proposal of family orientation activities elaborated in this research, is based on a set of principles, some taken from the system of teaching didactic principles appropriate to the context of Preschool Education, and others elaborated on the basis of the principles and Vygotsky cultural and socio-historical focus categories and continuators.

1. The role of living and education conditions in the development of conversational ability

The development of the conversation takes place from the relationships established by the child with the people around him, especially with family members who are immersed in social living conditions. It is therefore from the exchange with them that the child appropriates the oral expression models according to the media they use, assimilating in this way, not only the extra verbal means but the linguistic resources used, which should favor increasingly consistent language.

2. Unit of communication and activity in the development of conversational ability

Communication and activity are two important categories from which the person develops. Through them each subject appropriates the historical cultural experience. This acquisition process is related to the stage of life in which the individual is, that is, in accordance with the particularities of age, the forms of communication and the means of expression that guarantee the psychological growth of the child are developed.

3. Attention to individual differences and diversity in the development of conversational ability

The rhythm of the physiological, affective, cognitive processes that each child has typifies its own characteristics that make it unique and unrepeatable. It is essential then to know his peculiarities to be able to interact with him and to be able to properly enhance the children's conversation. Such conditions become even more necessary when it comes to children with special characteristics in their development, where the availability and affective care is a matter that must accompany the people around them so that their growth in that sense is adequate.

4. 4. The leading role of the family in the development of the ability to talk

Since we arrived in the world, we need someone to receive us in their arms, that first place belongs to the mother, who is teaching the child to relate to objects and people, occupying a prominent place the linguistic means used, to this others are added homework such as father, grandparents, etc. In this endeavor, without doubt the family is the first stimulator of the development of their children, and conveniently oriented, it is able to influence them from various positions to achieve a correct conversation of their children from an early age.

5. 5. Methodological flexibility

This principle considers that the teaching action is not opposed to the experimentation of techniques, strategies, and alternatives that contribute to putting into practice the possibilities of adapting, perfecting and creating that the teacher has. This can work the different contents without obeying a rigid scheme, taking advantage of the possibilities of the participants. The didactic structure of each way of preparation can be adapted according to the topic to be treated and their interest, as well as the participatory techniques to be used.

Form of implementation of the family orientation activities proposal

This proposal of family orientation activities is aimed at raising the level of preparation of families so that they develop in a conscious, systematic and timely manner the development of the conversational ability of their children.

General objective: To provide the family with educational guidelines that allow them to stimulate the development of the conversation of the preschool child in a conscious, planned and systematic way.

Specific objectives: Contribute to the acquisition of basic knowledge, by the family, about the actions to be carried out with their children that promote the development of the conversation.

Method: Participatory

Form of organization: Workshops

Total hours: 11

Frequencies: Monthly

Duration time: 1 hour

Evaluation form: Through participation in the workshops.

Proposal of family orientation activities that contribute to the development of the ability to talk in preschool children

Preparation route No 1. «Newsletters»

These bulletins will be consulted by the families, in the different ways of preparation that are worked in the Preschool Education and that are exposed later, these orientations will have the following basic structure.

By way of information:

Dear Parents: It is a necessity in the preschool grade to stimulate the development of the ability to talk in children, as it is one of the most significant achievements of the stage; because it consolidates the communication skills, so necessary to establish a logical, coherent and enjoyable communication with other children and adults. You can contribute a lot in that development; also remember that with this we are laying the foundations for a more successful incorporation in the first grade. Therefore, we recommend the following instructions:

Preparation route No. 2. « Joint activity»

Group activities should be interactive, experiential, and instructive in a way that is useful. Participatory techniques must be used and have an initial and motivating moment, a development and a closing activity. In the first moment the exchange must prevail, to know well through the participatory technique used, what the family knows about the subject, what are their beliefs about them, how they are handling it in their family life.

Participants: 20 Parents

Run: Teacher.

Topic: Importance of stimulation of conversation development in preschool children.

Objective: To reflect with the family on the importance of the development of the conversation and its stimulation.

Introduction or First moment:

Parents are invited to make an exchange and ask themselves: Let's see mom and dad, what concerns do they have about the topic that was discussed in the previous activity.

I could comment something about your child's development.

What activities did you do at home to develop the ability to talk? Did you have any difficulty to perform them?

Who participated? What means did they use?

Remember that in addition to the mother there are other family members who can also help in the development of the ability to talk in children. Since together we can make our child speak and develop independently.

Presentation of the topic.  The teacher briefly explains fundamental aspects about the topic that will be addressed below, the same will be done through dramatized stories. The group is divided into teams; each of these teams must perform a small dramatization on a problem situation of daily life, based on the topic to be discussed in that meeting.


Team 1: Pedro is a child who is curious to know more about the life of his favorite animal, the dog, approaches his mother and asks him, when she hears it she invades with rudeness and even the child receives physical abuse from his mother, with the answer ¨ If you want, you ask me something again, you don't see that I am busy.

If you were Pedro's mother, what would you have done? Why?

Do you know any similar experience?

Team 2: Claudia is a girl who is very interested in helping with house work, when she finishes helping her mother she approaches the father asking her to read a story, he accepts the fact of his request, at the end of both debate About the story.

Do you think Claudia's father acted correctly? Argue.

Second moment.  Each team makes a brief assessment of each dramatization, emphasizing the conversation that must exist in each of our homes and the role of our children in the family nucleus, emphasizing the different ways that exist to activate children's conversation and to correct pronunciation errors. The teacher attends to the individual differences of each team and members in order to achieve the active participation of all. Ideas worked in the previous meeting are retaken.

Third moment. At the end they are asked if they have been oriented with the subject and the method used. They are also asked in what other ways the child's conversation can develop. It indicates that in the next activities they will be able to deepen in the treated aspects but that they will not be developed in the same way for which they will receive the pertinent notifications.

Closing and farewell: each family must express with a phrase the positive, the negative or the interesting about the subject.

Preparation route No. 3: «Educational messages»

In this way the messages already oriented in the previous activities are resumed, which can also be located in the play area, a place frequented by the parents, in the mural, lit by a clown that we will call « The best conversationalist».


Support questions you can ask your child when you talk with him / her: and what else; yes, don't tell me! Very good! Say something else.

Preparation route No. 4. «Parent consultation»

Adequate preparation by the teacher is needed, because in this exchange the family must be clear on how to develop the conversation in their child, evacuate their doubts, and find a way to develop it now.

Participants: parents whose children have little conversation development.

Run: Teacher.

Topic: Characteristics of the development of the ability to talk in preschool.

Objective: To deep in the development of the ability to talk.


The teacher meets in a place where parents should be motivated and feel in a safe environment and reflect in order to raise all their concerns.

This consultation will take place at different times; each one will address the characteristics to develop the conversation, according to the particularities of the children, grouping them according to the corresponding level. The teacher will answer each question of the parents. They will also be explained to them, that they should always let their child express what he feels or has desires to say, since in this way we are helping him to be independent and develop his conversation.

Finally, parents are asked to write down their criteria for what they have learned.

Preparation route No. 5. «Home visit»

Not only must they be based on knowing how and under what conditions the child lives and his family; if not, it is a space to show this how you can develop your child's conversational ability at home. That an entertaining and fluid exchange is established, it must conform to the purpose of the visit and the recommendations are the starting point for the family to continue doing. For example:

Objective: To demonstrate to the family how to stimulate the development of the children's conversational ability to activate their vocabulary more and more.

The family is shown the different ways that during the day can be done with the child, according to their diagnosis. It should be very clear to all members of the household the role that they should play with their child, in the daily work, so that he manages to activate the conversation, since the fundamental thing in the conversation is that the child express himself freely, that search for yourself the essential relationships in the topic of conversation, which cannot, nor should, focus on the adult. This should only function as a guiding element of the conversation, acting in a non-direct manner on the content, and encouraging the child to exchange their criteria and opinions; nevertheless, in other visits it will be expressed as objective, to verify, which does not mean that it is demonstrated if necessary.

Preexperimental result

In this sense it was necessary to verify the level of preparation achieved by the parents, for which an interview was applied to them to verify the level of influence exerted on the children.

94 % of the families interviewed participated in some way in the family orientation activities developed in the school, they are of the opinion that they attended, because they felt motivated by the different ways used by the teacher to guide them on how to develop with their children / as the ability to talk at home.

On the other hand, it was possible to know that 92 % of parents consider that the development of their children's conversational ability is necessary , because through this the child's vocabulary is enriched, because they do not only know how to listen and understand the orders and adults' requests, but they answer their questions and make them their own, in addition to freely talking to each other, they express their opinions, tell what they have seen and heard, demand explanations, express their doubts, reason and make unexpected conclusions.

95 % are of the opinion that with the guidance received at school it is less difficult to develop the ability to talk at home, since they served as a model of how to communicate better with your child and thus increase your vocabulary better.

96 % have concluded that some of the ways that favor the development of the ability to talk in their child are: walks, excursions, sample of pictures, story readings, observation of documentaries, drawings, since once accumulated experiences and experiences, it is necessary to carry out conversations that allow children to verbally express everything they have lived, learned and known.

90 % recommend that other activities that can help in the development of the ability to talk from home are: the game: the phone call, description of an object, animal, a picture, a plant, etc., conversation about a television program that the child likes, about some of the stories that the family reads to the child; Ask the child to talk about what he has done during the day or what he likes best, to tell some situation in an imaginary way, the dramatizations.



The social need for the emergence of family education schools, is given by the education of parents, because they depend on the educational and social development of children, who make up the new society.

His background can be found in the foundations of the founders of Marxist Philosophy regarding the family, who laid the foundations to understand their social reason, their determination and more general functions. They found themselves in need of studying the family when developing their materialist conception of history and were the first to reveal the primary social determinants of this and their role in society.

In his writings on the origin of the family, private property and the state, Engels (1967) showed that «the family is a historical category and therefore changes according to social transformations, in whose context it must be studied and understood» (P.125).

The family as a social institution has represented the values of society and has played a very important role in the formation of new generations. Its members have contributed to the child the way of thinking, values and attitudes, which has been transmitted as a reflection of what they have learned in their respective families since childhood, from which a cycle in repeated life is created (Castro, Castillo, Padrón, García & Gómez, 2009, p.37).

That is why the family has represented for the child the educational agent of greater emotional value and his first school. The educational work that is developed in it lays the foundation for the formation of their personality and in correspondence, it is a necessity that the members know how to care for them, feed them, educate them, and love them. »Adults must be clear, with the support of the school, what it means to do it well, how to apply the knowledge acquired and guide them conveniently for life» (Franco, 2008, p.84).

According to Arias (2010), «In the process of human development, the family, who doubts it, is a basic context, a space for emotional interaction that enables and favors or disadvantages the cognitive, affective and social development of each individual from early childhood. Each member of the family nucleus is a key reference in the acquisition of life habits of the other members, including reading habits» (p.12).

On the other hand, Oliva and Villa (2014), consider that the family in this sense becomes the «ecological niche par excellence, and why not, in the first school of humanization, of generational transmission of ethical, social and social values. Cultural that brings a much broader sense to the same human existence» (p.14).

This allows us to understand that the basic principles for human development are constructed within the family, such as identity, customs, respect, dialogue, tolerance, coexistence, among other aspects that promote the well-being of each individual and its environment. In general, this is where social behavior models are formed, so it is important to understand the relevance of cultivating values from the family nucleus; since, each individual forms their principles and character from there and embodies them in society; In short, each individual is the reflection of their family context.

The human being learns to relate from a young age with the family, that is to say, there you learn the basis for interaction with others; also the lifestyles, the ways of thinking, the values, the habits, among others, that serve to configure the personality of the individual, that later will be developed in a sociocultural context.

¨ The role of education is to facilitate personal and family development through systematic and programmed actions, as stated (Villalobos, Flórez and Londoño-Vásquez. 2017, p.58-75).

The actions developed laid the foundations for the elaboration of a proposal of family orientation activities, which was based: philosophical, sociological, psychological, and pedagogical, with a support in the cultural historical conception, it is based on activities that are indispensable for the development of the ability to talk in children and their methodological instrumentation through stages, all of which allow the orientation of the family of children in preschool

The proposal of family orientation activities allows responding to the needs presented by the family to contribute to the development of the ability to talk in preschool children, since their actions allow a conscious task, planned by virtue of that development.



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