Mendive. Revista de Educación, april-june 2019; 17(2):204-221
Translated from the original in Spanish
Upgrading the itinerant teacher who attends students with physical-motor disabilities due to cerebral palsy
La superación del maestro ambulante que atiende educandos con discapacidades físico-motoras por parálisis cerebral
Xiomara Sánchez Valdés1, Tomas Puentes de Armas1
1University of Pinar del Río «Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca». Pinar del Río, Cuba. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: December 7th, 2018.
Approved: March 26th, 2019.
The social demands in inclusive care for students with physical-motor disabilities demand dynamic processes of professional improvement capable of contextualizing and differentiating actions according to each case in outpatient care. Given this reality, an investigation is developed that reveals the theoretical and practical limitations of the relationship between the improvement offered by the University of Pinar del Río «Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca» and methodological work in different educational subsystems by the Provincial Directorate of Education and its organization at the municipal level and of the educational center, a relationship that does not always respond to the variability of the development of each case, constituting a challenge for educators and specialists. The present work proposes a theoretical-methodological conception for the improvement of traveling teachers about the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities due to cerebral palsy. Methods of the theoretical level were applied such as the analytical-synthetic, induction-deduction, hypothetical-deductive and content analysis; other methods of the empirical level such as observation, interview and expert consultation; For the information processing the index calculation and methodological triangulation were used. The conception is structured around four guiding ideas that promote specialized improvement, in close relationship with methodological work at different levels of management and psychomotor skills are presented from the historical-cultural approach. The valuation by expert criteria, allowed to verify the high level of agreement with respect to its theoretical-methodological value.
Keywords: disability; psychomotor; professional development; methodological work.
Las exigencias sociales en la atención inclusiva a los educandos con discapacidades físico-motoras demandan de procesos dinámicos de superación profesional capaces de contextualizar y diferenciar las acciones en función de cada caso en atención ambulatoria. Ante esta realidad, se desarrolla una investigación que revela las limitaciones teóricas y prácticas de la relación entre la superación que ofrece la Universidad de Pinar del Río «Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca» y el trabajo metodológico en diferentes subsistemas educativos a cargo de la Dirección Provincial de Educación y su organización a nivel municipal y de centro educativo, relación que no siempre responde a la variabilidad del desarrollo de cada caso constituyendo un reto para educadores y especialistas. El presente trabajo propone una concepción teórico-metodológica para la superación de los maestros ambulantes sobre el desarrollo de la psicomotricidad de los educandos con discapacidades físico-motoras por parálisis cerebral. Se aplicaron métodos del nivel teórico como el analítico-sintético, inducción-deducción, hipotético-deductivo y el análisis de contenido; otros métodos del nivel empírico como la observación, la entrevista y la consulta de expertos; para el procesamiento de la información fue utilizado el cálculo de índice y la triangulación metodológica. La concepción se estructura en torno a cuatro ideas rectoras que promueven la superación especializada, en estrecha relación con el trabajo metodológico a diferentes niveles de dirección y se presenta la psicomotricidad desde el enfoque histórico-cultural. La valoración por criterio de expertos, permitió constatar el alto nivel de concordancia con respecto a su valor teórico-metodológico.
Palabras clave: discapacidad; psicomotricidad; superación profesional; trabajo metodológico.
The current global quality requirements are expressed in the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG4) of Agenta 2030 that demands: «Ensure inclusive, equitable and quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all » United Nations, (2019) ; as well as in the Declaration of Buenos Aires (2017) , as a regional vision of Latin America on education.
Inclusion and equity in Cuban education stand as the cornerstone of a transformative education purpose, which allows us to face all forms of exclusion and a social transformation that sustains increasingly inclusive practices regardless of capabilities that each of those involved possess. Faced with this contemporary demand, the role of traveling teachers who attend students with physical-motor disabilities due to cerebral palsy is resized.
In his professional performance, the traveling teacher is related to carriers of dissimilar diseases and disorders, standing out for his level of prevalence and complexity, cerebral palsy (PC). This disorder of motor function is expressed with different degrees of severity and the concomitant presence of neurological, sensory, endocrine effects, which characterize their developmental variability, to name just a few, which demand the constant overcoming of these traveling teachers.
Some peculiarities of overcoming street teachers are revealed in Ministerial Resolution (RM) 13/85, (Ministry of Education, 1985) and in Resolution 200/2 014, (Ministry of Education, 2014) in close connection with the methodological preparation process. However, they are not enough to cover the wide spectrum of needs of this teacher on issues related to different areas of scientific knowledge, such as Medical Sciences and Physical Culture, which do not respond to the profile of pedagogical careers in general.
Studies conducted by Vázquez (2016), Sánchez, Puentes, Sotolongo and Díaz (2017) and Sánchez (2017) find that despite the efforts made in the last decade; In practice, a fractional approach to educational attention is evident, which affects the necessary unity in the stimulation of psychic processes and motor development from the specialized knowledge of the specific characteristics of each particular student, as well as the need for changes in the conception of the overcoming and its structure, which represented a concern of the Provincial Directorate of Education in Pinar del Río.
In theoretical and empirical inquiries (interviews with traveling teachers, family members, education managers and health specialists, documentary analysis and class observations) conducted as an exploratory study in the province of Pinar del Río. Sánchez, (2017) strengths and weaknesses were examined, including the following:
There is a willingness of traveling teachers to improve themselves in relation to the development of psychomotor skills in students with cerebral palsy.
Overcoming courses on comprehensive educational care for students with physical-motor disabilities and motor education have been implemented as an integrating axis of the system of educational influences.
Development of a scientific support in the area of Special Didactics that includes the conception of supports, School Occupational Therapy and Adapted Physical Activity, among others, in the care of schoolchildren with physical-motor disabilities.
In the study panes of the Special Education professionals involved in the research (Plan C), there is insufficient treatment of the theoretical and methodological foundations that underpin the development of the psychomotor skills of the students with cerebral palsy.
The actions conceived as part of the improvement from the University of Pinar del Río and the methodological work from the Provincial Directorate to the special schools of the province of Pinar del Río; do not always encourage the preparation of traveling teachers, to work intentionally with motor development based on the development of psychic processes and socialization.
The traveling teachers manifest a limited command of the theoretical and methodological foundations that underpin the development of psychomotor skills.
The course and the workshop as forms of improvement organized by the University of Pinar del Río do not always respond to the levels of specialization from different areas of Medical Sciences and Physical Culture, among others, to respond to the dynamics of changes that require the variability of the development of students with physical-motor disabilities and the heterogeneity of associated manifestations in the presence of cerebral palsy.
This analysis evidences the presence of a contradiction between the current state of overcoming traveling teachers and the need to provide them with theoretical and methodological tools that contribute to greater preparation to address the variability of the development of their students with paralysis cerebral.
It is in this context that this work is inscribed that aims to propose a theoretical-methodological conception for the improvement of traveling teachers on the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To carry out this study, the sample groups were selected according to the intentional criteria and were formed into three groups:
The first group is made up of 11 traveling teachers from a population of 18 who attend students with physical-motor disabilities due to cerebral palsy in Pinar del Río. 100 % of the sample is titled of the upper level; 81.8 % of them are graduates in the specialty: 36.6 % graduates in Special Education and 45.5 % in Defectology specialty: Oligofrenopedagogy ; Two teachers (18.2 %) are graduates of the Primary Education specialty. 45.5 % is a Master in Education Sciences, mention: Special Education.
72.7 % have more than 11 years of experience in Special Education and 54.5 % have more than 11 years of care for children with physical-motor disabilities due to cerebral palsy.
The second sample group is made up of 12 executives from different levels of management. The selection was intentional, based on the criteria of attention to the teachers involved in the first sample group. 91.7 % are graduates in Special Education or Defectology and 8.3 %, which represents 1 director, is a graduate of Logopedia. 75 % (9 managers) have more than 11 years in Special Education, however, in the address only 33.3 % of the sample falls into the same category of years of experience. 50 % of managers have been in office for less than 5 years, all of them coincide with managers at the center level. 50% have less than five years in the direction of the outpatient service (at the center level) represented by 6 managers.
The third group consisting of 30 experts responsible for assessing the conception proposed. Of these 8 (26.6 %) are Doctors of Pedagogical Sciences and 22 (73.3 %) are Masters in Special Education. The analysis of the teaching category revealed that 3 (10 %) were Headlines, 9 (26.7 %) were Auxiliary, 2 (6.7 %) had the category of Assistant. 100 % of experts have a professional experience of over 18 years with 21.7 years of work related to the subject on average. Of the total, 3 (10 %) are Special Education methodologists, 4 (13.3 %) serve as school directors, 3 (10 %) are CDO specialists and 6 (20 %) are traveling teachers.
In the investigation, the materialist dialectic was assumed as a general method, which allowed us to assume the study as a process, the determination of its components, its dialectical relations and the selection of methods of investigation of the theoretical, empirical and mathematical mathematical levels.
Among the theoretical level methods used are the logical history that allowed the analysis of the evolution, essence and development of the facts that have marked the trajectory of the process of overcoming the traveling teachers, on aspects related to the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
The analysis and synthesis allowed the appropriation of the relationships, links and essences of the process of overcoming the traveling teachers and the particularities of this, about the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. The induction and deduction, made possible the achievement of the necessary abstractions that allowed to discover the regularities about the difficulties identified in the process of overcoming the traveling teachers.
The content analysis was used in the selection, treatment and interpretation of various documents such as research, course programs offered by the University of Pinar del Río, the Master of Science in Education, workshops, resolutions, system of classes, among others, necessary to make inferences and interpretations of the situations encountered and fulfill the proposed objective.
The system approach facilitated the general orientation in the construction of the theoretical-methodological conception for the improvement of traveling teachers on the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC, by determining the relations between the research process and the components of its internal structure.
Modeling was used in the process of representing the structural components, the theoretical and methodological elements of the proposed conception, as well as their essential relationships.
Other empirical methods used were class observation to verify the professional performance on the psychomotor development of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. The interview, conducted with traveling teachers and managers to obtain information on the background, needs and possibilities of the process of overcoming the traveling teachers on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC and the method of consulting experts (Delphy), with the objective of obtaining a theoretical assessment of the elaborated theoretical-methodological conception and its possible applicability.
The methodological triangulation technique was also used to integrate the results obtained in the different instruments applied in the investigation. For the processing of the information collected during the investigation, the index calculation was used for each of the indicators, considering the range 0dd0.2 as inadequate; 0.2dd 0.4 as inadequate; 0.4 dd 0.6 as adequate; 0.4 dd 0.8 as quite adequate and 0.8 dd 1 as very adequate.
The integration of these methods allowed assessing the essential aspects of the process of overcoming the traveling teachers on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. For this, the following were specified:
Dimension I (cognitive) that encompasses the level of knowledge that traveling teachers have about the theoretical aspects related to the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. It responds to what itinerant teachers must master for the improvement of professional performance on the development of psychomotor skills.
Dimension II (procedural-methodological) that includes the level of selection and use of supports for work with basic psychomotor contents, compensation correction for language disorders, communication development, development stimulation of the volitional affective sphere, of cognitive psychic processes and socialization in outpatient work sessions that allow them to improve professional performance on the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
Dimension III (attitudinal) related to the level of disposition (refers to the affective and cognitive component) and performance (refers to the behavioral manifestation of the attitude) with which the traveling teachers face the stimulation of the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
The historical study revealed that educational attention to school children with physical-motor disabilities and the overcoming of teachers dedicated to this service has moved from a clinical - therapeutic approach to disability to a psychopedagogical approach. At present, it is considered that there is a complementation of both approaches in educational care; however, it does not behave in the same way in the process of despair where there is a greater presence from Pedagogy, Didactics, and Psychology in courses and workshops for teachers. (Sánchez, Puentes, Sotolongo, and Díaz, 2017)
Similarly, the analysis of the search for interdisciplinarity and intersectorality where the gradual search for its articulation was observed without the existence of referents of the same behavior in the process of overcoming traveling teachers.
The inclusion of specific topics related to the development of psychomotor skills has been affected by the late development of Somatopedia as a specialty in Cuba, which has influenced the process of overcoming these teachers.
The methodological triangulation allowed us to verify that dimension I is evaluated as inadequate with an index of 0.33. The most affected indicator is the level of knowledge about the diagnosis of psychomotor development in students with CP with an index of 0.23, followed by the level of knowledge about the semantic differential between motor skills, motor education and psychomotor skills with an index of 0.24; Finally, the level of knowledge about compensation correction of the alterations in the development of psychomotor skills in students with PC and about the support for the compensation correction of the developmental disorders of psychomotor skills in these students, both with an index of 0, 25.
Dimension II is evaluated as inadequate also with an index of 0.30. The most affected indicator is the one referred to the level of selection and use of support for work with basic psychomotor contents with an index of 0.17; followed by the state of the planning of the integrating classes with an index of 0.24 and the state of socialization and social inclusion with an index of 0.25.
With an analogous behavior, dimension III is evaluated as inadequate with an index of 0.33 and the most affected indicator was the level of performance in the face of the psychomotor development of students with CP with an index of 0, 2. 3.
In general, the process of overcoming traveling teachers on the development of psychomotor skills of schoolchildren with physical-motor disabilities by PC was evaluated as inadequate with an index of 0.33; The most affected dimension of this variable is the methodological one with an index of 0.30.
The analysis of the convergent results of the methodological triangulation allowed the identification of the following regularities:
- The results of the project of the Department of Special Education of the University of Pinar del Río «Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca»: «Initial and permanent training of teachers for educational attention to diversity» constitute a favorable framework for the Overcoming the traveling teachers on different problems of educational practice, around which researchers from different sectors and functions are integrated. Among the main contributions are:
Model for comprehensive educational care for students with physical motor limitations by ambulatory use in Pinar del Río province.
Strategy for overcoming traveling teachers on psychomotor skills in children with cerebral palsy.
Methodological proposal for the orientation of the family of children with physical and motor limitations of preschool age.
Methodological proposal to favor the development of communication in children with cerebral palsy in preschool age.
Augmentative communication in schoolchildren with more complex special educational needs.
Among the itinerant teachers, some stand out with an adequate level of professional performance and willingness to face the stimulation of the psychomotor development of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC who can multiply their experiences to the rest of the group.
The limitations in the theoretical-methodological knowledge about the stimulation of the psychomotor development of students with cerebral palsy attending to the variability of their development and the heterogeneity of manifestations that accompany them is the fundamental cause of the inadequate level of performance of the traveling teachers in this particular.
The curricula for the initial training of the teachers involved in the research (plans A and C) and who pay tribute to Special Education were characterized by the low representation and the more or less obvious division of the contents in the order anatomical- physiological, psychological and didactic related to the care of people with physical-motor disabilities, where the issue of psychomotor skills is not conceived as a particular area of theoretical knowledge or its methodological treatment to improve the professional performance of traveling teachers.
There are limitations in the design of the improvement of itinerant teachers with an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach that include scientific disciplines that combine in the comprehensive care of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC and health professionals and institutions, the physical culture, among others, that converge in the process; in a way that guarantees, to traveling teachers, the levels of specialization necessary to adjust the educational response to the dynamic changes of each particular case.
The preparation in the theoretical and methodological order of traveling teachers on the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC, manifested in:
Inadequate level of theoretical knowledge about psychomotor skills, its components (cognitive, affective-volitional development, motor, language-communication and socialization) and internal relations between them in the presence of PC.
Limitations in the domain of clinical, psycho-pedagogical aspects of different types of cerebral palsy and their incidence in the development of psychomotor skills.
Difficulties in the use of support for work with the psychomotor contents that constitute the basis of the development of psychomotor skills, which affects the rest of the components with an emphasis on socialization, a prerequisite for social inclusion.
The selection of organizational forms to direct the corrective-compensatory and rehabilitative process of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC in the outpatient service, does not favor interdisciplinary work, the inclusion of the criteria of specialists and the Family participation as part of the process.
Based on these results, a theoretical-methodological conception was developed to improve the process of overcoming traveling teachers on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. The objective was to offer a set of basic concepts and guiding ideas implemented through a strategy that, with a systemic approach, serve as a guiding framework for the specialized improvement of street teachers in relation to methodological work for the improvement of their professional performance. Teachers
The analysis of content made to different documents allowed us to understand by conception as a scientific result, a set of basic concepts and guiding ideas that serve as a guiding framework for the transformation of the research object. (Sánchez, 2017).
Based on this precision, the theoretical-methodological conception for the overcoming of the traveling teacher on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC includes a set of basic concepts and guiding ideas implemented through a strategy that with a systemic approach, they serve as a guiding framework for the specialized improvement of traveling teachers on the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC in relation to methodological work.
The conception is based on dialectical materialism when considering the social bio-psycho triad in the development of each traveling teacher, conditioned by its socio-historical and cultural environment, in which, with favorable social circumstances and actions, it can self- Educate yourself and be polite. This position constitutes the guide to the Philosophy of Cuban Education. On this basis the connections were established between the concepts of the acting conception and those proposed for the overcoming of the traveling teacher in the process of substituting one for the other in the proposed conception.
From the relationship between socialization and individualization, it is assumed that each professional learns in the process of social construction more than he would learn on his own; works done by Bernaza and Lee (2005) confirm this. Consistent with the above, the collective work of traveling teachers is encouraged, the exchange between them on related topics, the socialization of scientific results, consultancies, as spaces for scientific discussion, to influence the performance of each teacher on the Psychomotor development of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
From the cultural historical approach of Vigotsky, LS (1995) and continuators, it is based on the role of the teacher as a social and instrumental mediator and enhancer of the psychic development and motor of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC and the leading role of this teacher in stimulating the development of psychomotor skills, result and purpose of social interaction.
Another important aspect is the foundation in the understanding of Pedagogy as an integrative science of the rest of the sciences that deal with education and those needed for this purpose in the presence of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. To fulfill this purpose, we start from professional problems related to the stimulation of motor and psychic development in the presence of PC, in the determination of the objectives that will govern each activity that is proposed, consistent with the object and objective of the profession.
The methods and procedures used encourage scientific research and the link with theory and practice, in close relation to the forms of organization of improvement and the methods of methodological work based on the improvement of the professional performance of traveling teachers, which promotes positive attitudes, which are manifested in willingness and responsibility.
The link between theory and practice is based on the works of López (2014); Bravo (2014) and Pacheco (2014) who agree on that professional performance is the result of the close relationship between improvement and methodological work.
On the legal level, the concept is based on the commitments made by the State in international events such as the Salamanca Declaration, (UNESCO, 1994) and in the Declaration of Buenos Aires (2017), among others. At the national level it is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba (1976).
The scientific and human character in the process of overcoming traveling teachers is found in documents such as Ministerial Resolution (RM) 13/85. (Ministry of Education 1985), where the work of this teacher and its corresponding annex is regulated: «about the traveling teacher», in RM 200 / 2014 (Ministry of Education 2014) where the management, organization of methodological work specified in RM 132/2004 is given vital importance . (Ministry of Higher Education (2004)
Structural components of the theoretical-methodological conception
Starting from the assumed position, the following basic components of the conception are proposed: basic concepts, the guiding ideas and the implementation strategy.
1- Relationship between the specialized improvement of the traveling teacher on the development of psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC and the methodological work carried out at different levels of management with interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature
It constitutes the guiding idea from which the rest of the ideas emanate. It contains the projection of the intentional and specialized overcoming in relation to the methodological work of the different levels of management and types of Education.
The specialized improvement, a concept that is introduced in this conception, has as advantages the accessibility to all graduates, the particularization of the contents that address the educational reality in which it interacts and the dynamics of the process. As a distinctive feature are interdisciplinarity and intersectorality in the attention of specific cases.
The specialized improvement on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC as a quality of distinctive professional improvement for teachers of ambulatory care, which is expressed in a dynamic process of individual transformation, result of obtaining a higher level of depth of scientific knowledge - technical and professional skills that come from scientific disciplines that exceed the boundaries of pedagogical preparation, from an individual and collective, interdisciplinary and intersectoral work; necessary for the improvement of the professional performance of the traveling teachers.
Responds to changes in the development of students, the complexity of their health condition in the presence of various concomitant pathologies and the possibility from the University of Pinar del Río, in relation to the Provincial Directorate of Education to establish more effective ways of overcoming in each particular case that allows specialization individually to adapt the educational response to the heterogeneity of possible manifestations.
To this end, the following steps are suggested: update the characterization of each student with physical-motor disabilities by PC in the Diagnostic Support Commission (CAD), diagnose the preparation of each traveling teacher to stimulate the development of psychomotor skills of its students with PC, determine the contents to work in overcoming and the disciplines involved; establish interdisciplinary links, determine the forms of organization of improvement and the specialists best prepared in each subject.
Assuming this guiding idea requires the establishment of intersectoral links in which the participation of specialists from the clinical - rehabilitative area (family doctor, psychologist, physiatrist and others), from the area of physical culture and social sports, area of culture in general and other community actors, including representatives of the Cuban Association of limited physical-motor (Aclifim) so that each one, from their respective specializations and interests, contributes to the process, depending on the needs and potential of traveling teachers.
In order to achieve this goal, coordination is proposed as the first stage of this process of overcoming, where the necessary relationships are established to carry out the subsequent actions of each stage that happens, in a collaborative way between academic, scientific and academic disciplines. between the sectors involved.
The stages that happen to the coordination are: the preparation (of the different forms of overcoming and methodological work), the execution and the evaluation (partial or final) based on the works of López (2014), Bravo (2014) and Pacheco (2014) in the Pinar del Río province.
The methodological scientific activity resulting from the contributions generated by scientific production acts as a condition for determining the support necessary for the development of the psychomotor skills of each student and similar cases. The scientific activity constitutes an expression of the theoretical - practical systematization and a result of the professional performance of each traveling teacher.
2- The group of street teachers represents an organizational level for methodological work that favors the improvement of the professional performance of street teachers
The structuring of methodological teaching and scientific work required by traveling teachers must take into consideration that they form an analogous group, with clearly distinguishable needs from the rest of the teachers of the educational institution at the that belong, which demands a differentiated and specialized preparation where the collaborative work between them takes precedence; as well as dialogic communication with specialists from other sectors, who interact in the integral attention of the student they serve.
The group of traveling teachers, a concept that is introduced in this conception, is a functional organizational level for methodological teaching and scientific work that functions as a group of teachers (article 39. RM 200/2014), but has among its functions direct the ambulatory work for the improvement of the professional performance on the development of the psychomotor skills of the students with physical-motor disabilities by PC with an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach and the participation of the school, the family and the community.
It takes into consideration the itinerant teachers of greater experience and professional performance for the advice of the directors and the novice teachers in this modality of educational attention, constituting a primary level that pays tribute to the existing organization at the level of Provincial Directorate of Education. It also systematizes community experiences in the care of students with physical-motor disabilities and their families from working with mass organizations, local institutions, the doctor's office and the family nurse, among others.
The integral methodologist who attends the specialty related to physical-motor disabilities coordinates with the department of Special Education of the university the specific needs of specialized improvement in a perspective way, in novel topics related to new diagnoses (associated low prevalence diseases to cerebral palsy), the functional deterioration of certain students who require changes in the methodological procedure, changes in family dynamics that require specialized preparation, among other issues, to be solved by way of postgraduate improvement, consultancies, among others forms of organization offered from the University.
3- Correlation between the forms of organization of the process of overcoming the traveling teacher and those of methodological work
The specialized overcoming of the traveling teacher must be conceived in a systematic, interdisciplinary and intersectoral manner in line with the methodological work from each level of management; in its concretion the proper articulation between the Provincial Directorate of Education and the Department of Special Education of the University is necessary.
The correlation between the forms of organization of the overcoming is understood as the reciprocal relationship of these, with the forms of methodological work at different levels of management, which includes the content as a dialectical pair that particularizes the professional performance on development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
The dynamics of the process of overcoming is generated on the basis of a bilateral planning of the work agreements, where the forms of organization that are used in the overcoming responsibility of the University (course of overcoming, workshops, consultancies, exchanges of experience and self-improvement , among others), have their continuity and validation in the methodological teaching and scientific activity in their forms of work (methodological meeting, methodological workshops, tutoral pedagogical advice , methodological scientific seminar and self-improvement ) at different levels of educational institutions as part of the methodological work.
4. The psychomotor development of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC includes the work with the components of motor development in relation to cognitive development, language and communication, the affective sphere of volition and socialization , as part of comprehensive educational care
Based on the different approaches in educational care to students with physical-motor disabilities, it is considered necessary to explain as part of the theoretical-methodological conception proposed, the starting points that support the content of the improvement of the traveling teachers necessary for the improvement of their professional performance.
The relationship between psychic and motor functions from the historical cultural approach is taken as a starting point. In this way the development of psychic processes (cognitive, affective volitional, language) are configured in direct relation to movement, an essential postulate that defines psychomotor skills.
Psychomotricity conceived from the interests of the present investigation constitutes, from the mediator's work, an approach, a way of interpreting, understanding and explaining the dynamics of the integral educational attention of students with physical-motor disabilities. by PC on an outpatient basis.
This approach avoids the division in the system of educational influences. Its essence lies in the interdisciplinary and intersectoral action where the teacher, family, specialists and other community agents combine knowledge and experiences depending on the development of each student in a system of educational influences that has the teacher as its integrating agent and the class integrative as the fundamental way to carry it out.
As a central methodological part of this conception, a strategy for the implementation of the theoretical elements of the conception is proposed for the improvement of traveling teachers on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
It coincides with Valle (2012) , p.154 that states «(...) the definition of strategy arises from the practice itself where shows how to study how the objectives will be achieved based on certain conditions».
The general objective of the strategy is to implement the basic concepts and the guiding ideas that are proposed as part of the conception.
To execute the strategy, the following conditions must be met:
The scientific character that manifests itself in the theoretical positions assumed.
The social order and the need derived from it expressed in the overcoming of traveling teachers on the development of psychomotor skills in students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
The receptivity of the executives and traveling teachers to take the knowledge received into action modes and establish the interdisciplinary and intersectoral relationships necessary for the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
The availability of support for learning information management.
The strategy was structured in four stages in which short, medium and long-term actions are executed (Sánchez, 2017). They are exemplified below:
Stage I: Coordination
Establishes the work links between the Provincial Directorate of Education and the University of Pinar del Río to meet the needs of overcoming mobile teachers on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. The links between both institutions are established as part of the project «Initial and permanent training of teachers for educational attention to diversity» and agreements are made with other sectors involved.
Stage II: Planning
This phase is related to the actions that are necessary to ensure the design of the forms of organization of the improvement in its dialectical relationship with the methods of teaching and methodological scientific work based on the diagnosis of traveling teachers and the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC; as well as the material and human assurance to carry out them.
Stage III: Execution
The purpose is to consolidate the actions that promote the theoretical, methodological and attitudinal preparation of mobile teachers in the development of psychomotor skills in students with physical-motor disabilities by PC. In this stage the application of the main ways of overcoming the traveling teacher is carried out and they are related to the methodological work forms at different levels of management.
Stage IV: Evaluation
This stage is of vital importance given the characteristics of the Mined work system , not only does it pay a partial assessment of the implementation strategy of the proposed conception, but it also pays for the preparation of the beginning of the upcoming school year. Its objective is to assess in the theoretical, methodological and attitudinal order the changes that have been obtained with the actions executed so far and the need to redesign the actions as a result of the implementation. The application of the Delphy method allowed verifying the importance that experts confer on each of the aspects proposed in the conception, as well as the feasibility of its introduction, in addition to making the necessary observations for its practical implementation with the assessment of the strategy of implementation.
Among the critical observations of the experts that were included in the theoretical-methodological conception are:
60 % referred to the need to deepen aspects related to the implementation of specialized improvement.
73.3 % considered it necessary to explain the correlation between the forms of improvement and those of methodological work.
43 % suggested developing a basic material that exemplifies procedures for stimulating the development of psychomotor skills in students with physical-motor disabilities by PC.
The aspects evaluated in the second round received a very adequate criterion.
Increasing demands, scientific and technical advances in different disciplines of knowledge, the complexity of ambulatory educational reality, the variability of the development of each individual student and the heterogeneity presented by the uniqueness of presenting physical-motor disabilities by PC, they make the process of overcoming traveling teachers an issue that deserves to continue with their study and deepening.
Consistent with a dialectical-materialist position, authors such as Cobas (2008); Capote (2012); García (2015), among others, agree that conception as a scientific result can be understood as a system of ideas, concepts and representations about a aspect of reality, certain object, or at least a part of them. The above statement goes through the dialectical path of knowledge of the truth described by Lenin (1964), "From living contemplation to abstract thinking and from this to the practice". p. 165
Regarding the topic Valle (2012) warns about the desirability of separating the criteria that typify the conception of the system concept, which as scientific result presents a structure that characterizes it. In this regard, the author states: "(...) while still fulfilling the properties of a system, other characteristics and components that differentiate it from this can be highlighted in its definition" (p.126); considerations defended in the work of Sánchez (2017).
The application of scientific methods favors not only obtaining new knowledge or the essence of the object, but reveals a superiority of scientific thinking over the spontaneous or empirical (Torres, 2016, p.20), of the "living contemplation" itself, which causes scientific knowledge to be revealed in a higher degree of abstraction that is carried out in the form of concepts, judgments and reasoning (Rosental and Ludin, 1981).
From this analysis it follows that in the product that is proposed the concepts are scientific and that the guiding ideas constitute "(...) a system of representations that govern the theoretical and methodological elements of conception" (Cobas, 2008, p. 85). Each idea by its « (...) logical form identifies the concept, by its gnoseological function, approaches the principle and by its methodological function, helps to obtain new knowledge» (Capote, 2012, p.4).
The proposed conception surpasses the acting one in which it distinguishes the overcoming of the traveling teacher on the basis of his specialty: Physical-motor limitations as part of Special Education, is based on the differentiated methodological work correlated with the specialized improvement in relation to each particular case in the presence of cerebral palsy, the traveling teachers are organized in a group of analogous teachers that develop the differentiated activities from the specialized overcoming while integrating the groups of cycles of which they are part .
An essential feature, which favors raising the levels of specialization in each particular case, is the intersectoral work in the conception and planning of the forms of improvement executed from the University, the delimitation of the contents coming from the different scientific disciplines that deal with topics such as rehabilitation, community genetics, physical culture, preparation for employment, occupational therapy, among others and the participation of teachers from the University of Medical Sciences and other specialties studied at the University of Pinar del Río through the project organization.
Another distinctive element of the proposed conception is that collaborative work is encouraged, in the group of traveling teachers, where professional problems are socialized for its solution and research, scientific research is the fundamental way to solve problems that are presented in educational practice and psychomotor skills are proposed as an approach to comprehensive educational care by ambulatory presence of students with physical-motor disabilities by PC, an area that deserves, from the contribution of neurosciences to the service of education , be deepened in new research.
A more susceptible example to be studied in greater depth within the object of investigation to which it is taxed, part of the need not covered in the process of overcoming the itinerant teachers on the treatment from the Special Pedagogy of the relationship between the motor and psychic development as a basis for understanding the compensatory interactions between them and their application to the educational process of students with PC adjusted to the variability of their development. The analyzes are related to the multicausality of the disorder and the existence of other concomitant diseases or alterations. (Sánchez, Puentes and Sotolongo, 2017).
The theoretical-methodological conception that is proposed is based on the laws and categories of dialectical and historical materialism, which serves as the basis for the Philosophy of Education, in Vigotski's cultural and historical continuity approach, in the theory of Education Advanced and in other Cuban researchers studying postgraduate theory, which allowed the structuring of the scientific result based on basic concepts that are represented in four guiding ideas implemented through a strategy to improve the professional performance of mobile teachers on the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical-motor disabilities due to cerebral palsy.
The results achieved in the application of the theoretical methodological conception show positive transformations on the theoretical, methodological and attitudinal aspects that are expressed in the professional performance of the traveling teachers in stimulating the development of the psychomotor skills of students with physical disabilities -motors for cerebral palsy.
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