Mendive. Journal on Education, 22(2), e3635

Translated from the original in Spanish

Review article

Current perspectives on stress and its relationship with teaching performance: a systematic review


Perspectivas actuales sobre el estrés y su relación con el desempeño docente: una revisión sistemática


Perspectivas atuais sobre estresse e sua relação com o desempenho docente: uma revisão sistemática


Ana Retamozo Ávalos1
Carmen Astocondor Gonzales1

Nelyda Juárez Tamayo1
Magda Ramos Cevallos1

1 Cesar Vallejo University. Peru;;;


Cite as
Retamozo Ávalos, A., Astocondor Gonzales, C., Juárez Tamayo, N., Ramos Cevallos, M. (2024) Current perspectives on stress and its relationship with teaching performance: a systematic review. Mendive. Journal of Education, 22(2), e3635.


Received: September 15, 2023
Accepted: February 14, 2024



Teacher stress, especially during and after the pandemic, has raised multiple concerns, particularly due to the emergence of various symptoms; hence, it must be taken into account in the teaching and learning process. The aim of this research was to analyze studies addressing the relationship between stress and teacher performance in order to understand their implications in the educational context. A review was conducted based on the research question: "How does stress affect teacher performance and its implications in the educational context?" To this end, the PRISMA methodology was followed, allowing the inclusion of 17 original articles. These documents were analyzed along two dimensions: the relationship between stress and teacher performance and the implications in education. It is concluded that this review revealed that the majority of educators maintain a high level of professional performance, highlighting their ability to adapt and satisfactorily fulfill their roles, even in stressful conditions, which is essential for advancing educational quality.

Keywords: stress; teaching performance; education; teaching.


El estrés docente, especialmente durante y después de la pandemia, ha generado múltiples preocupaciones especialmente por la aparición de varios síntomas; por lo que se debe tomar en cuenta en el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar los estudios que aborden la relación entre el estrés y el desempeño docente, con el fin de comprender sus implicaciones en el contexto educativo. Se realizó una revisión basándose en la pregunta de investigación: ¿cómo afecta el estrés al desempeño docente y su implicación en el contexto educativo?; para este fin se siguió la guía de la metodología PRISMA, la cual permitió incluir 17 artículos originales. Estos documentos se analizaron bajo dos dimensiones: la relación del estrés y el desempeño docente y las implicaciones en la educación. Se concluye que esta revisión evidenció que la mayoría de los educadores mantienen un nivel alto de desempeño profesional, destacando la capacidad de adaptación y cumplimiento satisfactorio de sus funciones, incluso en condiciones estresantes, lo que es esencial para direccionarse hacia la calidad educativa.

Palabras clave: estrés; desempeño docente; educación; enseñanza.


O estresse docente, especialmente durante e após a pandemia, tem gerado múltiplas preocupações, principalmente devido ao surgimento de vários sintomas; portanto, deve ser levado em consideração no processo de ensino e aprendizado. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar estudos que abordam a relação entre o estresse e o desempenho dos professores, a fim de compreender suas implicações no contexto educacional. Foi realizada uma revisão com base na pergunta de pesquisa: "Como o estresse afeta o desempenho dos professores e suas implicações no contexto educacional?" Para isso, foi seguida a metodologia PRISMA, que permitiu a inclusão de 17 artigos originais. Esses documentos foram analisados em duas dimensões: a relação entre estresse e desempenho dos professores e as implicações na educação. Conclui-se que esta revisão revelou que a maioria dos educadores mantém um alto nível de desempenho profissional, destacando sua capacidade de adaptação e cumprimento satisfatório de suas funções, mesma em condições estressantes, o que é essencial para avançar na qualidade educacional.

Palavras-chave: estresse; desempenho; professor; educação; ensino. 



Stress has been established as a real challenge in the work context, which is why it requires in-depth analysis and urgent responses to maintain performance and efficiency levels; Likewise, it is necessary to ensure the well-being of workers because it can deteriorate health. In this sense, Galbán-Padrón et al., (2022) state that stress directly affects mental health; Furthermore, Sotelo-Hernández et al. (2020) mention that this affectation occurs due to the accumulation of pressure, demands and different work-related problems.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes work stress as a disease (World Health Organization, 2019) and for the International Labor Organization (ILO) it is the epidemic of the century due to the magnitude of its impact on the lives of people. workers (International Labor Organization, 2016). From this perspective, work stress is increasing due to rapid technological evolution and the demands of society.

In the educational context, work stress among teachers is observed with symptoms such as mental fatigue, irritability, muscle pain, anguish, among others; worsening mainly since the beginning of the pandemic with the implementation of virtual education, in which they had to adapt to a new type of teaching modality. The International Labor Organization (2020) mentioned that the transition from face-to-face to virtual teaching caused permanent frustrations and errors in teaching staff, because they had to abandon their traditional educational practices for active methodologies in which they had to learn to use and apply technological teaching tools (Posso Pacheco, 2022).

Without a doubt, the teacher's work is very complex, requiring permanent updating through training courses and professional specialization by obtaining postgraduate degrees and participating in research processes (Farrell Pérez, 2023). Additionally, it invests a lot of time in meso- and microcurricular planning, in evaluation and feedback processes, as well as in school administrative compliance; To all this, Iguasnia and Saquisela (2020) add that the teacher is not valued nor does he have economic incentives, which aggravates his emotional condition, especially when he has a long workload, a high number of students per classroom, and high demands on the part of teachers. The authorities.

Additionally, globalization has interconnected educational institutions around the world, which, while presenting opportunities to share knowledge and learn from other experiences, can also generate additional tensions for teachers (Posso Pacheco and Posso Pacheco, 2023). The constant comparison of learning outcomes and successful teaching practices from other regions and countries contributes to a feeling of pressure to achieve established levels without considering the context or different realities (Tenesaca Simancas et al., 2023).

In recent years, studies on teacher stress have gained much relevance, due to the identification of several factors that affect their professional performance, such as: the lack of support from the educational institution (Castellanos Pierra et al., 2022) for the virtual training and educational resources; overwork (Astorquiza-Bustos et al., 2020); carry out planning, evaluations and administrative work at home, due to the little time allocated for these actions by educational institutions; and the excessive assignment of subjects, grades and students (Jara Ruiz et al., 2023).

From this perspective, understanding teaching performance becomes essential, so it must be defined comprehensively to consider its relationship with work stress. Gómez López & Valdés (2019) mention that they are evaluable actions carried out by the teacher within the educational field. For their part, Barrientos-López et al. (2021) also say that it is expressed in the learning result obtained after having applied a teaching process; In this same idea, Martínez-Ruiz & Lavín-García (2017) complement this definition as a "teaching function, teaching capacity, teaching profile, teaching competencies, teaching professional development, teaching practice, teaching role, among others"(p. 2).

Teaching performance is of great importance because it goes beyond meeting teaching standards (Posso Pacheco et al., 2021); It seeks to fulfill a profile that few professions have, such as the commitment to work outside established hours, the fulfillment of professional and personal goals, the satisfaction and joy of teaching, promoting a good educational coexistence, valuing and stimulating permanently the achievements of students and colleagues. These actions are linked to the quality of performance and the success of the educational process.

Based on the above, it is important to understand how the pressures and tensions of the educational environment can influence the teacher's ability to ensure an environment conducive to quality performance and enriching learning; Therefore, the objective of this research is based, which was: to analyze the studies that address the relationship between stress and teaching performance, in order to understand its implications in the educational context.

This research was based on a systematic review, with the objective of analyzing studies that address the relationship between stress and teaching performance, based on the research question: how does stress affect teaching performance and its implication in the educational context? For this purpose, the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology guide was followed, adapted by Okoli and Schabram (2010), which allowed all the findings to be systematized.

The bibliographic search was carried out during the month of July 2023, locating publications from the last eight years. This decision was made to guarantee the timeliness of the studies and due to the significant transformation that education has undergone with the COVID-19 pandemic, first under the virtual modality and then with the return to face-to-face; which caused teachers to rapidly adopt the use and application of technologies in the teaching-learning process.

The Google Scholar and Dialnet databases were used in the search, through the following keywords: stress and teaching performance; impact of stress on teaching; educational quality and stress; stress factors in teaching and effects of stress on teachers, initially identifying 79,725 documents that are described in table 1.

Table 1- Findings from the search using the databases using keywords




Google Scholar

Stress and teaching performance


Educational quality and stress


Stress factors in teaching


Effects of stress on teachers



Stress and teaching performance


Educational quality and stress


Stress factors in teaching


Effects of stress on teachers





Source: self-made

Next, the following inclusion criteria were applied to these documents: direct relationship with the research objectives; original articles; made visible in full text; published in Spanish and English. Undergraduate and postgraduate theses, digital books, review articles and essays were excluded.

As a result of this process, 123 articles were obtained, which, after being reviewed by the PRISMA methodology, included 17 documents, which allowed the analysis of the relationship between stress and teaching performance. Furthermore, to guarantee the validity of the information, it was arranged that two researchers simultaneously carry out this selection process, assigning a third researcher to resolve possible discrepancies. Figure 1 shows the steps followed according to the indicated methodology.

Fig. 1 - PRISMA methodology algorithm

Source: adopted from Okoli and Schabram (2010)



Once the analysis of the 14 included documents was carried out, the analysis of the relationship between stress and teaching performance was carried out. Table 2 shows the results obtained from the research question: how does stress affect teaching performance and its implication in the educational context?

Table 2- Findings: relationship between stress and teaching performance, implications for education


Author and year

Relationship between stress and teaching performance

Implications in the educational context


(Acosta et al. , 2019)

45% of teachers have high and very high stress levels, 40% have very low and low levels and 15% have medium stress. All teachers pass evaluations with performance levels on the 89/100 scale. These data determine that stress is not related to teaching performance.

Stress is not negatively affecting teaching performance. However, the emotional well-being and mental health of teachers is important to ensure a healthy and sustainable work environment in the long term. The educational institution must carry out risk prevention processes on work well-being (physiological, cognitive, affective, social and emotional), because it can generate an increase in absenteeism due to leave for care and medical rest and this will affect the teaching rotation to cover replacements.


(Robles-Ojeda et al, 2023)

Of the sample, 30% of teachers present at least a degree of stress due to their professional activities during the pandemic; On the contrary, 40% of teachers disagree with using technologies in their classes.

Stress negatively affects performance and well-being in virtual classes; Disagreeing with the use of technologies in teaching affects online or hybrid teaching in an educational environment that increasingly depends on technology. The educational institution must address these problems by supporting teachers and promoting the effective adoption of technology.


(Jara Ruiz et al., 2023)

The study reflects that 19% of teachers have high and medium emotional exhaustion, 35% have a high degree of depersonalization and 19% have low personal fulfillment. These data indicate the prevalence of stress in each dimension among the teachers surveyed. On the other hand, in the comprehensive evaluation process, teachers presented 90% of good professional performance.

Despite the presence of stress in teachers, it does not have a significant negative impact on their work performance, since the results of the comprehensive teacher evaluation show a very positive general performance. However, it is important that the educational institution generates emotional well-being programs for teachers, which will provide them with the necessary support to ensure a positive and effective educational environment.


(Manzano Díaz, 2020)

In the research presented, 29% of teachers suffer from emotional exhaustion and 17% present a medium level of depersonalization. On the other hand, 85% of teachers show a high level of achievement; That is, they feel satisfied and competent in their work.

Although some teachers experience levels of stress and a high level of personal fulfillment. It is essential that the educational institution generates a care proposal and provides support to those teachers who experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, which will guarantee a healthy and high-quality educational environment.


(Zuniga-Jara & Pizarro-Leon, 2018)

The study reveals that emotional exhaustion in teachers is 55%. Despite experiencing emotional stress, most teachers still maintain a satisfactory level of performance in their work.

Emotional exhaustion in teachers affects their well-being, so the educational institution must generate programs that combat it. This will directly impact the quality of teaching and, ultimately, educational success.


(Alvites-Huamaní, 2019)

The data indicate that there is a strong significant positive correlation between teacher stress and the role of academics. This indicates that teachers who experience stress are affected by their work environment and professional roles, related to pay for performance.

It is important that educational institutions recognize and address teacher stress proactively, providing support, resources and training to help them manage stress and maintain a high level of performance.


(Flores Fernández et al., 2021)

The study indicates that 100% of the teachers evaluated experience some level of stress: 55% show a low level of stress, 33% an intermediate level, 7% a medium-high level and 5% a high level. The research focused more on stress management than performance evaluation.

The educational institution must address stress in the teaching community through specific programs. It is important to note that a more specific assessment of teacher performance in academic and educational terms is needed to fully understand its impact on teaching and learning.


(Vera Zapata, 2021)

Teachers experience levels of stress related to the demands of their work, as 69% feel they rarely have time to do their job due to a significant workload. The research focuses on generating a program to reduce stress to improve teachers' performance.

The educational institution must take proactive measures to support the health and well-being of its teachers, such as generating programs to ensure a healthy and productive learning environment.


(Algalobos-Huancas et al., 2023)

The study indicates that there is a significant positive correlation between stress and work overload of 0.675. This means that, as work overload increases, the stress level tends to increase. Although the results do not provide direct data on teacher performance, the research mentions that the stress generated negatively affects teacher performance.

The high levels of stress experienced by teachers in the context of virtual education have negative effects on the performance and quality of the education they offer. The educational institution must take measures to address these problems and support teachers in adapting to the demands of virtual teaching.


(Muhonen et al., 2023)

The study mentions that teacher stress affects educational dialogue and is related to students' mathematics learning.

Educational institutions must address teachers' occupational stress to improve student performance. Furthermore, they must promote and improve educational dialogue in the classroom, both in terms of quantity and quality. Strategies to foster effective dialogue should also be designed and implemented as part of your efforts to improve student learning outcomes.


(Prasad et al., 2016)

This research indicates that the level of teacher stress is in the medium range, with a value of 3 on a scale of 1 to 5. This indicates that teachers experience a moderate level of stress in their work.
Stress has a negative impact on teaching performance, because a significant correlation was found between several stress factors and performance.

Teacher stress will always be a problem, because it will have an impact on the quality of education. Educational institutions should establish support and training programs to help teachers manage stress and develop strategies to reduce administrative overload.


(Tsubono & Ogawa, 2022)

This study indicates that teachers have the highest scores on the stress response scale, with a median of 57.0, indicating that they experience a high level of stress. Teachers with high levels of stress experience difficulties in their performance due to the pressure and exhaustion associated with this disorder.

Since there is a significant association between working conditions and teaching stress, the educational institution must consider reducing working hours and the workload that is not related to teaching, must promote the relationship between teachers and managers, as well as apply strategies to address identified sources of stress.


(Sarabia & Collantes, 2020)

The study indicates that teachers face a number of stressors in their work environment, including high job demands, tight deadlines, changes in educational policies, and lack of resources and support.

Educational institutions must review and adjust teachers' workload with a more equitable distribution of responsibilities; Teachers should also be included in making decisions that affect their roles and responsibilities, which will mean increasing their sense of belonging and satisfaction at work.


(Woods et al. , 2023)

The study indicates that there is a negative correlation between stress and job satisfaction of teachers, which negatively affects the work well-being of teachers.

The educational institution must provide support and resources to reduce teacher stress; It should also strengthen coping skills among teachers, which will help them deal with stress effectively.

Source: self-made

With the data obtained, and to meet the objective of this research, the analysis was carried out, first of the relationship between stress and teaching performance and, second, of the implications in the educational context.

Relationship between stress and teaching performance

The relationship between teacher stress and teaching performance is a topic of great relevance in face-to-face education, after many studies have been generated during the pandemic caused by COVID-19. Data collected from 14 studies indicate that teachers experience different levels of stress in their school environment, responding to various factors, such as: pressure to meet institutional demands, facing tight deadlines in completing planning and evaluations, adapting to changes in internal administrative policies and educational policies and, finally, dealing with limitations in resources and support from authorities.

All of these stressors have an impact on the quality of life and emotional well-being of teachers, which suggests that stress must be addressed by educational institutions in their own context. Despite it being proven that there are high levels of stress in teachers, it is interesting to note that the majority maintain good levels of their professional performance. This implies that despite the problems they face, they are able to fulfill their responsibilities competently.

However, it is highlighted that teacher stress negatively affects job satisfaction. Even though they may be able to perform their duties, not everyone experiences job satisfaction due to the pressures associated with stress. This aspect highlights the relevance of addressing teacher stress not only to ensure an adequate level of performance, but also to promote a healthy work environment.

Implications in the educational context

The exhaustive analysis of the 14 studies allows us to extract various implications of relevance in the educational context. Although a negative impact on performance is not observed, the importance of promoting the emotional well-being and mental health of teachers is highlighted, highlighting this responsibility directly to educational institutions that must implement prevention programs, and that address the physical dimensions, cognitive, emotional, social and affective aspects of teacher well-being.

It should be mentioned that the stress associated with adapting technologies to virtual and in-person classes affects the quality of teaching. To stay updated in a technological educational environment, educational policies must support teachers in the facilitation of technological tools and resources in institutions.

The presence of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among some teachers indicates the urgency of providing specific attention and support from educational authorities, which must design interventions that help teachers manage this problem; as well as to maintain a healthy connection with your work, with the equitable redistribution of the time and administrative load.

Involving teachers in decision-making, with direct participation in the construction of institutional educational projects, annual operational plans and other school programs, will strengthen their sense of belonging and job satisfaction. These actions will also allow us to face challenges efficiently and maintain a high level of educational performance.



This systematic review provided a valuable perspective on the relationship between stress and teaching performance, showing that the majority of educators maintain a high level of professional performance, highlighting the ability to adapt and satisfy their duties, even under stressful conditions. which is essential to move towards educational quality.

In addition, the importance of emotional well-being and mental health is highlighted as a requirement for teachers to be able to function in the educational context. Although stress itself does not appear to be directly related to poor teacher performance, the well-being of educators has been recognized as crucial to maintaining a healthy and sustainable work environment.

These new understandings emphasize the need for educational institutions to implement risk prevention programs that address multiple dimensions of workplace well-being, including physiological, cognitive, affective, social and emotional aspects, which will contribute to teacher retention and, ultimately, to the generation of quality education.

Despite the valuable knowledge generated, this study presents certain limitations such as the search for original articles published in the last eight years, discarding undergraduate and postgraduate theses, which may not fully reflect the perception and evolution of the relationship between stress. and teaching performance over time.



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Conflict of interests:

The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.


Authors' contribution:

The author participated in the design and writing of the article, in the search and analysis of the information contained in the consulted bibliography.


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