Mendive. Journal on Education, 22(1), e3603

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

Periodization of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals


Periodización de la obra pedagógica de Hortensia Pichardo Viñals


Periodização do trabalho pedagógico de Hortensia Pichardo Viñals


Lizett Ponce de León Martínez1

1University of Matanzas. Cuba.


Citar como
Ponce de León Martínez, L. (2024). Periodization of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals. Mendive. Journal of Education, 22(1), e3603.


Received: July 18, 2023
Accepted: December 19, 2023



Dr. Hortensia Pichardo Viñals created a prodigal pedagogical work of mandatory consultation for students, researchers and all those who wish to know and deepen the Homeland History, with a contribution to Educational Sciences, pedagogy, and the Historical Sciences, the mime has not been periodized nor sufficiently systematized as part of the rescue of the historical-educational studies and the historical memory of the Cuban nation, the objective of this article is to socialize the periodization of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, as a partial result of the research that is carried out. The materialist dialectic was used as a general method of the sciences that made possible the study of his pedagogical work in its integrality and development; and other general scientific methods of the theoretical level: historical-logical, analytical-synthetic and inductive-deductive, systematization as a theoretical method and scientific result, with different historical research techniques, according to the characteristics of the research: documentary analysis, bibliographic filing, source criticism.

Keywords: Cuban pedagogy; pedagogical work; periodization; periods.


La doctora Hortensia Pichardo Viñals creó una pródiga obra pedagógica de obligatoria consulta para estudiantes, investigadores y todos aquellos que deseen conocer y profundizar en la Historia Patria, con una contribución a las Ciencias de la Educación, a la Pedagogía, y a las Ciencias Históricas, la misma no ha sido periodizada ni suficientemente sistematizada como parte del rescate de los estudios histórico educativos y de la memoria histórica de la nación cubana, es objetivo de este artículo: socializar la periodización de la obra pedagógica de Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, como resultado parcial de la investigación que se realiza. En la labor investigativa se empleó la dialéctica materialista como método general de las ciencias que posibilitó el estudio de su obra pedagógica en su integralidad y desarrollo; y otros métodos científicos generales del nivel teórico: histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético e inductivo-deductivo, la sistematización como método teórico y resultado científico, con diferentes técnicas de investigación histórica, según las características de la investigación: análisis documental, fichado bibliográfico, crítica de las fuentes.

Palabras claves: Pedagogía cubana; obra pedagógica; periodización; períodos.


A Dra. Hortensia Pichardo Viñals criou uma pródiga obra pedagógica de consulta obrigatória a estudantes, investigadores e todos aqueles que desejam conhecer e aprofundar a História Nacional, com contributo para as Ciências da Educação, a Pedagogia e as Ciências Históricas, não foi periodizada ou suficientemente sistematizado como parte do resgate dos estudos histórico-educacionais e da memória histórica da nação cubana, o objetivo deste artigo é: socializar a periodização do trabalho pedagógico de Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, como resultado parcial da pesquisa que está sendo realizada fora. No trabalho investigativo, utilizou-se a dialética materialista como método geral da ciência que possibilitou o estudo de sua obra pedagógica em sua totalidade e desenvolvimento; e outros métodos científicos gerais de nível teórico: histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético e indutivo-dedutivo, sistematização como método teórico e resultado científico, com diferentes técnicas de pesquisa histórica, de acordo com as características da pesquisa: análise documental, tabelamento bibliográfico, crítica às fontes.

Palavras-chave: Pedagogia cubana; trabalho pedagógico; periodização; períodos.



Cuban education is based on the progressive and universal pedagogical tradition, which is why it constitutes a core aspect in the humanistic training of citizens within the scope of a comprehensive culture, which favors the creative capacity to solve problems in the course of the 21st century. and face, among other challenges, the notable scientific-technological development that facilitates knowledge management.

For this purpose, research has been carried out in Cuba that, from different theoretical, practical or methodological perspectives, provides foundations and valid results for Educational Sciences and Cuban pedagogy, the following stand out: Senú, Turner and Curbela, (2017); Authors who, from a hermeneutic perspective, provide methodological elements to systematize the pedagogical work of relevant personalities of the 20th and 21st centuries, others such as Oliva, Senú, and Santiesteban, (2022), offer a methodology for the historical-pedagogical study of the educational work of relevant figures of the 20th century.

Given the richness of the pedagogical and educational actions of the Cuban intellectuals of the 20th century, these investigations open a channel for the study from the educational sciences of personalities with contributions in different areas, which is why it is considered necessary to continue theoretical studies on the historical future. of pedagogy in Cuba, in particular systematizing the contribution of the pedagogical work of pedagogues to Cuban education, with emphasis on the 20th century.

Oliva, et al., (2022), who express:

"From the analysis, interpretation and assessment of the past we can contribute to revealing the lines and historical continuity and the trends of social development." (sp).

As explained by Senú et al., (2021): "Professionals must know educational traditions and assume experiences of positive values to perfect their educational work. The roots that base and inspire the Cuban educational project must be recognized, and demonstrate the continuity of pedagogical thought". (Senu et al., 2021)

And it is that:

…the in-depth study in the light of the new conceptions that are currently developing about the role of pedagogical personalities in history, since their lives, works and thoughts played a fundamental role in the complex process of formation of national identity and cultural, in the formation of a new man and the achievement of the true and definitive independence of the peoples of Latin America. (Azel, et al., 2019, p.23)

One of the figures of Cuban pedagogy that is inserted, with an important contribution to intellectual and research training for the various educational levels, was the pedagogue and historian Hortensia Pichardo Viñals (1904-2001), for being a continuator of the thought and ideas pedagogical practices of the 19th century, which were based on the importance of education for the formation of human beings and knowledge of their historical past (Alavez and Montalván, 1999). He educated his students to appropriate historical knowledge not by rote, but with logical reasoning that allowed them to exercise reflective criticism when studying processes and figures of history, by demonstrating the importance of the present-past-future triad in his work. pedagogical.

He defended the importance of scientific education, emphasizing the search for historical truth for the teaching of history in his time. There are also articles and essays related to her pedagogical and research work, highlighting: Cuba in the palm of the hand (Alavez and Montalván, 1999), one of the bibliographies that provides the most information on the life and pedagogical work of Dr. Pichardo. which is evident from the various educational contexts in which he carried out his teaching and research work, the role of the teacher in the training of different generations in the love and defense of the country, the values to be instilled by the teaching profession in the students, the importance of bringing them closer to primary sources to obtain historical knowledge and the need to contribute to their comprehensive training.

It is shared that Sosa, Pestana and Alfonso (2019) recognize the complexity of the study of the pedagogical work of representative figures of education, considering that the aforementioned work constitutes a result of the theoretical-practical educational work in which the recognize that education is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon when considering the specific historical conditions in which it develops and its philosophical conception.

To the extent that has been investigated, the existence of a periodization of the pedagogical work of this intellectual is not known, hence the need to elaborate it to understand the evolution of her work, delimit the periods and stages that make it up and determine the contribution made to it. Cuban education, the objective of this article is to socialize the periodization of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, as a partial result of the research carried out due to the value it has for historical-educational studies.



The pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals was investigated, defined by the authors as: product and result of an identity-based thought, committed to its time, forged and enriched as a consequence of a systematic theoretical-practical task from the teaching and research point of view that contributed to historical and pedagogical knowledge based on the nationalist, civic, historical and patriotic formation of several generations of Cubans ; to respond to educational, pedagogical problems and in particular the teaching of history and historical research during the 20th century and made proposals that transcend his legacy to the present day.

The development of a pedagogical thought in close connection with the historical-social context in which she lived, made possible the formation of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals in terms of providing answers to the educational situation of Cuban society, the analysis carried out is He did from the evolution of the written work, related to his teaching work, which allowed the proposed periodization to be socialized, determining periods, stages and characteristics of each of them respectively. For this, primary sources and those of the context in which it was produced were consulted.

This work is based on materialist dialectics as a general method of science that made possible the study of his pedagogical work in its entirety and evolution; and to guide the development of scientific methods at the theoretical level, among them: the historical-logical method to study the life and work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, as well as her contribution to Cuban education, which allowed analyzing the progress of the object of study to establish the moments of rupture and continuity produced in the internal logic of his work, determine the periods and stages of periodization.

The analytical-synthetic to study the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals by analyzing its fundamental aspects and synthesizing its essential ideas.

The inductive-deductive to establish the general characteristics of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals in each period, based on the relationship with the historical context, the pedagogical practice, to determine the particularities of each period.

The systematization to organize the information obtained with a historical-logical approach, as a result of the use of scientific methods and research techniques based on the sources or historical information used in the research.

Various investigative techniques were applied, including: Document analysis, which allowed the analysis and deepening of the work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals based on the consultation of books, articles and conferences, as well as the normative documents of the educational activity. during the Bourgeois Republic and the Revolution.

Bibliographic registration. It was used for the search and thematic characterization of the information related to the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, which allowed the foundation of the periodization.

Criticism of the sources. It made it possible to determine the essence of the periodization of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals, as a result of the critical analysis of the sources consulted, in relation to the historical context and the main influences received.



In correspondence with what was stated by Buenavilla (2006), in the article Educational influences, objective and subjective factors. Dialectic of its development, the authors show that the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo Viñals is the result of various influences, of a socio-historical, cultural and philosophical nature, as well as of an emotional, experiential and professional nature, which influenced her citizenship and education. academic, which can be identified in the study of their intellectual production. They allow us to highlight a permanent vocation as a pedagogue and researcher and the social commitment to the problems of education and in particular regarding the teaching of the History of Cuba, among other disciplines, for which it is important to carry out the periodization of the aforementioned work.

The periodization of Hortensia Pichardo's pedagogical work has been a complex task characterized by analysis, the study of her published work, her performance in sociocultural life, the legacy and values that she transmitted to different generations of Cubans Monal (2007) and Guadarrama (2008) provide the methodology to periodize the study of Hortensia Pichardo, by integrating the significant aspects of her pedagogical work.

To substantiate the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo, it is necessary to establish the essential periods and stages in the development of this figure, through a periodization, which is why the authors share the idea that Chávez (1996) refers to; when he states that: "it is necessary to specify the fundamental stages that a certain historical process or a personality that is being studied has gone through" (p.19). This analysis allows you to guide the theoretical budgets to carry out periodization, the determination of periods and stages based on the fundamental milestones of your research and teaching work.

The History of Cuba is identified as the core or central axis of the aforementioned work, characterized by the defense of national identity, patriotism and anti-imperialism with an educational, axiological and didactic intention, supported by the consultation of primary research sources. Historically, this allowed us to determine the three periods that made up this work, in close relationship with the historical context in which he lived.

First period (1917-1934), this included 17 years, starting in 1917, when at just thirteen years of age, after attending high school at the Carmen Grave de Peralta Academy in La Víbora, he enrolled at the Normal School of Teachers from Havana and began her training as a teacher and completed the period in 1934, the date on which she received a doctorate in Philosophy and Letters, which allowed her to develop her skills as a researcher associated with historical topics linked to teaching and gender studies. The same agrees with important events that occurred in the international order, among them, the triumph of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Tsarist Russia, which had a wide impact in the world, and specifically in Cuba with the influence of socialist and Marxist ideas. Leninists in the various sectors of society. In Cuba, the presidential periods of Mario García Menocal (1913-1921), Alfredo Zayas Alfonso (1921-1925), Gerardo Machado Morales (1925-1933), Alberto Herrera Franchi (1933), Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada (1933) follow one another), Guillermo Portela, Sergio Carbó, Porfirio Franca, José Miguel Irisarri and Ramón Grau, (Pentarquía 1933), Ramón Grau San Martín (1933), Carlos Hevia (1934), Manuel Márquez Sterling (1934), Carlos Mendieta (1934).

Among the significant events in the educational field, the creation of the Federation of University Students (FEU) stands out on December 20, 1922, which would lead the movement for university reform 1 in Cuba.

Regarding this period, his insertion into the University of Havana in 1921 was significant, where he studied Pedagogy, opting for the modality of free education, from which he received his doctorate in 1924, at the age of twenty, with the thesis titled‰§ El Colegio de San Cristóbal de La Habana , a thorough study on education in Cuba since the beginning of the 19th century and in particular of this private institution, the history of this center in its three periods, its didactic characteristics, its teaching staff and its influence on colonial society, as well as the internal situation of this school, the research carried out on the San Cristóbal School delves into the History of Education in the aforementioned century and constitutes a contribution to educational historiography and is an example of how to investigate from sources specific to the school culture of an institution .

Entry into the Philosophy and Letters program, once she graduated in Pedagogy, was one of the most important achievements for Hortensia Pichardo, when she defended her Doctoral thesis titled Mercedes Matamoros, her Life and Work, research that reflects reality. of Cuban women during the government of Gerardo Machado, is considered to be a pioneering investigation in terms of women's studies at the time. In this period it is believed that the genesis of Dr. Pichardo's pedagogical work lies, since as part of her research to graduate with a doctorate in Pedagogy, she delved into the knowledge of one of the most representative educational institutions of education in Cuba, in this study the mastery of the categorical apparatus of pedagogy is evident, when referring to pedagogical innovation, the school curriculum, school organization, the faculty, and the study programs, among other elements and from the point of view didactic by the use of the explanatory method and the importance of student learning, issues that are fully valid today.

The analysis of these works allowed us to establish that they carry out a study from different angles of the 19th and 20th centuries in Cuba, specifically in education and culture, the link is established from an educational institution and from the life and work of a Cuban poet, precursor of the Feminist poetry, who distinguished herself for her patriotic prose, social defense and against metropolitan oppression, both allow us to know aspects of colonial Havana and the first decades of the Bourgeois Republic, by providing a picture of the time world, so A holistic approach with a strong philosophical and pedagogical basis prevails. They are written in simple, easy-to-understand language that is accessible to all types of audiences and is also an invitation to read in order to delve deeper into the historical way of reasoning and the rescue. of the traditions and historical memory of the nation, these works reflect in historical time the permanence, continuity, long duration, they constitute contributions to research related to social history in Cuba, a field still insufficiently researched today.

Second period (1935-1973), this spanned 38 years, is divided into two stages, the first extends from 1935 to 1961, and the second extends from 1962 to 1973. It begins with the exercise of teaching for the first time by Hortensia Pichardo in the eastern region of Cuba, during which important milestones occur such as: her incorporation into the faculty of the La Víbora Secondary Education Institute in 1944, participation in the National Congresses of History (1942-1960), in defense of the teaching of the History of Cuba, the rescue and revaluation of historical research, Cuban identity and national identity, her performance as a professor at the School of History of the University of Havana in 1962, marked by the commitment to train the first historians of the Revolution, which constituted a founding fact and ended in 1973 when he stopped actively teaching undergraduate teaching, as a result of his scientific production, his work she grows and becomes known beyond the classroom, as does her prestige as a pedagogue and researcher.

Period that coincides with international events that directly influenced the situation in Cuba, such as the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), the Second World War (1939-1945), and the confrontation with fascism, the emergence of processes in European countries that integrated the socialist camp, the Chinese Revolution, the post-war reconstruction, with the hegemonic position of the United States within the capitalist world and the implementation of the Cold War policy and its various manifestations. In Cuba it began with the closing of the revolutionary process of the 1930s and the application of reformist policies from the governments that followed, chaired by: Carlos Mendieta (1934-1935), José A. Barnet (1935-1936), Miguel Mariano Gómez Arias (1936), Federico Laredo Brú (1936-1940), Fulgencio Batista Zaldívar (1940-1944), Ramón Grau San Martin (1944-1948), Carlos Prío Socarrás (1948-1952), and Fulgencio Batista Zaldívar (1952- 1959).

The triumph of the Cuban Revolution on January 1, 1959 was significant in reversing the existing situation in Cuban society. It had Manuel Urrutia Lleó and Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado as provisional presidents, Fidel Castro Ruz was prime minister. It was characterized as a period of significant radical changes, among which the Agrarian Reform Law, the Literacy Campaign, the nationalization process of Cuban and foreign private companies stands out, among other measures and laws aimed at complying with the Program of the Moncada.

First stage: (1935-1961). In 1935, due to the political crisis of the 1930s, Hortensia Pichardo along with her husband Fernando Portuondo went to live in Santiago de Cuba, where Dr. Pichardo worked as a Public-School teacher and from there she became a Rural Teacher, in the municipality. from Sagua de Tánamo, in 1937 she returned to Havana, between the years (1937-1943), she was not linked to teaching, she dedicated herself to caring for her family. In 1944, she was appointed Assistant Professor at the Secondary Education Institute in La Víbora, where she remained for twenty-eight years. She would highlight her work in teaching various subjects, enriching the pedagogical criteria with professional development, and by this time she was taught the History of Cuba, in a single semester in these secondary education institutes, the influence of the New School can be seen in its actions by insisting on the importance of the student learning for themselves.

Hortensia Pichardo was recognized on June 10, 1949, by the President of the Cuban Society of Historical and International Studies and Secretary General of the National Congresses of History, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, as a collaborating member of this society, as well as her participation in all the administrative and technical sessions of the board, which shows the permanent activism in these conclaves (1942-1960), with the presentation of works, in deliberations in the different sections or as a member, for example: the dissertation on Don José de la Luz y Caballero in 1949, on the occasion of commemorating the Centennial of the founding of the Colegio del Salvador, once again the studies on this subject stand out in the work of Dr. Hortensia Pichardo, in particular one of the figures of the Cuban turn-of-the-century thought, which allows us to confirm that the pedagogical work is present.

The dedication to collecting documentation on Carlos Manuel de Céspedes was significant for Hortensia Pichardo, with the collaboration of Fernando Portuondo, the compilation and review spanned twenty years.

In 1950, her participation in the Fifth National Congress of the Federation of Doctors in Sciences and in Philosophy and Letters stands out, which evidenced the commitment and professional development, which favored Hortensia Pichardo's application for registration in the National College of Pedagogues, on the 8th. June 1956.

With the triumph of the Cuban Revolution in January 1959, there was an exodus of professionals and intellectuals to the United States and in the case of Hortensia Pichardo, she continued her work as a teacher at the La Víbora Secondary Education Institute and reflected social commitment. and professional in addition to teaching, in works and publications and in his educational work with students.

On July 19, 1961, she was hired by the Higher Governing Board of the University, as interim associate professor of the Chair of Historical Research Technique of the School of Philosophy and Letters at the request of Dr. Elías Entralgo, in which she began the university teaching Hortensia Pichardo, by simultaneous classes at the La Víbora Secondary Education Institute. At the university he also studied General Historiography with a program that covered everything from the Bible to current documents; and in Historiography of Cuba.

At this stage, Hortensia Pichardo's work is identified by: presenting works as a result of teaching and research work in the National History Congresses, her research work is manifested in a joint work with Fernando Portuondo, whose theme within the History of Cuba is limited to the colonial period, with a wide spectrum that includes the 16th to 19th centuries, which reveals the professional and emotional bond of these intellectuals, demonstrating the value of consulting primary sources for knowledge of history. , demonstrates the value of the link between history, geography and lexicography and clarify important historical inaccuracies.

Second Stage: (1962-1973). As of 1962, Dr. Pichardo ceased to belong to the faculty of the Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza de la Víbora. It is important to highlight in the educational field the University Reform, carried out that year, as part of the educational policy that, encouraged by the revolutionary government, proposed making education available to everyone, the only way to train professionals who would undertake the transformations. economic and social changes that were beginning in the country, a reality that was not well understood by the university faculty, who were mainly defenders of Yankee interests. As an intellectual committed to her time, Professor Hortensia Pichardo actively participated in this important process.

In this context, Dr. Pichardo assumes the task of training young historians of the Revolution in the country. Her work and dedication were significant, specifically in the School of History of the Faculty of Humanities, where she held the chair of Technology of the Historical Research, at the University of Havana, links his teaching with an extensive historiographic production with the patriotic nationalist seal, which has always identified his work. With the opening of this school, new knowledge of social impact on the students is being created.

He also worked in General Historiography, which made it possible for him to continue and put into practice his pedagogical methods. In this sense, he did not teach his classes through textbooks, he turned to the works of Varela, Saco, Arrate, Urrutia, Valdés and others, with in relation to the topics about Cuba, in the case of the classes about Greece and Rome, he studied the classics, awakening the interest in knowing and transmitting it to the students.

Reading was an essential resource, according to Hortensia Pichardo, not only for teachers, but for researchers. She insisted with her students on working with the documents, how they should work textually, as it appears written by its author, respecting the spelling and writing of the time. She was an advocate that research was part of university rigor and should not only teach students to take notes as part of their pedagogical work.

Hortensia Pichardo considered and assumed this from her pedagogical practice, that teaching must be supported by research, that the teacher has to investigate to give students the best of the subject so that they obtain good results. Furthermore, he conceived as important elements for teaching, the interest and vocation that the teacher must possess to awaken it in his students. An essential element that characterized it from the point of view of the teaching-learning process was its humanism.

The pedagogical work in this period increases through the constant link between pedagogy and research, which is why it is reasoned that at this stage there is already a outlined, mature work that allows us to meditate and defend that it is marked by the following guidelines, from second and third readings:

Third Period: (1974-2001), spanning 27 years, Dr. Hortensia Pichardo is seventy years old at that time. After remaining in direct contact with teaching, he dedicated his work in priority order to research, this fact begins the period, without abandoning his connection with the university, he continued collaboration in postgraduate courses, categories courts and scientific degrees, he gave master lectures , among others, as a result and recognition of her work and its social reach, her consecration as a pedagogue and researcher received a series of recognitions of the highest relevance, the period ended with her physical disappearance in 2001.

The period coincides with several stages of the Cuban political system, in which a reorganization of the economic and political life of the country takes place based on the Socialist Constitution approved in 1976, the subsequent process of rectification of errors, interrupted by the Special Period in peacetime, because of the consequences of the collapse of socialism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

Between the previous period in its second stage and in a part of this, the Documents for the History of Cuba (1969-1980) are released, a broad compilation made as a result of careful years of research with an educational-formative and didactic conception, to which must necessarily be resorted to, where the historical-geographic link and values such as national identity, anti-imperialism and patriotism are present,

On June 21, 2001, she died at the age of 97, in her home, where she remained dedicated to study and research until the last days of her life.

This period is distinguished by the fruitfulness in the production of a work that is made known with greater intensity, that has been developing and consolidating for more than three decades, the diversity of themes that cover events, processes and personalities from the colony with emphasis on the 19th century until 1940, the eminently educational-training and didactic nature of the texts: José Martí: readings for young people (1960) and José Martí: readings for children ( 1990 ), which exalt the pedagogical work of its author, the publication and reissue in different advertising media, the investigative work carried out, reflected throughout the entire pedagogical work to bequeath to the different generations of Cubans the knowledge, passion and dedication for the History of Cuba, the national and Latin American recognition of a work consecrated work that enriched and still enriches the educational sciences, historical science, historiography and Cuban pedagogy, inside and outside the country.

Dr. Pichardo's articles, essays and other research, due to the importance of her local, regional, as well as national themes, have been published in: Anuario Martiano; Cuban Bimester Magazine; Bohemia; Magazine of the National Library "José Martí "; Magazine of the University of Havana; Islands and Santiago.



Delving into the essence of historical-educational studies necessarily implies a periodization that facilitates its understanding and analysis.

The Mexican historian and economist Enrique Semo (2006), when referring to periodization, analyzes its level of abstraction, as well as the intrinsic laws of the development of the phenomenon, its link with the historical-pedagogical process and the interrelation with categories such as: continuity and discontinuity, rupture, among others, while the criteria endorsed by researchers in the country, such as Chávez (1996); on the value of periodization in historical-educational studies and Romero (2019), provide a methodological proposal by addressing periodization as a methodological instrument to reveal the studies of prominent figures in education.

The analysis carried out from the systematization of the periodization of the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo allows us to understand its evolution over time, this work marked by the consecration of this pedagogue and researcher, who, based on the consultation of the primary documentary sources of history, bequeathed and rescued for the nation a voluminous work through which his passion for knowledge of the History of Cuba, for education, its defense and the need to make it known is evident.

The identification of the three periods and stages of the pedagogical work of Dr. Hortensia Pichardo allows us to consider that her work survives over time, it is an expression of continuity and commitment. It shows the close relationship between the history that is thought, that which is investigated and that which is taught, it constitutes a necessary reference and an example to follow for all those, teachers, historians and students who delve into historical-educational studies.

The periodization of Hortensia Pichardo's pedagogical work has a marked educational, scientific, axiological intentionality, of convictions, feelings that allows the comprehensive formation of the students' personalities.

The elaborate periodization has allowed the pedagogical work of Hortensia Pichardo to be valued in all its dimensions, by revealing as a result of the analysis carried out aspects not considered until now that reveal an in-depth study of it and its evolution over time. This work harmonized the logical and factual knowledge of history in its interrelation; the development of the historical-social way of reasoning, the rescue of historical memory and the defense of the historical consciousness of a people and its history are palpable in it.

Each period and stage of the periodization of Hortensia Pichardo's pedagogical work has allowed us to know its characteristics and development, which contributed to the systematization of a work based on educational sciences and historical science, so it should be considered as educational heritage.



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1 University reform. His great figure: Julio Antonio Mella. Since 1921, an air of rebellion had been felt at the University, when students had rejected the awarding of Honoris Causa doctorates to Enoch Crowder and Leonard Wood, the former military governor. Among the Protestants was first-year student Julio Antonio Mella. The fundamental objectives of the university reform can be summarized as follows: Renewal of the Cuban University to fulfill its cultural and scientific duty, University autonomy, State funds to provide the University with the necessary resources, Purification of inept and corrupt professors, Student participation in the government of the University. The fight for university reform gained strength through increasingly energetic actions, which included strikes and even the takeover of the University by students. This movement achieved the solidarity of the students of the provincial Secondary Education Institutes and the Normal Schools for Teachers.


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