Mendive. Journal on Education, 22(1), e3554

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

Perspectives of inclusive education from the Provincial Directorate of Education


Perspectivas de la educación inclusiva desde la Dirección Provincial de Educación


Perspectivas da educação inclusiva da Direcção Provincial de Educação


Sandra Ramírez Hernández 1
Olivia García Reyes2
Liset Rivera Verdecia3

1 Provincial Directorate of Education Pinar del Río. Cuba.
2 University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba.
3 Tony Alomá Special School. La Palma Municipality. Pinewood of the river. Cuba.


Citar como
Ramírez Hernández, S., García Reyes, O., & Rivera Verdecia, L. (2024). Perspectives of inclusive education from the Provincial Directorate of Education. Mendive. Journal of Education, 22(1), e3554.


Received: June 5, 2023
Accepted: November 8, 2023



Carrying out a process of quality educational inclusion in today's societies constitutes a challenge that starts from fighting discriminatory ways of exclusion in different contexts and for dissimilar causes, in which risk factors concur in parallel, the lack of preparation of those involved in the search for solutions and the assimilation of the students before the aid. In this sense the article presents a study about the preparation of provincial education methodologists for the care of students in vulnerable situations from an inclusive approach. Theoretical methods such as historical-logical analysis, induction-deduction and analysis-synthesis were used in its elaboration; empirical methods such as documentary analysis, interview and observation of methodological activities; and statistical techniques such as percentage analysis. Among the main limitations found were the insufficiencies in the projection of inclusive socio-educational practices from the methodological work system of the Provincial Directorate of Education; currently, there is no harmoniously designed system that allows converting educational systems in response to the diversity of learners and making the right to education with equal opportunities truly practical, especially those who are sometimes excluded due to being in a situation of vulnerability. It was possible to conclude that methodologists play a fundamental role in directing the process of prevention, detection, stimulation, diagnosis/evaluation and early intervention of students with barriers to learning and social participation.

Keywords: educational inclusion; preparation; vulnerabilities.


Llevar a cabo un proceso de inclusión educativa de calidad en las sociedades actuales constituye un reto que parte de pugnar maneras discriminatorias de exclusión en diferentes contextos y por disímiles causas, en las que concurren paralelamente los factores de riesgos, la falta de preparación de los implicados en la búsqueda de soluciones y la asimilación de los educandos ante la ayuda. En tal sentido, el artículo presenta un estudio acerca de la preparación de los metodólogos provinciales de educación para la atención a educandos en situación de vulnerabilidad desde un enfoque inclusivo. Se emplearon en su elaboración métodos teóricos como el análisis histórico-lógico, la inducción-deducción y el análisis-síntesis; métodos empíricos como el análisis documental, la entrevista y la observación a actividades metodológicas; y técnicas estadísticas como el análisis porcentual. Entre las principales limitaciones encontradas estuvieron las insuficiencias en la proyección de prácticas socioeducativas inclusivas desde el sistema de trabajo metodológico de la Dirección Provincial de Educación. Actualmente, no existe un sistema armónicamente diseñado que permita convertir los sistemas educativos en respuesta a la diversidad de educandos y hacer verdaderamente práctico el derecho a la educación con igualdad de oportunidades, en especial para aquellos que por estar en situación de vulnerabilidad en ocasiones son excluidos. Se pudo concluir que los metodólogos juegan un papel fundamental en la dirección del proceso de prevención, detección, estimulación, diagnóstico/evaluación e intervención temprana de educandos con barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación social.

Palabras clave: inclusión educativa; preparación; vulnerabilidades.


Levar a cabo um processo de inclusão educativa de qualidade nas sociedades atuais constitui um desafio que parte do combate às formas discriminatórias de exclusão em contextos diversos e por causas díspares, em que concorrem em paralelo fatores de risco, a falta de preparação dos envolvidos na procura de soluções e a assimilação dos alunos perante a ajuda. Nesse sentido, o artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a preparação de metodólogos provinciais de educação para a atenção de alunos em situação de vulnerabilidade a partir de um enfoque inclusivo. Métodos teóricos como análise histórico-lógica, indução-dedução e análise-síntese foram utilizados em sua elaboração; métodos empíricos como análise documental, entrevistas e observação de atividades metodológicas; e técnicas estatísticas, como análise de porcentagem. Entre as principais limitações encontradas encontram-se as insuficiências na projeção de práticas socioeducativas inclusivas a partir do sistema metodológico de trabalho da Direcção Provincial de Educação; atualmente, não existe um sistema pensado harmoniosamente que permita converter os sistemas educativos em resposta à diversidade dos educandos e tornar verdadeiramente prático o direito à educação com igualdade de oportunidades, especialmente aqueles que por vezes são excluídos por se encontrarem em situação de vulnerabilidade. Foi possível concluir que os metodólogos desempenham um papel fundamental no direcionamento do processo de prevenção, detecção, estimulação, diagnóstico/avaliação e intervenção precoce de alunos com barreiras à aprendizagem e à participação social.

Palavras-chave: inclusão educacional; preparação; vulnerabilidades.



Cuban education, based on the achievements achieved since the 60s of the last centuries until today, has the seal of law, equality and justice for all citizens, as a dimension of the established legal and political project. in the country; It is also made to correspond with traditions and historical realities (Reinoso and Ramírez, 2020).

Guaranteeing the presence, collaboration and learning of each and every one of the learners is a priority for the National Education System, if it is taken into account that inclusive education is the model that guides the thinking and action of current educational policies. global level; This arises as a derivation of the highest signs of exclusion and educational inequality that remain in the vast majority of educational systems internationally. Hence the need for trained personnel to successfully face such diversity based on equal opportunities and equity.

Sandoval et al. (2019) and Robles (2021) agree that it is important to contextualize the term inclusive education, so that it is recognized that it is not only integrating or including learners and providing them with activities that are individual, but also satisfying learning needs, with special emphasis on those who are most vulnerable to marginality and social exclusion.

Inclusive education must be seen as a right of children, which implies the challenge of educational change towards quality, equitable systems for all, throughout life, without disqualifying people based on their place of origin, sex, health, social level, ethnicity or any other uniqueness (López et al, 2022).

For their part, Valdés et al. (2019) and Carrillo and Moscoso (2022) highlight the need to have a society, a culture of inclusion, which allows us to identify, promote and coexist with each other, taking as a basis the differences that we may have and understanding that there are radical changes between the way of thinking, feeling, acting, expressing; Only in this way can true inclusion be achieved that, beyond being embedded in a policy, is formed as part of the daily lives of people, not only of students.

The concept that exists in Cuba for the education of all people is materialized in Pedagogy, which makes it possible for everyone to be successful, learn, access knowledge and culture, as well as use their intellectual and practical skills.

In this sense, the role of educational professionals constitutes a central axis in the system that is aimed at the organization of the life and practical activity of students, which requires articulation in the actions of different educational forces to guarantee the active participation of the various institutions of society that share the system of educational influences with the school and of all the factors that intervene in this process. Cuban education is advancing in presence, integration and measures to address barriers to learning and participation, but there are still gaps to guarantee the success of all and authentic participation in inclusive environments that respond to the diversity of learners.

Despite the government's will to carry out sustained actions to eliminate barriers to learning and social participation, unfortunately these still persist. Although the Cuban reality in this aspect is very different from that of other countries, pedagogical practice shows that situations of social exclusion still persist with those students who are in a vulnerable situation. For this reason, the work carried out in the province and the country is based on a prioritized strategy where the necessary human resources are available to treat and monitor the situation of these students; based on training that prepares those in charge of carrying out this process of educational inclusion.

For the implementation of the project "Attention to infants, adolescents and young people", the MINED in 2020 established five key vulnerability indicators that allow focusing attention on learners with barriers to learning and participation; They are: controlled children aged 0-6 years with a complex social situation; teenagers who are pregnant or have young children; minors at risk (Task Victoria, minors with serious indiscipline and/or who participate in acts that the law classifies as crimes, practice of prostitution); students linked to drug trafficking, possession and consumption and disengaged from studies. In May 2022, the province identified a total of 2,046 students with some of these vulnerabilities, from Early Childhood to Youth and Adult Education, with disengagement from school-age studies being the predominant indicator and the educational level Technical Education and Professional who pays the most.

These vulnerabilities mean that students, on some occasions, are segregated, rejected and that their normal development is affected, not only as students but as members of a society. Hence, the school, in the fulfillment of the functions that are inherent to it, must become the space that breaks down the physical, methodological, organizational and attitudinal barriers to learning and social participation, which determines the need to prepare a professional who has knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to responsibly assume their functions aimed at methodological work, improvement and scientific work with an inclusive approach in the context where they perform.

The objective of this article is to socialize the results of the study carried out on the training of provincial methodologists, for the care of learners in vulnerable situations, from an inclusive approach.



The study was carried out in the Provincial Directorate of Education of Pinar del Río in the period between June 2022 and March 2023. To determine the sample, intentional sampling was used that allowed work with 42 methodologists, with representation of each of the educational level's Early childhood, Primary, Special, Basic Secondary, Pre-university, Technical and Professional Education and Education for Youth and Adults.

To carry out this study, the dialectical-materialist conception was used. The adoption and mastery of the main postulates of the historical-cultural approach facilitate conscious educational action, since they allow the objectives of this process to be outlined more precisely, to choose the methods and, in general, to direct the system of educational influences that are exerted. about the learners. The research was also supported by theoretical methods such as: historical-logical analysis, induction-deduction and analysis-synthesis, which made possible the systematization of the historical background and theoretical references of the training process of provincial methodologists to eliminate or minimize barriers to learning and participation of vulnerable learners. In addition, empirical methods such as documentary analysis, interviews and observation of methodological activities were used; and statistical techniques such as percentage analysis for the processing of information related to the training of provincial methodologists to care for learners in vulnerable situations from an inclusive approach.

The documentary analysis provided organization, selection, study, treatment and interpretation of different normative and methodological documents, in which provincial methodologists intervene, study plans and programs, reports from subject commissions, Ministerial Resolutions, psychopedagogical characterizations and individualized educational strategies of learners in vulnerable situations. In the documentary analysis, the review of the different annual professional training and methodological work plans of the last six years was also carried out, as well as the designs and reports of methodological help, inspection or specialized visits carried out in the different municipalities of the province.

The interview was applied to the entire sample, with the purpose of characterizing this process from their current modes of professional action. In addition, we worked with the heads of each educational level, in different sessions, to whom a survey was applied to obtain information about the treatment of the topic from the methodological work spaces.

Scientific observation of methodological activities that were developed as part of the methodological work system of the Provincial Directorate of Education was intended with the purpose of verifying the preparation that provincial methodologists have to eliminate or minimize barriers to learning and participation of students. learners in vulnerable situations.

The use of these methods made it possible to issue criteria on the essential aspects of the object of study. For this, aspects such as:



After the triangulation of the results of the methods, techniques and instruments used to confirm the problem, the information was triangulated, which made it possible to verify that the conception of the methodological work system of the Provincial Directorate of Education in the province of Pinar del Río enables the preparation of its structure for its deployment, aimed at raising the quality of the pedagogical process and the consequent constant elevation of the level of technical-professional preparation of education specialists.

From that point of view, this work system has all the potential to support the deficiencies related to attention to diversity; However, transformations are urgently needed in the order of inclusive cultures, policies and practices in the Pinar del Río educational system, which make it possible to take action to minimize the barriers that limit the learning and social participation of all students, taking into account that the methodological work system lacks dimensions and indicators based on educational inclusion.

In the exchanges with provincial directors and methodologists, the importance of the topic is recognized, given the demand that society makes today towards quality education for all, which demonstrates the novelty and relevance of the research being carried out. In the documentary review, the treatment of the issue of attention to diversity was verified, but emphasis is placed on those who have special educational needs associated with a disability, minimizing those who due to their behavioral, health, family or school achievement situation They are in a vulnerable situation.

In the methodological preparations, it was found that theoretical elements are accentuated, without effectively demonstrating in pedagogical practice what to do in these situations from the fulfillment of the functions of the provincial methodologist, which limits the development of professional skills related to attention to diversity. that provide effective responses to the real needs of students and their families.

Furthermore, not only insufficiencies were detected in the projection of inclusive educational practices from the work system, but also deficiencies in the process of prevention, detection, stimulation, diagnosis/evaluation and early intervention with a gender and intersectoral approach, as well as deficiencies in the process of family, citizenship and environmental education that guarantees the non-exclusion of these students.

A system aimed at developing the educational inclusion process for the care of children, adolescents and young people with vulnerable situations in the different contexts of action is not implemented, from an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach, based on systematization from the point of theoretical-methodological view directed the development of the educational inclusion process.

It is noted that the actions that are carried out are often formal. The topic is treated in a fragmented way and is rarely used for the creation of novel activities that stimulate knowledge, reflection and research on the topic. Furthermore, this topic is not required for professional improvement. It is not possible to create stable coordination between the different levels of management, since in most cases the guidelines given do not effectively reach educational institutions.

In the interview, 78.3% of the methodologists acknowledge feeling dissatisfied with the knowledge they have to carry out this task, which is why they are unable to effectively fulfill their functions; 98.3% show willingness to learn elements related to caring for students in vulnerable situations, given the importance of the topic in current Cuban society.

In the observation made, it is confirmed that the main difficulties detected are that the actions carried out do not always have an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach and all the spaces of the methodological work system are not taken advantage of in a timely manner to carry out a training process where treatment of the topic, so an adequate development of professional skills to plan and direct activities, to eliminate or minimize barriers to learning and social participation is not demonstrated. Humanism, sensitivity and responsibility for the task are evident in 96.7%.

The initial diagnosis carried out to specify the research problem allowed us to establish the main shortcomings in the training process for provincial methodologists to care for students in vulnerable situations, from an inclusive approach. They specify the need to improve knowledge, deepening and attitude for the selection and use of said knowledge and skills in the training process.

The educational inclusion of learners in vulnerable situations lacks actions to be carried out by the Provincial Directorate of Education, based on the performance of methodologists for the improvement of ways of learning and acting, framed in that it must: achieve a comprehensive approach that involves the entire educational community, the participation of teachers, students and workers in general; promote a climate of educational work, which takes place in the classroom and outside of it, from the curricular, the extracurricular and prepares the student to be able to face the different social problems that arise.

The determination of the aforementioned regularities, and their precision in the causal dynamics, arises from the scientific route to solve said problem, where a methodological alternative was offered as a scientific answer.

The solution proposal emphasizes social measurement, recognizing that through the participation of methodologists, officials, directors, teachers, families and the community, effective educational inclusion is possible that contributes to the preparation of provincial education methodologists. that guarantees the educational inclusion of students in vulnerable situations.

It is also based on premises that recognize the active nature of the methodologist through metacognitive reflection, where he learns to orient himself and orient himself in accordance with his professional mode of action and his level of direction to the managers who are subordinate to him and the teacher as the main mediator.

This methodological alternative establishes a set of techniques and procedures that, supported by the foundations set out above, contributes to enhancing the educational inclusion of learners in vulnerable situations. This means conceiving a set of actions that allows methodologists to orient themselves in a coherent and efficient manner in the guidance they carry out at the levels that are subordinate to them, using the school as a medium, stimulating the deployment of necessary efforts and resources.

Consequently, for the practical implementation of the alternative, it is necessary to emphasize the role of the methodologist as a development enhancer and mediating agent, so teamwork within the scientific community, the educational system and establishing alliances must prevail. with other educational agents such as the community and the family.

This alternative has the general objective: to train the provincial education methodologist for the inclusion of learners in vulnerable situations. It is conceived in six activities, with a duration of one hour and a monthly frequency included in the work system, with the participation of all provincial education methodologists and directed by a specialist in the subject; Specialists from other organizations such as the Prosecutor's Office, MTSS, MINSAP, Culture, among others, may be invited.

Among the forms of methodological teaching work established by the MINED (2014) is the methodological meeting, the methodological class (instructive and demonstrative), the open class, the methodological workshop, etc. It is suggested that the organization of the methodological work to conceive this process be structured as follows:

Table 1- Methodological alternative for training provincial methodologists for the educational inclusion of students in vulnerable situations


Way of working


Main ideas


Methodological Meeting

Socialize the structural components of the alternative and its purposes in the conception of the process aimed at the educational inclusion of learners in vulnerable situations.

Main insufficiencies in the direction of the educational inclusion process.
Causes and possible solutions from pedagogical theory and practice.


Methodological Workshop

Assess the relationship between educational inclusion and school context in obtaining quality education.

General conceptions about the educational inclusion of students in vulnerable situations, based on their comprehensive diagnosis.


Instructional Methodological Class

Analyze the difficulties that students present with barriers to learning and social participation in cognitive domains, from the teaching-learning process.

Aspects that must be part of the organization and structuring of the system of actions based on the analysis of the potential to achieve in practice the educational inclusion of students in vulnerable situations and its conception from the subject commissions.


Demonstrative Methodological Class

Demonstrate procedures for the process of prevention, detection, stimulation, diagnosis/evaluation and early intervention with a gender and intersectoral approach.

Projection of inclusive socio-educational practices, using the variant determined by the provincial methodologists and which will depend on the level of preparation for facing the process.


Methodological Workshop

Develop strategies for the implementation of inclusive policies, practices and cultures in educational institutions.

Procedures that can contribute to the educational inclusion of learners in vulnerable situations based on community, sociocultural management and artistic education, including networks of centers and resources based on ICT.


Open class

Generalize the most significant experiences in the inclusion of students in vulnerable situations.

Achievements and deferences, establishing precisions and generalizations about the fulfillment of the established objectives.

The evaluation model consisted of two forms: diagnostic and interventional. The diagnostic evaluation was used with the objective of evaluating the situation of the training of provincial methodologists for the care of students in vulnerable situations from an inclusive approach, declaring potentialities and needs and strong and weak areas.

The intervention evaluation was carried out in the development of the training process itself, considering the assimilation and transfer of the help, willingness to carry out the activities and degree of acceptance based on the criteria, questions, answers to the questions and changes observed in the performances.

This proposal showed, from a theoretical point of view, a sociological framework that reveals the incursions made by sociology, which explain how societies change, and through the agents of socialization transformations occur that demonstrate that it is possible to change cultures towards a true educational inclusion, fully complying with policies and introducing new inclusive practices.

The proposed methodological alternative paid tribute to the demands demanded by the Third Improvement of the National Education System, based on the coherent implementation of its new forms of work, in close relationship with the opportunities offered by its components and its structure with possibilities of multiplication over time. the levels that are subordinate to it.

The possibilities for their enrichment were recognized from the knowledge they offer, the procedures with which they operate and the critical attitude of those involved; These elements support its broad theoretical-methodological scope, its functional dynamics, as well as its relevance.

The actions included the participation of directors, methodologists, teachers, families and students, with fair value to the response to diversity, from an active, interactive, participatory process, which integrated all those involved to promote changes in development, from of a continuous stimulation process.

The main transformations were aimed at considering the importance of overcoming the barriers to learning and social participation, from a multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach and offering all the help required by students in vulnerable situations; as well as the importance of developing educational strategies with a didactic approach to learning, not only the content of the different subjects, but precisely learning for life when facing contradictions and conflicts.

The alliances that must exist between student, political and mass organizations, and other community factors were strengthened to achieve the goals of education provided for in the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba itself. Coordinated and sustained efforts were combined, it was recognized that there is little chance of improving results in the care of learners in vulnerable situations if changes do not occur in the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of adults.



The bibliographic study of the topic and the determination of the results of the diagnosis allow us to specify that the causal dynamics of said problematic situation requires a scientific path for its solution, in order for provincial methodologists to acquire knowledge that allows them to take advantage of the potential it offers. the methodological work system to dictate educational policies based on attention to students with vulnerabilities and prepare their subordinates in the various instances.

Currently, it is necessary to talk about a social exclusion approach that distinguishes various processes of accumulation of social, economic, and political disadvantages, which weaken the individual-society relationship, causing relational problems, breaking the social bond (Castro et al., 2020); Therefore, educational institutions must guarantee modes of action that eliminate or minimize situations of exclusion in students.

The studies of Cervantes (2019) reflect that the important thing is that educational institutions are recognized as a setting for inclusive learning, willing to overcome barriers, recognize life and development opportunities, move from a space of reproduction to a space of creation; from a context of regulations to a context of participation; from a field of competition to a field of cooperation and from a site centered on the teacher to a site focused on the relationships between all the actors involved in the learning process; which means that the development of educational inclusion requires a constant analysis of educational practices and school change processes (Rodríguez et al., 2021).

For the feedback of this work, some works were taken into account that, in some way, have experienced points of coincidence with the present study. Among these investigations are Ravelo and Bonilla (2022), who emphasize that the contents to be developed must be organized and dosed gradually, in order to take advantage of all the potential of the pedagogical process, given in the multiple relationships established between ­the subjects and the agents and agencies that participate.

Coordinated and sustained efforts are required, recognizing that there is little chance of improving outcomes for vulnerable learners without changes in adult attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. This requires coherent work by all those involved in the educational process, guided methodologically by the directors and supported by the benefits provided by the guidelines of the Third Improvement of the National Education System.

Cuban pedagogues and psychologists agree that it is in the family and school, mediated by society, where the socialization of the human being begins (García et al., 2021). In this sense, Llopiz et al. (2020) highlights that from school and with the support of families, adequate means must be provided for schoolchildren to acquire the social skills and personal autonomy to interact appropriately, to increase the chances of success of their inclusion. In this endeavor, it is essential to prepare teachers through didactic and methodological actions that prepare people in conditions of inclusion and thus can lead a more autonomous and independent life; This must be considered throughout life.

Without a doubt, inclusive education is the way forward to achieve more fair, quality and equitable educational systems (Arnaiz et al., 2019), becoming a fundamental focus in the debate on public educational policies (Reyes and Prado, 2020).



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Conflict of interests:

The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.


Authors' contribution:

The authors participated in the design and writing of the article, in the search and analysis of the information contained in the consulted bibliography.


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