Mendive. Journal on Education, 21(4), e3353

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

The improvement of the advice in the school inspection, a road to improve the school administration


El perfeccionamiento del asesoramiento en la inspección escolar, una vía para mejorar la gestión escolar


Melhorar o aconselhamento na inspeção escolar, uma forma de melhorar a gestão escolar


Héctor Diego Martínez Ochoa1
Juana Virgen Sánchez-Morales2
Julio Jesús Sierra Socorro3

1 Central Institute of Pedagogical Sciences. Havana. Cuba
2 University of Ciego de Ávila Máximo Gómez Báez, Cuba
3 University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba


Cite as
Martínez Ochoa, H.D., Sánchez-Morales, J.V., Sierra Socorro, J.J (2023). The improvement of the advice in the school inspection, a road to improve the school administration. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 21(4), e3353.


Received: January 31, 2023
Approved: September 21, 2023



The continuous improvement of school management advice contributes to the process achieving greater scientificity, participation, awareness, commitment, responsibility and development of professional and human performance with high quality; Therefore, the article aims to socialize the research results that recognize the urgent importance of control in educational processes, school inspection as its form of expression and the basic functions, control, evaluation and advice to teach how to do, know how to demonstrate the more effective ways. The research methods used correspond to those of a theoretical level: historical-logical, documentary analysis, systemic structural-functional, modeling; The empirical methods were observation, interview, survey, professional pedagogical performance test, and mathematical statistics. Non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of goodness of fit, Wilcoxon, signs and Mac Nemar were used, expert criteria were applied to validate the proposal for a teaching observation guide, in correspondence with the requirements of the Third Improvement of the National Education System; which made it possible to assume school inspection as a form of control in the management process and its advisory function, based on the shortcomings of school directors and inspectors that prevent them from offering levels of help and demonstration; The proposed guide in its dimensional structuring contributes to the improvement of advice while its practical viability was confirmed.

Keywords: control; educational supervision; teaching advice; teaching processes; school inspection; school organization.


El perfeccionamiento continuo del asesoramiento de la gestión escolar tributa a la mayor cientificidad, participación, conciencia, compromiso, responsabilidad y desarrollo del desempeño profesional y humano con elevada calidad; por lo que el artículo tiene como objetivo socializar los resultados investigativos que reconocen la importancia impostergable del control en los procesos educativos, la inspección escolar como su forma de expresión y las funciones básicas, control, evaluación y asesoramiento para enseñar a hacer, saber demostrar las vías más efectivas. Los métodos de investigación empleados corresponde a los de nivel teórico: el histórico-lógico, análisis documental, sistémico estructural funcional, modelación; los métodos empíricos fueron la observación, entrevista, encuesta, prueba de desempeño profesional pedagógica, y estadísticos matemáticos se emplearon las Dócimas no paramétricas Kolmogorov-Smirnov de bondad de ajuste, Wilcoxon, signos y de Mac Nemar, se aplicó el criterio de expertos para validar la propuesta de guía de observación a la docencia, en correspondencia con las exigencias del Tercer Perfeccionamiento del Sistema Nacional de Educación; que posibilitó asumir la inspección escolar como forma de control en el proceso de dirección y su función de asesoramiento, a partir de las carencias de los directivos e inspectores escolares que les impide ofrecer niveles de ayuda y demostración; la guía propuesta en su estructuración dimensional contribuye a la mejora del asesoramiento a la vez que se constató su viabilidad práctica.

Palabras clave: asesoramiento docente; control de procesos docentes; inspección escolar; organización escolar; supervisión educativa.


A melhoria contínua da assessoria de gestão escolar contribui para uma maior cientificidade, participação, sensibilização, compromisso, responsabilidade e desenvolvimento do desempenho profissional e humano com elevada qualidade; Portanto, o artigo tem como objetivo socializar os resultados de pesquisas que reconhecem a importância urgente do controle nos processos educacionais, da fiscalização escolar como forma de expressão e das funções básicas, controle, avaliação e aconselhamento para ensinar a fazer, saber demonstrar o mais maneiras eficazes. Os métodos de investigação utilizados correspondem aos de nível teórico: histórico-lógico, análise documental, sistémico estrutural-funcional, modelação; Os métodos empíricos foram observação, entrevista, levantamento, teste de desempenho profissional pedagógico e estatística matemática. Foram utilizados testes não paramétricos de bondade de ajuste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Wilcoxon, sinais e Mac Nemar, critérios de especialistas foram aplicados para validar a proposta de um guia de observação docente, em correspondência com as exigências da Terceira Melhoria do Sistema Nacional de Ensino; que permitiu assumir a inspeção escolar como forma de controlo do processo de gestão e da sua função consultiva, a partir das deficiências dos diretores e inspetores escolares que os impedem de oferecer níveis de ajuda e demonstração; O guia proposto em sua estruturação dimensional contribui para o aprimoramento do aconselhamento ao mesmo tempo em que foi confirmada sua viabilidade prática.

Palavras-chave: aconselhamento docente; controle dos processos de ensino; fiscalização escolar; organização escolar; supervisão educacional.



Social processes in the 21st century demand and need, without delay, control mechanisms, in their development and continuous improvement, to contribute to a full life, in correspondence with contemporary social demands.

These demands come from needs expressed in international public documents such as Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) No. 4 "Towards inclusive, equitable and quality education and lifelong learning for all" (UNESCO, Incheon Declaration, 2015); reality that represents a challenge for current educational systems in terms of improving the processes aimed at that purpose and school inspection contributes decisively to this.

School inspection as a component of educational systems is considered in other contexts in the Latin American region as educational supervision, according to Mendoza (2018, p.173) those who have exercised the supervisory function have been characterized by exercising it with a more administrative nature. , which is pedagogical/academic and mostly punitive, rather than accompaniment and guidance and must be characterized by considering the environment in which it is established and in which it is carried out to provide the service entrusted to it: guarantee the quality of education.

"From the perspective of the demands of configuring a contemporary quality school inspection, there is little questioning the convenience of developing a conception based on models that lead to transformational school inspection." (Basaco, 2007).

Such elements justify a school inspection that enhances the mobilization of the intellectual resources of educational institutions for renewal and change, with the purpose of jointly achieving the continuous improvement of the effectiveness of teaching and education, with a holistic bias. , personalized, decentralized, in which qualities and performance are enhanced with good professional pedagogical performance in Primary Education institutions that truly become true micro-universities ; This requires a close relationship with the Municipal University Centers (CUM), which serve the students of pedagogical careers, who carry out their responsible work practice in the aforementioned institutions and the other educational structures in the territory.

It is considered by some researchers that the daily application of school inspection and its controversial field of action do not yet contribute to the general recognition of this as a scientific discipline; it is up to managers and school inspectors to improve school inspection activity and its function. of advice so that it can occupy a worthy place within the pedagogical sciences.

This reference to the improvement of its advisory function is of high importance because:

...contributes to the ongoing training of teachers and managers, from integration and group interaction to the demonstration of consistent modes of action, which tend to gradually transform their professionalism, for better performance in professional pedagogical and management activity. that they develop. (Robbins and DeCenzo 2008, as cited by Ocando, 2017, p.46)

The aspiration is based on considering, as a basic principle of school inspection and its advisory function, the need to deeply understand the causes of the problems, the potential and shortcomings of the teacher, and how to adequately resolve them. Problematic situation that guides investigative action.

The aspiring advisory function of the school inspection must base its actions on modeling, demonstration, case analysis, and good communication between school inspectors and teachers. Being able to assume a modern inspection style and fulfill the functions inherent to this process in its new and complex dimensions, poses new roles and demands on the professionalism of teachers specialized in this work.

From what has been expressed, it can be inferred that school inspection is a process that contributes to the continuous and permanent training of teachers and recognizes the demonstration of modes of action as a stimulation factor for professional improvement; hence the interest and relevance of the research.

School inspection, also known as school supervision, assumes roles associated with the traditional style, together with the current demands in which the facilitation of the processes that are supervised remains an essential concept in order to raise the quality of education that "...translates in the possibilities of each and every one of the educational actors to know how to transmute, innovate, make more flexible, adapt, self-regulate, complement each other, be a part, get involved responsibly and continue learning throughout life" (Sandrone, 2022, p. 108).

It is a reality that in Cuba the advisory function of the school inspection has been little addressed, national and other authors have delved into the epistemology of the nodal elements of educational supervision or school inspection, its function of control, evaluation and advice.

There is full agreement in the recognition of the importance of school inspection in educational institutions to verify the real state of their operation. It is assumed, therefore, that the evaluation and control function is oversized, while the advisory function does not occupy the place it deserves due to the significance it has for raising the quality of education.

There has not been enough research on the development of school inspection, the advisory function is carried out in an unsystematic manner, in many cases the process is carried out without taking into account the particularities of the teacher, the school institution or the period of the course in that are found, therefore affecting the effectiveness of said function.

From what has been expressed is derived the objective that has served as a guide to the process to recognize the urgent importance of control in educational processes, school inspection as its form of expression and the basic functions, control, evaluation and advice to teach how to do, through the demonstration of the most effective ways; which highlights the importance of venturing into such an important object; in addition to the scope of the solution to the problem being investigated.



The investigation was carried out during an entire school year in the scenario that led to the exercise of the comprehensive school inspection activity in the Habana Vieja Municipality in the province of Havana, with a population of 24 educational institutions of Primary Education, which constituted the recipients of the proposed actions. The time spent was essential because the margin given by the 42 teaching weeks made it possible to develop the actions of the initial exploratory study, the diagnostic process that yielded the initial state, as well as implement the transformation proposal towards the desired state; All the resources of the inspection team were used to achieve the transformative objectives in the territory for their generalization to the other municipalities.

The main limitations were related to the development of the advisory function by the school inspection team, the need to demonstrate, to serve as a model, to get involved with teachers for the implementation of new experiences, of intervention strategies to achieve adequate empathy in the exercise of the advisory function, as well as the union of theory with practice and avoid remaining only in theoretical discourse; It was essential to increase commitment to avoid failure with the aggravating factor that it would be difficult for the participating teachers to be willing to get involved in other experiences from now on.

The communication process of teachers with school inspectors was constantly monitored, an aspect that has traditionally been affected by what it has meant to be inspected in the exercise of teaching.

Other limitations can be seen in the advisory function itself, where distrust in the teacher and manager is masked, and as a consequence, various visits or accompaniment arise that limit the professional performance of the teacher due to excessive regulation.

The following were formulated as units of analysis for the study:

1. school inspection as a management activity to raise the quality of education.

2. Advice to teach how to do, by demonstrating the most effective ways of school inspection.

The theoretical level was used as research methods: historical-logical, documentary analysis, systemic structural-functional, modeling; In the empirical level methods, observation, interview, survey, professional pedagogical performance test were used, in the mathematical statistical methods, the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of goodness of fit, Wilcoxon, signs and Mac Nemar were used. the criteria of experts to validate the proposed teaching observation guide, in correspondence with the requirements of the Third Improvement of the National Education System.



Given the emergence of the situation of change, the following basic ideas must be taken into account when developing the advisory function of the school inspection in Primary Education:

1. You cannot impose what educational institutions have to do.

2. Change in education represents an advance towards something that is partially unknown and implies uncertainty and the need to continually learn.

3. Problems are inevitable in change processes and only through them is it possible to find new solutions.

4. Predicting everything that the change will entail runs the risk of not getting it right.

5. The individual and the collective must have equal power. The cooperative culture and individual contribution must walk together.

6. Neither centralization nor decentralization work independently. The primary school and the school inspector need each other and must maintain close coordination.

7. The primary school must maintain connection and close unity with all its components and with its environment.

8. Those responsible for educational innovations and improvement are all those involved in its operation and the school inspector himself.

As a result of the research to contribute to the advisory function of the school inspection, an observation guide is proposed for teaching applied in the Course of Evaluation of Educational Systems and Programs, of the Master's Degree in Educational Supervision, in four editions developed in Cuba. and in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, consulted with users, specialists and experts who have considered its relevance, scientific, holistic and personalized nature in the observation of teaching, a core element to measure the effectiveness of the quality of school management and itself. school inspection.


General data.

School: _________________________ Municipality:________Province: _________________

Grade: ____ Group: ____ Enrollment: ____ Attendance: _____

Teacher's name: _______________________________ Graduate_____

Teacher in training_____

Subject: _____________________

Class topic: ________________________________________

Form of organization of the process: ____________________

Duration time _______

Instance that makes the observation __________________________

Name, position and category of the observer_______________________

Indicators to evaluate:




Dimension 1: Organization of the teaching-learning process.




1.1. Class planning based on the productivity of the teaching-learning process.




1.2. Ensuring hygienic conditions and organization of the teaching-learning process.




1.3. Correspondence of the activities with the purpose and objectives of the level, grade, cycle or year of life and with the objectives of the programs.




1.4. The psychopedagogical characteristics of the stage or moment of students' development are considered.




Dimension 2: Motivation and orientation towards objectives.




2.1. Ensuring the starting level by checking the students' previous knowledge, skills and experiences.




2.2. Establishment of links between what is known and what is new to be known.




23. Motivation and disposition towards learning so that the content acquires meaning and personal meaning for the student.




2.4. Orientation towards objectives through reflective and evaluative actions of students taking into account why, what, how and under what conditions they are going to learn.




2.5. Attention to individual differences, deficiencies and potentialities.




2.6. Use of didactic and infotechnological resources that facilitate learning.




2.7. The psychopedagogical characteristics of the stage or moment of students' development are considered.




Dimension 3: Execution of tasks in the teaching-learning process.




3.1 Content domain.




3.1.1. There is no omission of content.




3.1.2. There are no inaccuracies or content errors




3.1.3. Logical coherence.




3.2. Intersubject or/and interdisciplinary relationships are established .




3.3 Varied and differentiated learning tasks are carried out that require increasing levels of assimilation, in accordance with the objectives and diagnosis.




3.4 . Methods and procedures are used that promote the reflective, evaluative and independent search for knowledge.




3.5. Debate, confrontation and exchange of experiences and learning strategies are promoted, depending on the socialization of individual activity.




3.6. Teaching means are used that promote developmental learning, in accordance with the objectives.




3.7. The search for knowledge is encouraged through the use of different sources and media.




3.8. Extra-class independent study tasks are oriented that require increasing levels of assimilation, in accordance with the objectives and diagnosis.




3.9. Use of neuroscience resources that promote and facilitate learning such as intangible elements, mood, awakening curiosity, the technique of questioning or problematic situation, visual and sound resources, recreational activity and one's own experience in praxis.




Dimension 4: Systematic control and evaluation of the teaching-learning process.




4.1. Forms (individual and collective) of control, assessment and evaluation of the process and the result of learning tasks are used in a way that promotes students' self-regulation.




4.2. Through ICT there is the possibility of interactivity and metacognition.




4.3. They are inspired by the desire to continue in knowledge.




Dimension 5: Psychological and political-moral climate.




5.1 Positive communication and a climate of security and trust are achieved where students freely express their experiences, arguments, evaluations and points of view.




5.2. The potential of the class is used for the comprehensive training of students, with emphasis on the formation of values as a cornerstone in political-ideological work.




5.3. He contributes by his example and with the appropriate use of work strategies to the comprehensive training of his students.




5.4. Attention and evaluation are appreciated to the student's axiological area.




5.5. It is appreciated in the students, taking care of their personal appearance, hygiene, order, organization, discipline, care of social property and work materials, treatment and relationships with their peers.




You can comment on another element of interest

It is obvious that in school inspection the quality of the teaching provided is vital, but the school inspector must go to the educational institution with a scrutinizing gaze, clear the debris and be able to determine the causes of the phenomena, observe and evaluate all and each of the processes that are developed in the institution, know how to value them to the right extent, provide the possibility to those visited to evaluate their own performance and determine the effective ways for their solution, in correspondence with the expertise of the school inspector, this You will be able to provide more effective advice, know how to demonstrate how to do it, leave the person visited with the sufficient and necessary tools to be able to take on the task, you may make mistakes but you must know how to have the essential resilience to move forward and continue with high professional and human performance.



Taking into account the problematic situation described and manifested in the development of the advisory function of the school inspection, the need for teachers, educational directors and school inspectors to have methodological strategies that address how to carry out the advisory function was determined as a contradiction. of school inspection in primary education, and thereby contribute to the continuous improvement of their professional performance.

The knowledge society, in its rapid development, needs the review of the different functions performed by the "actors" of the educational system, in order to adjust them to the new realities. Those that work effectively must be reaffirmed, those that require it modeled or new attributions established, essential for the proper functioning of the system. Among these actors is the education inspection, especially due to the place in which it is located to fulfill its tasks. The inspection constitutes an essential link to understand the application of the regulations and how to evaluate their effectiveness. (Casanova, 2021)

It is a requirement that in addition to the control activity carried out by inspectors, it is aimed at improving processes in such a way that the supervisory function requires leadership in order to raise the quality of education.

School inspection, better known in the Latin American region as educational supervision, has a level of development that differs between educational systems; Regarding the functions of such an essential activity, Mexico presents very important proposals, which become good practices as they encompass actions related to control, administration and liaison; technical-pedagogical assistance; school organization and collaborative work and community social participation. (Secretary of Public Education, 2019, p.3-16)

They are actions that require the advisory function for their execution and development. A definition that is assumed for counseling as a function of the school inspector or supervisor clearly establishes that:

Consulting is the training process developed by school supervision or other educational agents, to improve teaching and management practices; It involves learning from experience through the identification of difficulties, observation, recording and analysis of practices, systematic dialogue, as well as the formulation, development and monitoring of improvement proposals. (Secretary of Public Education, 2019, p.2)

It can be seen that regardless of the control and administration activity to be carried out by the inspector or supervisor, the training action is directly linked to his work; Consulting thus becomes an activity that, together with the self-preparation of teachers and the methodological work carried out in their undergraduate and cycle groups, contributes to their permanent training as teachers.

In the Educational Scientific Direction, communicative processes are established between pedagogical subjects that facilitate the achievement of previously conceived objectives. A fruitful advisory process cannot be developed outside of the communication and dialogue processes; Communication can be expressed with different styles, in which an open, frank and responsible relationship must be developed, based on democracy, collective participation and individual responsibility.

An approach to communicative activity in the school environment is carried out by Ochoa et al. (2022) who express that:

From the pedagogical point of view, communication has a formative character, since the subjects who intervene in it have the possibility of transmitting their entire psychological, cognitive and affective world. This exchange promotes successful interaction with other people, issues that benefit the development and improvement of personality, in this case we refer to pedagogical communication. (p.126-127)

A transcendent aspect of school inspection is related to school organization, the existence of a school climate that ensures a happy stay of students and teachers in educational institutions depends on it and consequently the teaching-learning process fosters the necessary knowledge. and sufficient to achieve the quality indices required.

In this regard, the impact of school inspection is transcendental and constitutes an indicator to be considered based on the results and quality of the educational service provided.

All schools must provide the educational service every day established in the school calendar, (...).

All groups must have teachers available for all days of the school year, (…)

All teachers must start their activities on time.

All students must attend all classes punctually

All school time should be spent primarily on learning activities. (Gutiérrez and Chaparro, 2017, p.45)

They are minimum features to implement, guarantors of the essential processes of the school institution, which the inspection or supervision must evaluate to propose improvement actions through advice and support.

It requires leaders convinced of the need for continuous improvement, of change to be more efficient, of innovation to grow and of the need to make a greater contribution to society and thus achieve the higher goals that the people expect from Education, and all of this supported by a good level of professional pedagogical performance. According to Cuesta Santos (2000, p.37).

The definition of professional pedagogical performance is assumed to be what was expressed by Lago, Alea and Rodríguez (2019), recognizing that: the performance, during the development of the professional pedagogical activity carried out, supported by constant learning that is expressed in the socio-political, technological, professional pedagogical, investigative scientific and improvement dimensions, which contributes to obtaining a result and responds to current demands. (p.10)

Of course, we must highlight the important role of communication and the levels of help that must be provided as a guarantee to lead all its collaborators to achieve the objectives in a creative, conscious and participatory way.

The Scientific Educational Management recognizes planning, organization, execution or regulation and control as basic functions. Inspection is a specific form of control, as Silva (2019) refers to "school inspection as a privileged professional space to provide pedagogical help" (p.68); which implies the real possibility of self-control, while minimizing punitive action related to control and prioritizing help through counseling.

Controlling the execution of an activity in no way only means discovering defects; It is also necessary to reveal positive experiences to timely support what is new, progressive and create the possibilities to disseminate it widely. The strength of control consists precisely in the fact that it helps to accumulate advanced experiences, finds the most efficient methods and ways to improve the work of the collective.

The control activity, present in the actions of the school inspection, has to be organized and planned. Due to its governing nature of educational activity, the Ministry of Education is responsible for directing, executing and controlling the application of the educational policy of the State and the government; Therefore, the systematic practice of control processes, both external and internal, is essential, prioritizing the systematic practice of school inspection based on the proposed objectives.

The control must be organized, both horizontally and vertically, to verify the results of the teachers and directors, in compliance with the outlined policy and the control that is implemented to verify the work carried out by the immediately lower level, which will allow the taking of decisions. decisions to raise the quality of the system and of the school inspection itself.

In Cuba the term school inspection is assumed and this activity contributes to controlling and improving the management activity of each educational institution, it provides the necessary elements in the processes of change, favoring the development of the activity itself, the quality of compliance with the policy outlined by the Cuban Party and State, with a cooperative culture, without failing to identify and solve problems, taking the necessary and appropriate measures in each case.

The definition of school inspection is assumed to be understood as the fundamental activity for controlling compliance with the legal provisions and standards in force within its own system or in the exercise of its governing function, as well as advising and evaluating compliance with educational policy. outlined by the Ministry of Education in all spheres of its work and management levels.

School inspection must be carried out with the most absolute respect for the work of others, within a favorable climate that fosters the commitment to transform reality, fairly recognize the results of work when they are deserving of it, in educational practice those who carry out The inspection must consider the intentionality, demand and rigor, in addition to the spirit of solving the problems that are detected, based on its monitoring, systematic evaluation, characterized by adequate levels of help, to achieve positive changes in professional pedagogical performance.

The advisory function is inseparably linked to the control and evaluation functions. However, this function entails the proposal of concurrent actions to improve the reality of teaching, it is a facilitating element of educational change, and it must be conceived as a process of training dynamization to promote among teachers and school directors the development of their professional competence. "Advice currently represents one of the fundamental tasks of the inspector, but it is also a complex activity, which requires a good spirit of dialogue and extensive experience in human relations." (Morales, 2022, p.4)

The Inspection Directorate of the Ministry of Education establishes that there are other functions of school inspection, including: diagnosis, which provides the current state, recognizes expectations, aspirations, limitations, establishes the regulations that must be achieved to meet the objectives, developer, as it allows the participation of the teacher in the critical analysis of his own task, raising his capacity for self-analysis, self-observation and self-evaluation, it is based on the techniques of Educational Scientific Management, it constitutes a key element in the search for educational quality, and mediation, arises from the complexity of the educational system and its educational institutions, allows for agreements and consensus between the actors of the system in its descending flow of educational practice or ascending on needs, potentials, barriers and aspirations to provide feedback to decision making.

It is assumed that the inspector in his activity helps the teacher and the director to achieve their objectives, seeks cohesion and unity by contributing his effort and the necessary resources for the collective benefit. According to Kimball (1965), the inspectors:

...they help establish an exchange of thought and opinions; they help people learn to listen to each other; They relate those who have similar problems or request the cooperation of those who can provide it; They listen to the discussions of the problems presented by the teachers and suggest recommendations to help solve them. (p.91)

Based on these demands, it is necessary to maintain an adequate balance between the different functions of the school inspection in order to fulfill its objective of controlling, evaluating; but carry out the advice with the appropriate levels of help required by the primary school, the teacher and the educational director to promote the development of professional pedagogical performance. The school inspection in the Municipal Directorate of Education is carried out based on two types of visits: the comprehensive and the specialized, which are determined by the scope of their objectives and contents. The comprehensive inspection visit is surprising and the specialized one is surprising or not, depending on the objectives and the interest of the person carrying it out.

In correspondence with the main lines of educational policy and the transformations implemented with the III Improvement of the National Education System, for all types of inspection visits, the programs, the strategic and prioritized objectives, the main directions of work, as well as the indications of each education.

Essential inspection methods are: observation, document sampling, verifications, as well as interviews, meetings and surveys. Diagnosis as a method is applied in inspections based on characterization that includes prognosis and projection, that is, the analysis of the phenomenon in its course and not only in the state at the time the visit is made. verification of the use of assigned resources.

We must take into account the conditions of massiveness of the school institution in primary education, its relationship between unity and diversity, expressed in its purpose and objectives and the different conditions of each context. The challenges that the Primary Education professional must face in the exercise of their work are the following:

Given these demands, it is necessary to prepare teachers, school inspectors and managers in their professional performance, so that they can respond to present and future social demands. In addition, the training model of Primary Education teaching staff in Cuba and their various sources of income must be taken into account.

Such a reality present in the current primary education school institution requires that the advisory function be developed with the required quality, so that it truly contributes to the professional training of teachers in initial training and to the improvement and updating of already graduated teachers. The advisory function of the school inspection involves elements such as levels of help, cooperation, improvement, attention to needs, theoretical elaboration, debate, analysis, questioning of actions, processes of facilitation dynamics and dynamization of changes and mapping of instructional strategies materialized in processes of assimilation and application by teachers and managers, management requires control and advice to achieve the achievement of objectives with the required quality, for the professional development of managers, there is a process dialectic between appropriation, reworking, and intervention in each teacher in the daily practice of their pedagogical work. Models from one perspective must predominate in a context of dialogue and participation.

Advice as a service that falls on the director and the school inspector who deal with all the bodies of the institution where a two-way interaction or communication dedicated to help is established, does not limit the capacity of choice and decision of the director, nor of the school inspector. The success of the advice depends on the persuasion of those visited, with the possibility of constructing innovative forms of performance. It is a service that deals with the problems of teachers and directors and educational practice in general. Advice is given if its three aspects are respected. characteristic features: adequate communication between those involved, the purpose of help that the interaction pursues and the exercise of responsibility and involvement of the interested parties.

The advisory function of the school inspection should be aimed at providing theoretical and methodological foundations to understand and develop educational work and the change of epistemological conceptions, developing the intellectual dimension of the profession, promoting the improvement of relationships with teachers and investigative practice. and innovative.

A distinctive element of the advisory function of the school inspection is precisely the ability of the inspector and manager to discern the problems, their causes, and prepare all staff to undertake changes with appropriate levels of help.

Manage to convince of the need for said change, both of the object and the subject in question, to ensure that they commit to the actions formulated in a consensual manner based on the attitude and systematic dedication, intentional, conscious, directed, controlled, flexible, and therefore course with the prism of the disposition and will to correct, eliminating the possibilities of error when identifying current problems, investigating what the basic causes are and acting on them in a corrective manner.

Based on these theoretical foundations, it is considered that, as part of the methodological assumptions of the advisory function of the school inspection, the following methods must be taken into account, which according to Tamayo and Valiente (2012) should start from "...considering the characteristics of teachers and managers as subjects of learning (…)" and highlights as assumptions:

a) the demonstration of modes of action,

b) the observation of specific situations that allow subjects to infer consequences and principles,

c) modeling and case studies,

d) teamwork,

e) the comparison of ideas and solutions,

f) the collective and critical exercise on school-related problems and their own performance,

g) effective communication and debate,

h) self-assessment, co-evaluation and hetero-evaluation. (Tamayo and Valiente, 2012)

To achieve advice, it is necessary that at least the following requirements be met: the conscious participation of teachers, directors, and school inspectors; independence and creativity, the search for quality, achieving a collective culture for educational excellence, the ability to organize, control and evaluate one's own performance.

It is also necessary to analyze some obstacles in the advisory function such as: possible conflicts between the demands of educational directors and inspectors and the expectations of teachers, resistance to changes on the part of teachers and directors, the diversity of teachers in training. and experience, as well as the diversity and wide spectrum of spheres that must be advised.

What has been expressed constitutes in itself a challenge, guaranteeing an improvement in the pedagogical process, seen as the development of comprehensive general culture, replacement of spontaneous and routine thinking with another in which practice is the result of study, reflection and experimentation, For this, a culture of cooperation and success is required in educational institutions, considering as a premise that these improvement processes are only achieved if the interested parties want it, the help must be characterized by the possession and implementation of a theory of change. educational.

It is considered that historically the advisory function of the school inspection began with a bias of inspection, suspicion, distrust, it has developed with new demands and demands, help, cooperation, in search of achieving high levels of professional performance, currently it is sought that the teacher and the manager actively participate in solving problems, with the help of scientific research; Consequently, it is of interest that the activity be developed in a consensual manner with all the subjects participating in the process.

The dynamics of advice require tasks such as clarifying the difficulties or problematic situations detected, participation in the learning process necessary to address the problems, and collaboration in the design and implementation of the consequent innovations.

Advice always starts from the needs and characteristics of the groups, energizing without leading, not imposing external models, guaranteeing continuity in the work, being aware that school inspectors do not have the solution to the school's problems, that intervention must occur from recognizing the problems, their causes, internalizing the need for change and achieving the commitment to participate to achieve the change, with the action of managers and all the factors of the educational institution, with which it is necessary to coordinate the process. .

The advice is developed within the Methodological Work or the School Inspection, it must fundamentally focus on practical demonstration that involves technology and procedures for a new style in pedagogical practice in the classroom and in the management of primary school.

The function of advice, guidance, and help to teachers or personnel subject to control is in no way at odds with the work of school inspection; on the contrary, it is a necessity to teach those inspected those aspects of the work that are identified as difficulties. , to solve them conveniently, to be able to foresee them and face them.

For school inspectors, adequately fulfilling the advisory function requires extensive experience and knowledge of the controlled, evaluated and advised sphere, in addition to an accurate diagnosis of the process to be controlled. Adequate communication between the inspector and those inspected is an essential factor to achieve a full understanding of what is being oriented, because in this way, the teaching staff recognizes the fairness and convenience of the work carried out by the school inspector and is in agreement. conditions to confront new situations consciously and responsibly.

The consideration that the school inspection activity has seen the need to have a different type of influence that would provide the permanent training of teachers and directors, a practice began to be configured aimed at channeling the help that promotes change in the dimensions that contribute to the improvement of processes; Thus, the help from advice to promote improvements is carried out from the reciprocal influences that the process itself provides and the predominance of verticality in the relationships that affects an adequate school climate among the subjects is moved away; The promotion of cooperative relationships stimulates and motivates the search for better results, it is the harmonious link between school inspection and methodological work,

1. The theory of Scientific Educational Management is recognized as the theoretical and methodological foundations of the advisory function of the school inspection, since school inspection is assumed as a form of control in the management process, as well as the contributions offered by different authors about school inspection and its advisory function.

2. The results of the initial stage of the diagnosis of the development of the advisory function of the school inspection, showed as the most significant results the lack of preparation of school managers and inspectors for the development of the advisory function, the socio-psychological climate unfavorable, insufficient levels of help, it is not possible to prepare the advisor, there is a lack of the necessary demonstration of professional pedagogical performance, among other insufficiencies.

3. The proposal for a teaching observation guide to develop the advisory function of the school inspection in Primary Education is structured in five dimensions that evaluate the development of the pedagogical process, aimed at providing a way for the development of professional pedagogical performance of school directors and inspectors, in the development of the advisory function of the school inspection in Primary Education.

4. The feasibility of applying the observation guide to teaching for the development of the advisory function of the school inspection in Primary Education was confirmed based on the favorable criteria of the participants and its implementation.



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