Mendive. Journal on Education, 21(4), e3174

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

The Spanish-literature class: ideal space to strengthen environmental education


La clase de Español-literatura: espacio idóneo para fortalecer la educación ambiental


A aula de literatura espanhola: espaço ideal para fortalecer a educação ambiental


Diana Esther Aparicio Torres1
Elimey Dominguez Hernàndez1

1 University of Sancti Spíritus, "José Martí Pérez". Cuba.;


Cite as
Aparicio Torres, DE, Domínguez Hernández, E. (2023). The Spanish-literature class: ideal space to strengthen environmental education. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 21(4), e3174


Received: July 20, 2022
Accepted: October 13, 2023



Environmental education as a management tool in the context of the Spanish-Literature subject favors the development of sensitivity in relation to the environment and the making of critical evaluations, and also expresses the apprehension of a different relationship between literature and the environment. It is a topical issue and in correspondence to this, the training model of Basic Secondary students, plans and projects curricular strategies that emerge from the educational strategies and the conception of the disciplines of the curriculum, becoming essential axes to be treated from the classes, that is why the article was aimed at offering a set of teaching activities with an interdisciplinary and integrative nature, aimed at strengthening the environmental education of students. Methods of the theoretical level were used: historical-logical, analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive; the empirical level methods: observation, survey, interview, document analysis and the mathematical method for the percentage calculation procedure in the quantitative analysis of the results produced by the applied instruments. The existence of problems related to the topic under investigation made it possible to project actions aimed at its treatment; It is worth highlighting their potential as active readers who have communication skills, responsibility and enthusiasm to face the activities and tasks assigned to them.

Keywords: activity; classes; teacher; environmental education; Spanish literature.


La educación ambiental como herramienta de gestión en el contexto de la asignatura Español- Literatura favorece el desarrollo de la sensibilidad en relación con el entorno y a la realización de valoraciones críticas, además expresa la aprehensión de una relación diferente entre literatura y medio ambiente. Es una temática de actualidad y en correspondencia a ello, el modelo de formación de los estudiantes de Secundaria Básica, planifica y proyecta estrategias curriculares que emergen desde las estrategias educativas y la concepción de las disciplinas del currículo convirtiéndose en ejes esenciales para ser tratados desde las clases, es por ello que el artículo estuvo dirigido a ofrecer un conjunto de actividades docentes con carácter interdisciplinario e integrador, dirigidas a fortalecer la educación ambiental de los estudiantes. Se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico: histórico-lógico, análisis-síntesis, inductivo-deductivo; los métodos del nivel empírico: la observación, la encuesta, la entrevista, el análisis de documentos y el método matemático para el procedimiento del cálculo porcentual en el análisis cuantitativo de los resultados que arrojaron los instrumentos aplicados. La existencia de problemas referidos al tema objeto de investigación, permitieron proyectar acciones encaminadas a su tratamiento del mismo; cabe resaltar las potencialidades de ellos como lectores activos y que poseen habilidades comunicativas, responsabilidad y entusiasmo para enfrentar las actividades y tareas que se les asignan.

Palabras clave: actividad; clases; docente; educación ambiental; Español- literatura.


A educação ambiental como ferramenta de gestão no contexto da disciplina de Literatura Espanhola favorece o desenvolvimento da sensibilidade em relação ao meio ambiente e a realização de avaliações críticas, e também expressa a apreensão de uma relação diferente entre a literatura e o meio ambiente. É um tema atual e em correspondência a isso, o modelo de formação dos alunos do Secundário Básico, planeja e projeta estratégias curriculares que emergem das estratégias educacionais e da concepção das disciplinas do currículo, tornando-se eixos essenciais a serem tratados desde as aulas, por isso o artigo teve como objetivo oferecer um conjunto de atividades didáticas de caráter interdisciplinar e integrador, visando fortalecer a educação ambiental dos alunos. Foram utilizados métodos do nível teórico: histórico-lógico, análise-síntese, indutivo-dedutivo; os métodos de nível empírico: observação, levantamento, entrevista, análise documental e o método matemático para o procedimento de cálculo percentual na análise quantitativa dos resultados produzidos pelos instrumentos aplicados. A existência de problemas relacionados ao tema investigado possibilitou projetar ações voltadas ao seu tratamento; Vale destacar seu potencial como leitores ativos, que possuem capacidade de comunicação, responsabilidade e entusiasmo para enfrentar as atividades e tarefas que lhes são atribuídas.

Palavras-chave: atividade; Aulas; professor; Educação ambiental; Espanhol- literatura.



In the 21st century, man faces dissimilar situations and demands with respect to life in society and the problems that surround him daily, which demands scientific thinking and awareness of the different natural phenomena that afflict the world, including the care and preservation of the environment, an aspect that involves all human beings.

Since the end of the second half of the 20th century, the deterioration of the environment caused by industrial development worsened. Concerns about its deterioration have been part of the agendas of the scientific community and international organizations such as the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

González-Escobar (2017), states that:

The approach to the environment includes both the context of nature and sociocultural relations, which act in processes of permanent interaction in which human subjects inhabit in a conditional manner; but, at the same time, conditions of the system. This systemic characteristic allows us to understand that environmental problems are assumed interdisciplinary to understand their complexity, their constitution as an organized whole in which any change in one of its parts affects the others. (p.6)

Several studies have argued the fragility and vulnerability of territories due to climate change and the existing socioeconomic conditions and biodiversity, which are situations that generate a higher risk index in the preservation of natural resources (Ordóñez-Díaz et al, 2018).

In June 1992, at the International Conference on Environment and Development, in Brazil, representatives from 178 nations met once again, with the common objective, with the intention of seeking alternative solutions in the years preceding the 21st century. In Agenda 21, a program derived from the aforementioned Rio de Janeiro conclave, emphasis was placed on the promotion and implementation of environmental education that promotes sustainable development.

One of the first countries to respond to this call was Cuba, which assimilated it and left reflected, in the political, social and economic foundations of the State since 1992, modifications in this regard to the Constitution of the Republic, in its article 27 the protection of the Environment and the country's natural resources. Recognizing its close connection with sustainable economic and social development to make human life more rational and ensure the survival, well-being and security of current and future generations. Furthermore, the aforementioned document explains that it is up to the competent bodies to apply such a policy, arguing that it is the duty of citizens to contribute to the protection of water, the atmosphere, soil conservation, flora, fauna and all uses. nature's potential.

For all these reasons, the need to promote educational processes in all contexts and levels of society is becoming increasingly important, from which the appropriation of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes is facilitated. This is how environmental education emerges as a specific type of education, by extending its objectives to the context and incorporating the relationships of human beings among themselves, and of these with nature, with the intention of achieving and being able to maintain a dynamic and harmonious between all the components that make up the environment: nature, society and the economy.

Environmental education has had a process of continuous evolution and improvement. Its basic concepts and approaches have been consolidated since the mid-70s of the 20th century, providing it with a solid conceptual and methodological base. Jiménez-Fontana and García-González (2017) maintain that environmental education in its evolution has had changes in the way it is understood and put into practice.

(…) people must be formed with autonomous thinking, authentic, critical, creative and supportive, democratic and participatory, with a sense of social belonging and cultural identity, capable of dialogue, recognizing each other and self-managing changes and innovations necessary for the Improving the quality of life. (Novo, 1996, p.10)

Environmental education represents that part of culture that is intentionally selected according to the interests and needs of society, with the purpose that students appropriate it during school activity.

Molano and Herrera (2014) consider the need for students to acquire the essential tools to deal with the problems of the educational environment and to recognize the training potential offered by both the different subjects of the curriculum and the diversity of educational environments. An interesting approach is the one that emphasizes disseminating the knowledge that has been progressively generated in recent years, with respect to environmental issues and guiding the educational and pedagogical aspects around it. (Forest, 2017)

Currently, environmental education has been linked to the education system and with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda in September 2015, the international community highlighted that education is an essential factor. Education is assigned objective 4 in the agenda, which aims to "guarantee inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all." (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2019). Specifically, goal 7 makes implicit reference to environmental education that takes place in school contexts, stating that: "by 2030, ensure that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote sustainable development". (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2019)

Marquez et al. (2021), report that:

It is about advancing through environmental education in the search and construction of a culture of sustainability, (...) as well as changes in the cultural, social and economic patterns that have conditioned environmental problems. Consequently, the object of study of environmental education is environmental problems, and its objectives are aimed at raising awareness, training, designing, applying and evaluating alternatives with the participation of different social sectors, on the basis of promoting or strengthening values that They are essential to reverse the existing environmental situation in a certain context. (p.304)

For their part, Musitu et al. (2020) maintain that environmental education is "a great resource for the optimal benefit of the relationships of human beings with their environment, through knowledge, awareness, promotion of healthy lifestyles and pro-environmental behaviors" (p.251)

Marquez et al. (2021), express:

(…) Some analyze it as a continuous and permanent learning process, others as a discipline and others as a dimension; However, there is agreement on the need for a systemic, integrative, interdisciplinary approach, aimed at the appropriation of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes for environmental change. (2021, p. 304)

Environmental education (...) is oriented to the mastery of learning that allows students to function in natural and social environments, and their adaptation to them without damaging it and without receiving the harmful effects of these. It is promoted by student and youth organizations represented in the school and/or community. (Llopiz et al., 2020)

It is agreed that environmental education is a process of learning and communicating issues related to the interaction of human beings with their environment, both natural and created. This will allow us to participate responsibly and effectively in the prevention and solution of environmental problems and in the management of the use of resources, in raising the quality of life and in environmental conservation and protection.

The definition set forth in Law 81 of the Republic of Cuba, 1997 is assumed, where it is declared that environmental education is:

...continuous and permanent process, which constitutes a dimension of the comprehensive education of all citizens, aimed at ensuring that in the process of acquiring knowledge, developing habits, skills, attitudes and forming values, the relationships between students are harmonized. men and between them with the rest of society and nature, to thereby promote the reorientation of economic, social and cultural processes towards sustainable development (p.11)

In the country, for the first time, a definition of environmental education was assumed with the promulgation of this law, also known as the Environmental Law, this definition was included in the Environmental Education Strategy of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. of Cuba (CITMA).

In September 2015, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was approved within the framework of the United Nations; in Cuba, the process was taking place to form a proposed development strategy, known as the "National Plan for Economic and Social Development until 2030." (PNDES 2019), which in its Strategic Axis: Natural Resources and Environment, Specific Objective 18 establishes: "promote and increase the education, awareness and environmental culture of citizens, as well as their effective participation and the role of the media, in a harmonious, systematic and coherent manner, incorporating the entire Cuban society.

Al- Naqbi and Alshannag (2018) expose it as an educational trend that seeks the involvement of students and teachers in the teaching-learning process with the aim of generating awareness about the preservation of the environment. A question that coincides with the criteria of researchers Paredes-Chi and Viga-de Alva (2018), who advocate the development of an ecological culture, and conceive of environmental education, transversal to all educational levels and from there, the need to disseminate it to society in general.

Since 1975, the Ministry of Education considered Environmental Education as part of the comprehensive education of the individual and in this sense, to date, different seminars, workshops, events and activities have been developed with the purpose of disseminating the objectives and content. essential of Environmental Education, as well as ideas that promote interest in environmental protection in students.

The Spanish-Literature subject is of great importance for the treatment of environmental education in students, since it allows the analysis, understanding and evaluation of texts and works that reflect this theme, and the class is the ideal space to strengthen this purpose. In this sense, Olazàbal Toledo (2018) exposes the need and possibility of including subjects in the study programs to contribute to environmental education, which of course implies providing the teacher with methodological resources, which in this particular case could be applied. to the teaching-learning process of this subject. From this position, the cognitive component is weighted and the affective component is perceived, which constitutes an important element that models behavior, develops feelings, promotes education in important values and develops an integrative and responsible vision in relation to the context in which the person lives. man. (Olazabal, 2018). In line with this, researchers Pulido Capurro and Olivera Carhuaz (2018) consider that it is essential to publicize proposals that provide quality in the teaching of environmental education in the classrooms.

It has been confirmed that the students of the ESBU ¨Conrado Benítez¨ García of the Cabaiguán municipality, Sancti Spíritus province present deficiencies in terms of knowledge of this subject and the main causes were determined to exist:

-Difficulties in mastering the main basic concepts related to the topic.

-Insufficient knowledge of global, regional, national and local problems and their effects.

-Little participation in activities related to environmental protection (contests, scientific events, workshops, etc.).

-Little knowledge of the areas of negative impact in the locality, as well as actions to counteract these problems.

-Inappropriate manifestations towards the environment.

-They do not always contribute systematically to the cleaning and organization of the school center and outdoor areas.

From this position, it is necessary for the teacher to motivate students and contribute to adequate environmental education and show the necessary knowledge about nature from correct patterns of action that serve as an example both inside and outside of school.

It has been proven that teachers do not always take advantage of all the potential of the content of the subjects to promote this theme, which constitutes a transversal axis in the curriculum of all education.

In the specific case of Spanish-Literature classes in Basic Secondary School, where there are ideal spaces for reflection and dialogue between the teacher and the students; Nor are all the possibilities offered by the objectives of the subject for the achievement of environmental education systematically taken advantage of.

The objective of the article was to propose a set of teaching activities with an interdisciplinary and integrative nature, from the Spanish-Literature class that contribute to strengthening environmental education in students, to the achievement of cognitive and educational objectives of the subject, development of Intellectual and communicative skills essential for a Basic Secondary student.



The research was carried out at the ESBU ¨Conrado Benítez García¨, in the Cabaiguán municipality, Sancti Spíritus province. The population was made up of 204 ninth grade students. The Sample is made up of 40 students from group 9 no 2, of which 21 are females and 19 are males, whose ages range between 13 and 15 years. Their selection was intentional due to their enthusiasm and dynamism, and the majority prefer to deal with environmental issues; However, sometimes they do not show correct behavior towards nature and do not always put into practice the knowledge they have for its care and preservation. This represents 33.3% of the population universe.

To carry out the research, educational research methods were used that are based on the foundations of dialectical and historical materialism.

From the theoretical level:

- Historical and logical: it allowed the study of previous research on the topic under investigation.

- Analytical-Synthetic: it was used in the analysis of the bibliography, in the theoretical foundation offered for the work, as well as in the determination of needs and potentials.

- Inductive-deductive: made it possible to clarify the meaning of the theories to be used, as well as the conceptual levels of the problem.

From the empirical level:

- Observation: it allowed us to observe the modes of action of basic secondary school students regarding the care and protection of the environment.

- Survey: it was applied to learn about the knowledge that the students involved in the sample have about the research topic.

- The analysis of documents: to determine the appropriate texts and their potential for the transition of environmental messages, in addition to checking if indications are offered on how to work with environmental education.

- Interview with students: it was used to obtain direct information about the problem under investigation and the causes that cause it.

The use of the methods allowed us to obtain information about the state of the sample, as well as the actions that were planned for the conservation of the environment, and the design of teaching activities with an interdisciplinary and integrative nature, from the Spanish class. Literature that contributes to strengthening environmental education in students.

An analysis of the related documents was carried out, in which insufficiencies were found in the books related to the environment, most of which have been published for several years. Regarding the analysis of the regulations, it was evident that being environmental education a transversal axis, the output given through the different programs is inefficient, especially Spanish-Literature, the potential that the subject has to strengthen it is highlighted. They also state that they prefer to search for digital information through computer laboratories, where the bibliography is more up-to-date, although the technical situation of the machines that interferes with the maximum use of this resource and the students, on different occasions, does not go unnoticed. , do not use the available shift during the time assigned to them, for bibliographic consultation. A survey was applied to find out about the knowledge they have about the research topic. Also, an interview was carried out with the students with the objective of obtaining direct information about the problem under investigation and the causes that cause it.

To tabulate the results, dimensions and indicators were determined based on the conceptualization of "environmental education", assumed in the research. To evaluate the indicators, a high, medium and low rating scale was used.



Cognitive dimension

1.1-Knowledge of the theoretical bases of environmental education
1.2-Understanding of the main global, regional, national and local environmental problems. 1.3-Knowledge of actions to minimize environmental problems.

Affective-behavioral dimension

1.1-Interest in researching and providing solutions to environmental problems.
1.2-Attitude that is expressed when solving problems. 1.3-Degree of satisfaction expressed in solving problems.



The results obtained with the application of the methods and instruments are presented below: the results of the cognitive dimension are as follows, in indicator 1.1, they are at the high level (5 students), who correctly related the terms with their definition, which represent 12.5%. At the medium level there are 16 students, for 40%, they related only two terms correctly. There are 19 students at the low level for 47.5%, they were unable to relate any element. In indicator 1.2, at the high level there are 14 students, which represents 35%, who know more than eight environmental problems (global, regional, national and local). There are 10 students at the medium level, for 25%, since they know three to seven problems. At the low level there are 16 students, representing 40%, the knowledge they have regarding global, regional, national and local environmental problems is insufficient. In indicator 1.3, 9 students are at the high level, who are able to relate more than seven actions to minimize environmental problems, which represents 22.5%. At the medium level there are 15 students, capable of relating up to five actions that represent 37.5%. 16 students are at the low level, for 40%, they were able to relate less than three actions.

The results of the affective-behavioral dimension were the following: in indicator 2.1, 10 students, representing 25%, are at the high level, who read or research spontaneously; 14 students do it sporadically, which is equivalent to 35% and 16 students do it only to develop works and seminars on other subjects, which is 40%. In indicator 2.2, there are 11 students at the high level, representing 27.5%, as they care about solving local problems. There are 9 students at the medium level, for 22.5%, sometimes they state that the solution to the problems of their locality is not in their hands and that these are not their responsibility because they are the total responsibility of the organizations and institutions. states of the territory. At the low level there are 20 students for 50%, they are outside the problem. In indicator 2.3, degree of satisfaction expressed in carrying out the activities: at the high level there are 10 students, which represents 25%, they always show interest in carrying out these activities. At the middle level there are 14 students, representing 35%, who sometimes show interest. At the low level there are 16 students for 40% as a sign of dissatisfaction because they do not feel motivated.

In addition, an interview was carried out with the students with the objective of obtaining direct information about the problem under investigation and the causes that cause it. The results were the following: The students show little knowledge about the concept of environmental education, since 36 students confuse it with the environment, for 90%; Only 4 had an approximation to its definition, which represents 10%.

The results obtained with the application of these instruments show that students do not always appropriate transformative practical tasks in their exchange with nature and the environment, they do not feel completely protagonists of the actions that transform our environment, sometimes they do not present a critical spirit. in the face of negative actions against the environment and rarely join the conservation efforts. Therefore, the work to strengthen current Environmental Education must be carried out taking into consideration environmental problems from the global level to those of our country, therefore, it is necessary to undertake tasks in schools and thus to be able to execute the actions. corresponding educational activities and that the students are participants in these actions.

Based on the previous results, a proposal for teaching activities aimed at strengthening environmental education in basic secondary school students is made.

Teaching activity #1:

Title: Martí and nature.

Objective: Interpret Martian phrases related to the environment in a way that allows you to create an environmental awareness that helps the preservation of present and future generations.

Read carefully the following sentences from Martí that are listed below and answer the activities.

1) "We are young, and if we do not do what Nature expects of us, we will be traitors!" (volume IX, p.371).

2) "Nature does not have jealousy, like men. It does not have hatred or fear like men. It does not block the way for anyone, because it is not afraid of anyone." (volume VIII, p. 289).

3) "Nature teaches modesty: - after knowing it, virtue is easy: because life becomes kind, purely beautiful." (volume VII, p. 433).

4) "Nature heals, consoles, strengthens and prepares man for virtue." (volume XIII, p. 26).

1. What impression these phrases have read made on you?

2. Reread the first sentence and as a young person today, think about those of tomorrow who may suffer the consequences of the deterioration of the environment. What would you give him? Would you be a traitor of nature?

a) Express it in text that does not exceed five lines.

3. Make a comment about the meaning you attribute to the last sentence. What expressive language resource is present?

4. Comment: Nature teaches modesty

a) What function does the underlined word perform within the sentence?

5. From the previous sentences extract:

A noun phrase that responds to the following structure:

a) noun + preposition + noun

b) a conjunction. Classify it.

c) a verbal form. Say the grammatical accidents.

d) a negative declarative sentence.

6. Imagine that you have the possibility of sending the world a message to preserve the environment and therefore human existence, what would you write?

Teaching activity #2:

Title: The environment writes to you.

Objective: Identify environmental problems that appear in the letter "To a friend", so that the student becomes aware of the need for care and preservation of the environment.

Read the text below carefully.

To a friend:

I have been writing to you for a few days now, but my overall health is getting worse every day; Yesterday my temperature rose to 43 o C, and my entire body suffered changes. The doctors say it was because of the excess oil I drank or the downpour of acid rain that fell on me while I was running after Mr. Man, who hasn't just paid the fee for contaminating my house with carbon dioxide.

(…) I'm not sending you the photo you asked for, because it makes me sad that you see me like this; But I'll tell you something: my face is all wrinkled from the years of desertification that have fallen on me, my forest green hair is no longer even the shadow of when we met ten years ago, now I can already see the gray hair from deforestation What can I tell you about my sea-blue eyes! Do you remember how shiny they were and how well they read the press? Well now I have to wear glasses because of the amount of dirt that affects me.

Anyway, my friend, if I make it to the end of the year alive, I will write to you again. I hope we can see each other soon.

Always remember you, The Earth

1. Make the necessary approaches to the type of text presented and work with those words that make the text difficult to understand.

2. Who writes the text? How did you know?

3. What type of composition do you use?

4. What is the cause of the alterations suffered by the Earth?

5. Mark the true statements with an x. Select one of them and say what information from the text corroborates your answer.

___ The Earth is not worried about your state of health.

___ Many years of desertification have fallen

___ The man is responsible for his illness.

___ The writer is not in serious physical deterioration.

6. Identify in the text the expressive resources that give an idea of the aging of the Earth. Classify them and interpret them.

7. Identify the environmental problems expressed in the first paragraph. What consequences does it have for life on the planet?

8. What measures have been taken in Cuba to try to mitigate the effects indicated in the letter?

9. Focus on the underlined sentence that appears in the first paragraph. With what intention it is used.

10. Do you think that man should pay a fee for polluting? Because?

11. In addition to affirmative and negative sentences, what others appear. What meaning do they bring to the text?

12. What is the central idea of the text? Express it in a simple sentence.

13. Imagine that you are the friend to whom the letter is intended. Respond to him with another letter in which you give him advice and help to improve his state of health.

Teaching activity #3:

Title: Take care of the planet!

Objective: Expose actions that can be carried out to care for the planet, so that the feeling towards what we must protect for the durability of life on Earth is expressed.

Read the text below carefully:

It's a matter of discipline, the little prince told me later. When you finish getting ready in the morning, you have to carefully clean the planet. You have to regularly pluck the baobabs, when you can distinguish them from the rose bushes, which they look very similar to when they are small. It is a very tedious but very easy job.

And one day he advised me to dedicate myself to making a beautiful drawing, to make the children of the earth understand these ideas. If you ever travel, I told myself, this could be very useful to you. Sometimes there is no problem in leaving the work that has to be done until later; but when it comes to baobabs, delay is always a catastrophe. I have known a planet, inhabited by a lazy man who neglected three bushes...

(Taken from The Little Prince, by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry)

1. Select the words that make it difficult for you to understand the text. Look them up in the dictionary.

2. What elocutionary form predominates in the text? Justify your selection

3. What is the topic that the author addresses in the text? You agree with him. Because?

4. Why does cleaning the planet have to be done "carefully"?

a) Who is the main cause of dirt?

b) What structure does the underlined noun phrase have?

5. Imagine that you are the Little Prince, what other measures would you take to take care of that planet.

6. Determine, based on what is expressed in the text, whether the following statements are true (T), false (F) or not said (?). Justify the false ones.

__Delay is always a catastrophe.

__Cleaning up the planet is not a matter of discipline.

__It is a very annoying and very difficult job.

__The children of Earth visited the planet.

__A sloth neglected three bushes.

7. If you were one of the children for whom the drawing is intended, you would understand the message. Express it using a nominal predicate sentence.

8. Identify the underlined idea and write a two-paragraph text in which you argue it.

Teaching activity #4:

Title: Water, a precious liquid.

Objective: Assess the rational use of water through the study of a text, so that students become aware of the rational use of resources.

1. Read the following text and do the following activities:


From walking on the ground so much

The stream dreams of being a cloud

And the sun evaporates it and rises

To walk through the sky.

But tired of the flight

And from the wind that grabs it,

Dream of running through the mountains

Where it has a short channel

And take advantage when it rains

To return to earth.

Froilan Escobar

1. Search the Spanish Language Dictionary for the meaning of words that are difficult to understand.

2. What type of text did you just read? How did you know?

3. What element of nature is talked about in the text?

4. Extract the words related to the noun water from the text.

a) Classify them and say the function they perform.

5. What place does water dream of returning to? Because?

6. Do human beings use it rationally? Comment, based on what you know about the topic.

7. If they pour chemicals on you, what would happen to you?

8. Write a text where you explain actions that you can achieve both in your community and in your school to avoid water pollution and its rational use.

Teaching activity #5:

Title: The green areas of my planet.

Objective: Argue what specific actions can be carried out for reforestation, thus preparing for this type of contingencies.

Read the following text carefully:

In ancient times, forests were responsible for removing 180 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and 50% of a tree is carbon. Just one hectare of tropical forest absorbs 10 tons of carbon dioxide in a year, for decades, and is home to thousands of biological organisms. The loss of trees halves the planet's ability to absorb carbon dioxide, and is said to be one of the causes of global warming. Certain species of plants that are potential sources of medicines and save lives may disappear (…) in twenty years the tropical forests will disappear.

(Taken from Cuban Biodiversity)

1. Select the words that make the text difficult to understand. Look them up in the dictionary.

2. Link column A with B, according to the information offered in the text:


                                                                    __50% of a tree is carbon.

                                                                     __They erode the soil.

                                                                    __They are used for the manufacture of paper.

The forests

                                                                    __Forests are home to thousands of biological organisms.

                                                                    __Many plant species will disappear.

                                                                    __ They serve for the reproduction of animal species.

                                                                    __They improve the aesthetics of the landscape.

                                                                     __ They are potential sources of medicines.

3. Extract the sentences that refer to the damage caused by the loss of trees. Classify them. Tell the use given to the link that connects them.

4. Based on the information offered in the text, argue one of the following approaches:

"Trees are the lungs of our planet."

"Plant trees to plant lives"

5. Do you think that planting trees would be beneficial? Because?

6. Give the central idea of the text and propose a title for it.

7. Imagine that you go with your classmates and teacher on an excursion through the hills of our Cuban fields and discover a species of tree native to our island that was believed to be extinct due to the loss of its habitat and indiscriminate logging. Explain in a text what actions you would take to protect this specimen of Cuban flora.



The results obtained reaffirmed the importance of strengthening environmental education from the Spanish-Literature class, and the efficiency of its materialization from the design of teaching activities with an interdisciplinary and integrative nature on theoretical, pedagogical, psychological and didactic bases, as well as as well as the achievement of cognitive and educational objectives of the subject, the development of intellectual and communicative skills essential for a Lower Secondary student.

The coherent and logical selection of texts responds to the interests of the students in terms of environmental issues and is used in order to integrate the didactic components of the subject with a cognitive, communicative and sociocultural approach, in a way that enables the development of comprehension and constitute models for the student of how to proceed in the comprehensive reading of any type of text. They are also distinguished by having a marked purpose regarding the use of environmental texts. In this sense, referring to the activity, and as a fundamental category in this research, it is made up of different processes through which, man, responding to his needs, relates to it and to reality, that is, to nature.

The research carried out on the activity category has been dissimilar, such as Pupo (1990), Silvestre and Zilberstein (2002) who define activity as: "the mode of existence, change, transformation and development of social reality. It becomes a subject relationship. -object and is determined by objective laws" (p. 67), in which the relationship between the subject-object and the transforming influences it exerts on its environment is manifested.

The research is assigned to this conceptualization, taking into account that the activity manifests itself in communication and socialization processes. Its fundamental premise is need, which is what directs the activity of people in their environment. The school must provide spaces for students to develop various types of activities. The teacher stands out in this space, being a well-versed person who teaches in a situation given his participation in the process, in a directive manner, promoting the gradual progress of the students to produce their participation. Among the different activities is the teaching activity, which comprises a set of actions directed by the teacher aimed at the achievement and acquisition of knowledge, skills and habits in the students, which gives the possibility of knowing, understanding and transforming the objective reality, facilitates a close link with the study of the teaching process and its components, which is why it constitutes its foundation. Furthermore, with this type of activity, the development of environmental education is achieved, where the student plays a leading role, while being informed, reflecting, expressing criteria and debate, in the face of situations posed, under the direction of the teacher.

The above contributed to the selection of this type of activity to contribute to the strengthening of environmental education at the basic secondary level, where the teacher can exchange ideas, form concepts and values that last in thought, which gives them the possibility of expand the cultural and environmental horizon, for sustainable development and the improvement of environmental education actions carried out in different spaces, in which a substantial increase in environmental education programs developed in communities and institutions is recorded, as well as the incorporation of environmental content through curricular and extracurricular means in educational centers, in general.



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