Mendive. Revista de Educación, April-june 2020; 18(2):347-366
Translated from the original in Spanish
Social skills in students of Bachelor on Education. Pedagogy-Psychology: a methodology for training it
Habilidades sociales en estudiantes de Licenciatura en Educación. Pedagogía-Psicología: una metodología para su formación
Habilidades sociais em estudantes de Licenciatura em Educação. Pedagogia-Psicologia: uma metodologia para a sua formação
Juan Roberto Mena Gálvez1, Nivia Esther Alum Dopico1, Mayra Ordaz Hernández1
1 Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca". Departamento Pedagogía-Psicología. Cuba. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8351-0422, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4105-8615, http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4729-2197. Correo electrónico: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received: January 7th, 2020
Approved: April 24th, 2020
In this work the topic of the training of social skills in the Bachelor in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology was approached, in order to reach a professional performance. The proposed objective was directed to the elaboration of a methodology to improve the process of training of social skills: active listening and teamwork in the students of 2nd year of the aforementioned career at the Pinar del Río University "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Methods of the theoretical level and the empirical level were used. The last, were used through its corresponding instruments for the diagnosis: Scale for social skills in pedagogical careers, Guide for the analysis of guiding documents , Guide for observation to the classes, Guide for interview to the teachers and to the students. It was followed a mixed approach which involved both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis of the results. As a result, the elaborated methodology, based on sciences related with pedagogy, was organized in four stages with its corresponding aims and actions, which allowed for the coherent organization of the training of these social skills in students. With the theoretical assessment carried out through the focus group method, the relevance of the methodology in relation to the problem encountered was highlighted as well as the internal coherence between its stages and actions.
Key words: training; social skills; Bachelor of Education. Psychology Pedagogy.
En el trabajo se abordó la temática de la formación de habilidades sociales en la Licenciatura en Educación. Pedagogía-Psicología, para un adecuado desempeño profesional. El objetivo propuesto se dirigió a la elaboración de una metodología para mejorar el proceso de formación de las habilidades sociales: escucha activa y trabajo en equipo en los estudiantes de 2do año de la referida carrera en la Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Fueron empleados métodos del nivel teórico y del nivel empírico, estos últimos con sus respectivos instrumentos diagnósticos: escalas para habilidades sociales en carreras pedagógicas, guía para el análisis de documentos rectores, guía de observación a clases, guía de entrevista a profesores y estudiantes. Fue seguido de un enfoque mixto que implicó un análisis, tanto cualitativo como cuantitativo, de los resultados. Como consecuencia, la metodología elaborada, fundamentada desde ciencias relacionadas con la pedagogía, se organizó en cuatro etapas con sus objetivos y acciones correspondientes, las cuales permitieron organizar de modo coherente la formación de estas habilidades sociales en los estudiantes. Con la valoración teórica realizada a través del método de grupos focales, se destacó la pertinencia de la metodología en relación con el problema encontrado, así como la coherencia interna entre sus etapas y acciones.
Palabras clave: formación; habilidades sociales; Licenciatura en Educación; Pedagogía-Psicología.
No trabalho abordou se a temática da formação de habilidades na Licenciatura em Educação. Pedagogia-Psicologia para um adequado desempenho professional. O objetivo proposto dirigiu se à elaboração de uma metodologia para melhorar o processo de formação das habilidades sociais: escuta ativa e trabalho em equipes nos estudantes de 2do ano desta carreira na Universidade de Pinar del Río. Foram empregados métodos dos níveis teórico e empírico, estes últimos com os seus correspondentes instrumentos de diagnósticos: Escalas para habilidades sociais em carreiras pedagógicas, Guia para a análise de documentos reitores, Guia de observação às aulas, Guia de entrevista aos professores e estudantes. Seguiu se um enfoque misto resultando uma análise mesmo qualitativo que quantitativo dos resultados. Uma metodologia elaborada, fundamentada desde as ciências relacionadas com a pedagogia, organizou se em quatro etapas com seus objetivos e ações correspondentes, as quais permitiram organizar coerentemente a formação destas habilidades sociais nos estudantes. Com a valoração teórica realizada através do método em grupos focais, destacou se a pertinência da metodologia em relação com o problema achado, mesmo assim como a coerência interna entre as suas etapas e ações.
Palavras chave: formação; habilidades sociais; Licenciatura em Educação; Pedagogia-Psicologia.
The communication process acquires special importance for the performance of the education professional, as it constitutes a tool that enables the adequate fulfillment of the functions assigned by society.
For the Bachelor of Education Pedagogy-Psychology establishes a way of acting related to the management and direction of the educational process, the psycho-pedagogical advice to teachers and directors, orientation and educational research. Associated with this way of acting, is the professional skill that requires to express an effective communicative performance to perform the professional functions (Ministerio de Educación Superior (MES), 2016).
There is a wide group of activities in which the Bachelor of Education. Pedagogy-Psychology must establish effective social interactions with the subjects that make up the contexts in which it operates. In such effectiveness, the possession of social skills plays an important role, given its positive influence on the communicative contacts of the subject, an aspect that allows them to be considered within their professional skills.
The social abilities are related since literature to the execution, by the person, actions that make it possible to solve so appropriate interpersonal situations. With them feelings, opinions, attitudes, needs are expressed and allow adjustment to the context in which the communicative situation develops (Caballo, 2007; Tapia & Cubo, 2017; Núñez, Hernández, Jerez, Rivera and Núñez, 2018; Rivera et al., 2019).
Also, from the theoretical plane its complexity is recognized, both in the diversity of terms to denominate them and in their definition and operationalization (Little, Swangler, & Akin-Little, 2017). In addition, it is stated that "It is a fundamental competence to develop ourselves correctly as individuals, within a society where they are constantly needed" (Tortosa, 2018, p. 164).
Specifically, Reinoso e t al. As cited in Alum, Ordáz and Díaz (2015) establish the existence of social skills for pedagogical careers. In them abilities related with the interpersonal and group identities management which allow performance in teaching profession are included
Regarding the effectiveness in interpersonal relationships, made possible among other conditions by social skills, there are criteria that affirm their importance to the work done by the psychologist.
The need for social skills for professional performance is evident in the criteria of Rodríguez (2012). For an adequate professional performance, the educational psychologist must possess skills such as empathy, management and coordination of work teams, as well as the demonstration of a dialogue profile and the assumption of an attitude of active listening.
For Solórzano (2017), the assumption of the psycho pedagogical role requires the possession of resources for group dynamics and the resolution of conflicts of coexistence based on the integral formation of the student's personality. In this formative process, students and educator interrelate and participate in educational situations in space and time (Espinosa, 2018), tempered by the characteristics of their social exchanges.
The above criteria point to the need for the psycho-pedagogue to master social skills such as active listening and teamwork. According to such positions, putting them into practice must form part of their actions in the performance of professional functions.
To Subiela, Abellón, Celdrán, Manzanares & Satorres (2014), the active listening is the awareness of what the interlocutor expressed from the verbal discourse, from the paralinguistic and from the body language. It is necessary for the listener, to do it consciously, both from the intellectual and emotional level in order to demonstrate to the speaker that is understood.
Regarding the work team, Codina (2014) summarizes a study of various works that this ability relates to the operation of a group of subjects who have complementary characteristics, community purposes, as well as leadership roles well established. This process is important, in addition, the establishment of individual responsibilities is coordinated to achieve the objectives of the team.
Formation involves social skills establishing a parallel between the requirements to be included in the executive structure to form skills, proposed by (Ginoris, Addine & Turcaz, 2006) and on to the algorithm established by (Caballo, 2007), for the training skill of social type. In addition, such training is needed in line with the affective experiences and values necessary to the professional perform.
Despite the emphasis from literature to the possession of social skills by educational psychologist, is observed empirically the existence of shortcomings in the process of forming social skills in 2 nd year students of Education Degree. Pedagogy-Psychology, from the Pinar del Río University "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca".
The insufficiencies are manifested in that the students do not always adjust the tone of the voice and the way of speaking to the communicative situation, nor do they listen attentively to the interlocutor. They also present difficulties in distributing equitably and coordinating individual actions to develop teamwork.
On the other hand, teachers have shortcomings in the use of methods, means and forms of organization of teaching to form, in an appropriate way, social skills. Furthermore, they do not always establish relationships between the formation of social skills and the problems of the profession that require them for their resolution.
Finally, the treatment of social skills training that is established from the professional model and the study plan is insufficient.
In this sense, the article has as objective to propose a methodology to improve the training of the social skills active listening and teamwork, in students of 2nd year of Education Degree. Pedagogy-Psychology, from the Pinar del Río University "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". In this way, it contributes to the performance of this professional's functions in different contexts of action, based on effective communicative action.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted at 2 nd year of the Degree in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology, from the Pinar del Río University "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". The research took place during the period from January to September 2019. It was worked with a population of 40 subjects, consisting of 23 students of 2nd year career, nine professors of the group of this year and eight executives of the career (department, career and discipline principal). The population was selected from census criteria, as to who could work with all elements that it integrated.
In the research, the dialectical-materialistic approach was assumed as a general methodological approach. Its use allowed operating with principles, laws and categories that were tools for the analysis and establishment of the existing relationships in the object.
Theoretical methods used were: the historical-logical, the systemic - functional structural approach, the analytical-synthetic, the inductive-deductive, induction and deduction, modeling. They allowed the systematization of the theoretical knowledge necessary for the understanding of the object and the elaboration of the methodology.
The following were used as empirical methods: analysis of guiding documents of the degree; scales for social skills in pedagogical careers applied to teachers and students; observation to classes; interview to students, teachers and managers. They made it possible to obtain, process and evaluate the necessary information to enable the diagnosis of the state of the process of formation of social skills in students of 2nd year of Degree in Education Pedagogy. Psychology, from the Pinar del Río University "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca".
A mixed approach was used during the analysis and interpretation of the results obtained by the methods and techniques used. This allowed an analysis of the information from the qualitative and quantitative points of view.
The information collected with each instrument showed that:
The review and analysis of the Professional model of the Bachelor of Education career. Pedagogy-Psychology showed the importance attached to their communication performance. This is visible in one of its general objectives, which seeks the expression of an effective communicative performance that allows the performance of their functions in the various contexts of professional performance. In addition, it is established as a value to form the cooperative attitude, expressed in interpersonal relationships of collaboration and integration with others during the fulfillment of their tasks.
In the foundations and methodological conception of the curriculum of the specialty, it is conceived that the discipline of investigative job training fosters teamwork and the assumption of a collaborative nature. Furthermore, the need to promote self-knowledge and emotional self-control in students is recognized.
The analysis of the programs of the disciplines that make up the curriculum showed that in four of them it is considered important to work to achieve effective communication performance. Thus, in the disciplines Investigative labor training, Pedagogical foundations of education, Physiological and psychological foundations of education , Didactics and curriculum , objectives and skills related to the communicative performance of this figure are established.
In the physiological and psychological foundations of education discipline, set aims to develop communication skills inherent to their professional duties. It is also located, within the system of knowledge, skills expression, observation, empathic relationship and good listening. These skills are classified as communicative and are related, in theory, to social skills.
Despite the establishment of objectives, skills and values related to communicative performance, the treatment of social skills in the training of this professional is considered insufficient, as it is limited to only four disciplines in the curriculum. The programs of the subjects taught in the year reflect that actions for the formation of social skills are not taken into account in a systematic and integrated way.
It was found that four subject programs (22 %) aim to develop skills related to effective communication performance. These skills may be included in social skills for pedagogical careers, but their training is not intended as social skills.
The review of the educational strategy for the academic year revealed the existence of actions aimed at the formation of social skills; however, these shares were intentional and systematic. Activities were planned in response to weaknesses identified in the brigade, but not to the formation of social skills based on the link with the performance of professional functions.
Similarly, the activities lacked of systematicity and integration, as they were not guided by the necessary algorithm to form social skills. The actions related to work from the academic, research, labor and extension components are not consciously planned to form these skills.
Scales for social skills in pedagogical careers applied to students
It was used to verify the level of development of students in terms of social skills. It was applied to the 23 second-year students in the context of the pedagogical process that is developed and its respective conditions. Results were organized by the dimensions and sub dimensions of this variable. The results ranged between the categories: Occasionally occurs (medium level of development), rarely occurs (low level of development) and usually occurs (high level of development). The number and percent of students in which the categories are subdivided are presented.
In the Self-Motivation sub-dimension, predominates: It usually occurs in 12 (52 %), It occurs occasionally in 8 (35 %), It rarely occurs in 2 (10 %), It always occurs in 1 (3%).
In the Self-control and emotional control sub dimension, predominates: It usually occurs in 11 (46 %), it occurs occasionally in 8 (38 %), it rarely occurs in 3 (13 %), it always occurs in 1 (3 %).
Skill in sub dimension abilities for expression predominates: Occurs occasionally in 13 (59 %), usually occurs in 5 (20 %), rarely occurs in 4 (18 %) and always occurs in one (3 %).
In Observation Skill, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 14 (61 %), rarely occurs in 5 (21 %), usually or often occurs in 4 (20 %).
In the sub-dimension Ability for empathic relationship, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 14 (62 %), rarely occurs in 5 (21 %), usually occurs in 3 (13 %) and Always occurs in 1 (3 %).
Group Management Dimension
In the group work sub dimension, predominates: Occurs occasionally in 15 (64 %), rarely occurs in 4 (20 %), usually occurs in 4 (16 %).
In the group work sub dimension, predominates: Occurs occasionally in 16 (67 %), rarely occurs in 4 (18 %), usually occurs in 3 (15 %).
In sub dimension management and mediation of interpersonal and intergroup conflicts predominate: Occurs occasionally in 16 (67 %), rarely occurs in 4 (18 %) usually occurs in 3 (15 %).
From the results were inferred that the students presented greater difficulties in interpersonal dimension and the management of the group. In the first they were manifested as the main deficiencies: the development of an activity simultaneously with the action of listening to the person who is addressing them, not taking into account the individuality of each subject, not promoting in an appropriate way or respecting that the interlocutor expresses their views. These behaviors indicate a low level in the skill and active listening.
In the second dimension, they expressed marked dissatisfaction in relation to group work, related to the lack of adequate evaluations of the work carried out by team members in the subjects; The actions to fulfill the tasks assigned to the work teams are not distributed equally; the group is not perceived to contribute from the individual level to the development of the task and there are manifestations of adjudged guilt in the resolution of conflicts.
Scales for social skills in pedagogical careers applied to teachers
It was applied to the nine teachers of the year group. The results were organized by the dimensions and sub dimensions that make up this variable. The results oscillate between the categories Occur occasionally (medium level of development), usually occur (high level of development) and Always occur (high level of development). Then the number and percent of teachers in which categories in each sub dimension predominates.
In the Self-Motivation sub-dimension, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 1 (19 %), usually occurs in 5 (57 %), always occurs in 3 (24 %).
In the Self-control and emotional control sub dimension, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 1 (19 %), usually occurs in 5 (57 %), always occurs in 3 (24 %).
In the Ability for expression sub dimension, predominate: It usually occurs in 6 (71 %), It always occurs in 3 (29 %).
In the Skill for Observation sub dimension, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 1 (19 %), usually occurs in 5 (57 %), Always occurs in 3 (24 %).
In the Ability for empathic relationship sub-dimension, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 1 (14 %), usually occurs in 6 (66 %), Always occurs in 2 (20 %).
Group Management Dimension
In the group work sub dimension, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 1 (14 %), usually occurs in 5 (57 %), always occurs in 3 (29 %).
In the sub dimension Management and mediation of interpersonal and intergroup conflicts, predominates: Occasionally occurs in 2 (28 %), usually occurs in 4 (43 %), always occurs in 3 (29 %).
The results indicate, in general, teachers have an adequate level of development in social skills, specifically in active listening and teamwork. The analysis of the results showed that the level of development in these skills is at a medium to high level. This shows that they are in a position to work for the training of these skills in their students.
Observation to classes
A total of 16 classes and other activities were observed: conference (two), seminar (four), practical classes (four), self-management of learning (three) and work activity (three). An insufficient use of methods, means and forms of organization of teaching was found based on the training of active listening and teamwork. Although some steps are used to train these skills, this is not done with an integrated character, an aspect recognized in the group interview with the teachers.
In 44 % (seven) of the classes visited, Instruction, Modeling, Behavior testing or Feedback were used. However, it was not always done properly. Students were explained how to execute the skill, they were presented with audiovisual materials in which they observed social skills and they were organized during the class to put into practice effective communicative performance, but this was not done systemically. Furthermore, students did not always receive intentional guidance toward training these skills.
In 31 % (five) of the classes, means that contribute to the formation of social skills were used. These were limited to the projection of audiovisual materials in which these social skills are represented, but there was no intention to use them to train them.
Identifying professional problems with social skills necessary for resolution found in the 25% (four) classes. Despite being identified, in these there was no deliberate work towards the formation of a specific skill.
The insufficient use of the academic, labor, research and extension components was verified to provide an outlet for the formation of social skills. The academic component is used in 44 % (seven), the research component in 25% (four), the labor component in 13 % (two) and the extension agent in 13 % (two). The work, in this sense, is not carried out on a systemic basis.
The indicators for the evaluation of the students did not always take into account aspects aimed at directly evaluating their performance in social skills and, when it was carried out, it was not done with the express intention of taxing their training based on professional performance.
Among the indicators to evaluate students there are the respect for other people's criteria, performance during teamwork, attention to the partner when issuing a criterion ; but this was not done intentionally for the formation of social skills. Nor was the level achieved by students in terms of performance in social skills systematically evaluated. The use of these indicators was observed in 31% (five) of the classes.
Group interview to the 2nd year students of the Degree in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology
It was found that, in students, the possession of knowledge about social skills is at a low level. This is limited to the recognition of the possibility they offer for the effectiveness of communicative contact and the knowledge of some specific skills.
They referred to social skills as those that enable people to establish effective communicative contacts and collaborate in any context. Within their typology they located active listening, assertiveness and empathy.
In contrast to the above, they considered the possession of social skills very important for their future professional performance. However, they declared that they did not possess the adequate level of development in these skills based on what is required for the performance of the profession.
On the other hand, the main weaknesses of the members of the brigade were declared: difficulties in accepting criticism, organizing and reaching agreement during teamwork oriented from the subjects, as well as the lack of attention to colleagues when they opine within the group context. These weaknesses were verified through the application of the interview and the Scale for social skills in pedagogical careers.
Regarding actions aimed at forming social skills, they recognized that only some teachers make them. However, they stated that the relationships established between professional problems and the content of the subjects do not always directly allude to social skills.
It was revealed that most teachers refer, in general, the importance of proper communication to solve professional problems, but without referring directly to social skills based on their solution. This indicator coincides with the interviews with teachers and managers.
They referred to the implementation of actions to improve their communication performance during the training process, both academically and Extensionists, given the existence of situations in which they must demonstrate effective communication performance. However, systematicity was found in the process, by not referring to the use of the sequence of steps for this purpose, as well as the specific skills to be used. This shows that students are not aware of what social skills teachers are trying to train.
Regarding the teaching media, they declared the use of audiovisual materials in which the communication of the subjects is analyzed. However, this was not referred in the first instance, but after deeper investigation.
They stated that sometimes filming of the students' performance is made during seminars and practical classes and subsequently the communicative procedure of each one is analyzed during its execution. This constitutes a way of providing feedback, but this step is not used by all teachers, which shows a lack of integration at work.
They recognized that the formation of social skills is encouraged in types of classes such as the conference, the seminar, the workshop and the practical class. However, they did not declare the use for this purpose of other types of class, an aspect that coincides with interviews with managers and teachers, which seems to be related to deficiencies in knowledge of the algorithm for the formation of social skills. They also reported that teachers include indicators to assess communication performance, but not always or not all teachers relate these indicators to the specific formation of a social skill.
It was found that integrated work is not always carried out with the academic, labor, research and extension components for the training of social skills. This was verified with the recognition that effective performance is preferred during interpersonal relationships with greater emphasis on academics and extension activities and to a lesser extent on labor and research.
The students considered that, in general, their teachers possess social skills, which is manifested in the exchanges they establish during and outside of classes.
Regarding the preparation of teachers for the formation of social skills, they considered that they show adequate preparation. This criterion does not agree with the information obtained in this and other instruments, which may be related to their insufficient knowledge about the formation of social skills.
Group interview with professors of the academic year group
The results of this instrument, social skills were related to the possibility of establishing appropriate interpersonal relationships and with effective transmission of information. They were also rated as very important, relating them to the fulfillment of the professional functions of the educational psychologist. They include within this category active listening, empathy, assertiveness and teamwork.
The existing level of knowledge regarding the methods to form social skills in students can be classified as low. They use procedures where actions related to instruction, modeling, and behavior testing is implemented.
It was found that, in general, they do not know the algorithm for training social skills. This causes that the use of isolated steps does not respond to an integrated sequence, which manifests lack of intent in the formation of these skills.
In relation to the planning and application of teaching methods, means and forms of organization that promote the formation of social skills , steps such as instruction and modeling are used in isolation. However, there is a lack of systematicity and integration when not performing feedback, reinforcement and homework.
The use of media is limited to the projection of audiovisual materials in which behavioral models related to social skills are observed. However, it was found that they are not always used in response to objectives and content related to the formation of social skills. In this sense, there is a lack of intention in the planning and application of the means declared by teachers for the formation of social skills.
The most widely used class types were conferences, seminars, and workshops. Activities are developed in which students must work as a team, pay attention and respect other people's criteria. However, the possibilities offered by work activity, consultations, self-management of learning, tutoring and laboratory work are not adequately exploited.
It was found that professional problems that require the possession of social skills for their solution are not always identified. This manifests insufficiencies in the formation of social skills, since the adequate relationship between them and the other aspects of the content of the subjects is not established.
Nor is the work done for the training of social skills sufficient during the rest of the activities of the training process. It was found that the planning, organization and execution of activities related to the substantive processes of the university, which imply the establishment of interpersonal relationships, is not sufficient for the formation of social skills.
There is predominance in the use of the academic component over the rest, during the training of social skills. The actions declared by the teachers focus, for the most part, on the work carried out in the classroom, despite recognizing the possibilities of the investigative, labor and extension components to train them. However, they referred to the realization of actions to build these skills by these components, although its systematicity was found.
The systematic evaluation of the development that students achieve in social skills was not carried out by all the teachers. Those who did so included within the general parameters for evaluating the students, some related to listening to their classmates, respect for other people's criteria and teamwork.
The need for the possession of social skills by teachers was recognized, in order to train them in students. They based this criterion on the fact that their performance constitutes a model for learning the way of acting, which includes communicative performance.
They considered as a generality that students have a low level of development in social skills. The most frequent difficulties encountered were: care in appropriate to classmates and teachers during exchanges communication, lack of interest in the interpretation right of the gestures and expressions of the speaker so it is not fit it, do not distribute equitably the responsibilities for teamwork and express dissatisfaction with it. These evaluations coincided with the results obtained with the Scale of Social Skills for Pedagogical Careers applied to students.
Individual interview with managers of the degree in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology
Eight teachers, representing 100 % of this group, were interviewed. 100 % related social skills to effectiveness during interpersonal relationships. In 80 % (six) it was declared that elements related to verbal language, body language and elements such as tone and inflections of the voice intervene.
80 % (six) of these teachers indicated a relationship between social skills and the personologicalresources of the person who possesses them. In a similar percentage, coincidences were obtained regarding the location within the social skill concept of good listening or active listening, assertiveness, empathy, resilience and teamwork.
100 % (eight) recognized the importance of training social skills in the educational psychologist. This is associated with the need to put them into practice during the performance of their duties, considering communication an indispensable tool for professional performance.
Regarding knowledge about how to train social skills, there was agreement in the use of methods related to the steps established for this purpose. 85 % (seven) of the subjects reported using instruction, modeling, and behavior testing, although they were not called by name. Feedback was cited by 12 % (one), while reinforcement and homework were not reported. It was found that the steps of the established algorithm are not used in an integrated way.
It was agreed that students are at a low level in relation to the development of social skills. Difficulties related to active listening and teamwork were identified as more recurring manifestations.
Analyzed the results of the instruments, the methodological triangulation technique was applied, which allowed establishing the main regularities found in the investigated object. So in the process of forming social skills in students of second year of the Degree in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology manifested the following regularities:
1. Presence of general objectives and values to be formed in the professional model, which demonstrate the need to develop a process of social skills training as a condition for effective communicative action.
2. Insufficient knowledge, by teachers, to achieve an adequate social skills training process from the state in which the students are.
3. Insufficient inclusion of social skills as part of the content to be addressed by the disciplines that makes up the study plan.
4. The e active listening and the team work are the most affected social skills in students, while those teachers are at an appropriate level.
5. Asystematicity at work from the academic, labor, research and extension components for the formation of social skills in students.
6. Insufficient use of methods means and forms of organization of teaching to develop adequate training of social skills in students.
The diagnosis of the current state of the process of formation of social skills in students of second year of the Degree in Education. Pedagogy- Psychology evidenced the need for transformation of the problem. The regularities found manifested insufficiencies in the methodological procedure that until now has been carried out to train social skills in the investigated students.
Proposed solution to the identified problem
To address the shortcomings previously detected a methodology for the formation and active listening and team work in students of second year of the Degree in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology was detected. These skills were selected for being the most affected.
As part of the-cognitive apparatus, foundations, category and concepts, principles and regularities were established. In the logical or instrumental method apparatus, stages were proposed with their objectives and actions. The foundation of the methodology was sustained on philosophical, sociological, psychological, pedagogical and didactic bases.
As a category, social abilities for teaching careers are established. As concepts: active listening, Team work, collective year, Bachelor in Education. Pedagogy-Psychology.
As principles that govern the functioning of the methodology, those established by Addine, González, & Recarey (2016) for the direction of the pedagogical process were taken, contextualized in the object studied:
The training of active listening and teamwork responds to the demands that society imposes on the educational psychologist. Therefore, it is a necessity to integrate them into its personality, as they are tools for professional performance.
The philosophical position that guides this formation is dialectical and historical materialism, which is why, in addition to the ideological conception of the world, methods are assumed to explain the process in a scientific way. On the other hand, taking sides on this basis implies conceiving students with an active role. Therefore, the methodology must confront problematic situations related to their professional performance in which these social skills are used.
The methodology for training active listening and teamwork must be based on the knowledge that different sciences offer in an updated way in relation to this process. Furthermore, it implies an objective and holistic analysis of the existing theory regarding the object.
From the above principle it is referred to the formation of active listening and team work, in this case meets the historical needs - specific to the current educational context. Therefore, the training of such skills, as well as the appropriation of the knowledge system necessary to execute them, should be directed to the preparation of the student, so that he applies them in solving the problems of the educational context.
Adequate training in active listening and teamwork involves the involvement of students in the learning task. This is achieved with an active teaching-learning process in which the usefulness of the skill that is internalized is clarified to the subject and that he can transfer it to his daily life.
Also, the training of these skills must start from the learning levels reached by each student, so that they constitute the basis for the acquisition of new knowledge. Starting from the learning achieved implies the use of the learner's experiences so that it gives personal meaning to active listening and teamwork.
For the formation and active listening and team work it must be considered the individuality of each student and their right to be respected. The implementation of respect for individuality constitutes an action of modeling behaviors related to social skills. Also to consider, individuality in the formation of social skills means taking into account the psychological characteristics of the subject, as well as their cognitive and affective-motivational functioning.
Although each student is an unrepeatable psychological individuality, this is achieved mediated by its inclusion in social contexts. The training of active listening and teamwork then requires the use of the interpersonal relationship system established in the groups in which the student interacts.
The scholar group is an ideal space for the formation of such skills, from organized labor which develops depending on the education of the person. Thus, the use of its dynamics must be considered in the proposed methodology.
The formation of active listening and team work involves the transmission-assimilation of the system of knowledge related to these social skills. By instruction ensures that the students assimilate what they are active listening and team work , and how , when and why to use them for their performance.
The educational dimension is aimed at the formation of emotional experiences, attitudes, character traits and values necessary to carry out the role of educational psychologist. These elements must be related to active listening and teamwork with situations that require them for resolution in the educational context.
Instructing and educating in mutual influence affect the development of the personality of the students. Correspondingly, the methodology must develop students' potentialities to levels that allow them to transform the educational context using active listening and teamwork, as well as undertaking self-transformation processes.
The work of training active listening and teamwork requires the student's commitment to this process. This requires the knowledge of psychological particularities of each depending on the understanding of the functioning of their cognitive processes and their main needs and motivations. Based on their needs, the usefulness of these skills for professional performance and daily life should be presented.
The training of active listening and team work requires the insertion of students in situations where they make metacognitive reflections that allow them to understand how they execute the skills. In this process should be further development of psychological formations that influence learning, in general, and about active listening and team work specifically the relationship between the skills and the knowledge they possess must also be established.
Training in active listening and teamwork seeks to integrate these skills into the student's personality. His psychological conditioning of evidence which are subject, by the activity and communication system, in which the person involved, as its personality is formed, develops and expresses them.
The assumption of this principle indicates the need to carry out activities in which active listening and teamwork are systematized during the relationship system established by the subjects participating in the pedagogical process. It implies, the systematic evaluation of the level of development that reach students regarding these skills.
Two regularities in the methodology were identified:
1. The relation between the formation and active listen and team work as with the assigned social role.
2. The inclusion of formation and active listening and team work in the actions that are taxed at the Investigative Labor Education Discipline.
The methodological or instrumental device integrates the following steps with its objectives and corresponding actions:
Stage 1. Diagnosis of the existing conditions to develop the training process of active listening and teamwork.
Objective: determining conditions in the contexts in which the formation of active listening and teamwork will develop.
Step 2. Preparation of the active listening and teamwork training process
Objective: preparing the formation of active listening and teamwork.
Step 3. Execution of the training process of active listening and teamwork.
Objective: execute actions aimed at the formation of active listening and teamwork.
Stage 4. Evaluation of the training process of active listening and teamwork.
Objective: determining the effectiveness of the training process of active listening and teamwork.
Theoretical valuation of the methodology
The evaluation of the proposed methodology was carried out using the focus group method. It was applied at different times to obtain a qualitative assessment of the methodology. Specialists with training in the area of knowledge related to the research object were selected, as well as in the area of the proposed result for the problem.
The selection of the subjects to form the focus groups was based on their grouping due to the existence of a common characteristic. Group I was made up of teachers from the Pedagogy-Psychology department with five or more years of experience as teachers in the degree course and the possession of the Master's degree in Education Sciences (five subjects). Groups II and I II were made up of professors with a scientific degree of Doctor of Educational Sciences who have developed methodologies as a scientific result in their research (five subjects in each group).
The focus groups were developed from structured interviews to intend the debate on the theoretical assessment of the methodology. The duration of the sessions was ninety minutes. The subjects selected to integrate each group were previously given the proposed methodology so that they had elements for discussion during the activity.
The questions to guide the debate on the methodology were around topics such as the relevance of the general objective of the methodology, validity of foundations and principles, coherence between the stages with their respective actions and planning of the evaluation.
Discussions in the groups yielded the following results:
The main recommendations were aimed towards:
Formation and active listening and work team in the second year students in the Degree in Education. Pedagogy- psychology, through the methodology proposal, reflects the need to establish a parallel between the executive structure to form skills (Ginoris, Addine and Turcaz, 2006) and social skills training (Caballo, 2007). This allows integrating the positive elements of both proposals based on the effectiveness of the transformation of the object.
The methodology proposal considers the need for interdisciplinary work to form and active Listening and work team, in addition the use of different spaces in which students interact in the educational context. This is correct, while the educational center is an ideal place to teach subjects social coexistence, starting with equipping them with social skills that they can use in different areas (Tortosa, 2018).
The formation of social skills based on the professional performance of the psycho-pedagogue is a process that necessarily requires a close link with the learning of the ways of acting for the fulfillment of professional functions. It is necessary to exploit the spaces of the educational process for implementing the method to train and active listening and work team in a systematic and planned way. In this regard, the proposal methodology related to the social role assigned to the educational psychologist and performed in close connection with the shares of the principal and integrated discipline, in accordance with the criteria (Alum, Ordáz and Diaz, 2015).
Working from Investigative Labor Discipline Training enables the formation and active listening and work team is done in proper balance with the academic, labor, business research and extension. Thus, the student performs work sustained in the domain of science content found in the base of the profession as part of the acquisition d} of professional skills (MES, 2016).
Addine Fernández, F., González, A. M. & Recarey Fernández, S. (2016). Principios para la dirección del proceso pedagógico. En Compendio de pedagogía (pp. 80-101). La Habana: Pueblo y Educación.
Alum, N. E., Ordaz, M. y Díaz, T.C. (2015). Estrategia para el desarrollo de las habilidades sociales en la Universidad de Pinar del Río. Avances, 17(1), p.90-100. Recuperada a partir de http://www.ciget.pinar.cu/ojs/index.php/publicaciones/article/view/23/508
Caballo, V. E. (2007). Manual de evaluación y entrenamiento de las habilidades sociales (7.ed.). Madrid: Siglo XXI de España. Recuperado a partir de https://www.academia.edu/24963835/Vicente_E_Caballo._Manual_de_Evaluacion_y_Entrenamiento_de_Las_Habilidades_Sociales
Codina, A. (2014). Habilidades directivas. La Habana: Editorial Academia.
Espinosa Vásquez, R. A. (2018). Antecedentes históricos en el desarrollo de la Psicopedagogía en Chile. Pilquen, 15(1). Recuperado a partir de http://revele.uncoma.edu.ar/htdoc/revele/index.php/psico/article/view/1912/pdf
Ginoris Quesada, O., Addine Fernández, F. & Turcaz Millán, J. (2006). Didáctica General: material básico: maestría en Educación. La Habana: IPLAC. Recuperado a partir de http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:GPq4EvVMxGEJ:otrasvoceseneducacion.org/archivos/6914+&cd=1&hl=es&ct=clnk&gl=cu&client=firefox-b
Little, S. G., Swangler, J. & Akin-Little, A. (2017). Defining Social Skills. Springer Link, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64592-6_2
Ministerio de Educación Superior (MES). (2016). Modelo del profesional: plan de estudio E: carrera Licenciatura en Educación: Pedagogía-Psicología. La Habana: MES. Recuperado a partir de https://www.uo.edu.cu/sites/default/files/u780/14%20Plan%20E%20-%20Pedagog%C3%ADa-Psicolog%C3%ADa.pdf
Núñez, C.E., Hernández, V.S, Jerez, D.S., Rivera, D.G. y Núñez, M.W. (2018) Las habilidades sociales en el rendimiento académico en adolescentes. Revista de Comunicación de la SEECI, 47, 37-39. https://doi.org/10.15198/seeci.2018.47.37-49
Rivera, J., Lay, N., Moreno, M. E., Pérez, A., Rocha, G., Parra, M., Duran, S. E., Garcia, J., Redondo, O. y Torres, E. (2019) Programa de entrenamiento para desarrollar habilidades sociales en estudiantes universitarios. Revista Espacios, 40(31), 10. Recuperado a partir de https://www.revistaespacios.com/a19v40n31/a19v40n31p10.pdf
Rodríguez, D.O. (2012) El portafolio del psicopedagogo: perfil y competencias. Infancias Imágenes, 11(2), 79-83. doi: https://doi.org/10.14483/16579089.5629
Solórzano Mendoza, Y. D. (2017). La psicopedagogía, una necesidad docente en la Educación Superior actual. Polo del Conocimiento, 2(11), 177-188. https://doi.org/10.23857/pc.v2i11.401
Subiela García, J. A., Abellón Ruiz, J., Celdrán Baños, A. I., Manzanares Lázaro, J. A & Satorres Ramis, B. (2014). La importancia de la Escucha Activa en la intervención Enfermera. Enfermería Global, 13(34), 276-292.
Tapia Gutiérrez, C. P. & Cubo Delgado, S. (2017). Habilidades sociales relevantes: percepciones de múltiples actores educativos. Magis. Revista Internacional de Investigación en Educación, 9(19), 133-148.
Tortosa Jiménez, A. (2018). El aprendizaje de habilidades sociales en el aula. Revista Internacional de apoyo a la inclusión, logopedia, sociedad y multiculturalidad, 4(4), 158-165. https://doi.org/10.17561/riai.v4.n4.13
Conflict of interest:
Authors declare not to have any conflict of interest.
Authors participated in the writting process of this article and in the analysis of documents.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) Juan Roberto Mena Gálvez, Nivia Esther Alum Dopico, Mayra Ordaz Hernández