Mendive. Revista de Educación, July-august 2020; 18(3):472-484
Translated from the original in Spanish
Perception of teachers about a system of problem methods for interpersonal communication
Percepción de los docentes sobre un sistema de métodos problémicos para la comunicación interpersonal
Percepção dos professores de um sistema de métodos problemáticos para a comunicação interpessoal
Marivel Jurado Ronquillo1, Gisela Bravo López2, Raidell Avello Martínez2
1 Universidad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador. ORCID:
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9455-1441, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Universidad de Cienfuegos, Cienfuegos, Cuba. ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6818-8466, http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7200-632X, E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: August 2nd, 2019
Approved: May 22nd 2020
The teacher management must promote activities that allow the student to learn to communicate, adjusted to the demands of the professional activity for which they are trained. The present work is aimed at evaluating teachers' perception of the application of the system of problem methods described in Jurado, Bravo and Avello (2017). In this line, the present work is the result of the third phase of a PhD research that proposes a system of problem-based methods for interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process of the Bachelor of Education career. In the observation of classes and group interviews with the participating teachers, it is evident that the proposed system sequences the problem methods that allow establishing the relationships between the teaching-learning process and interpersonal communication; and that it is this condition that favors the appropriation of the contents of the subjects and the use of verbal and non-verbal communication resources, creating a communicative situation that fosters the exchange between teacher-students, student-student and student-group.
Keywords: problem-based methods; interpersonal communication; teaching-learning process; evaluation.
La gestión docente del profesor debe propiciar actividades que permitan al estudiante de educación aprender a comunicarse, ajustado a las exigencias de la actividad profesional para la que se forman. El presente trabajo está dirigido a evaluar la percepción de los docentes sobre la aplicación del sistema de métodos problémicos para la comunicación interpersonal en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la carrera Licenciatura en Educación. En la observación a clases y entrevistas grupales a los profesores participantes, se evidencia que el sistema propuesto secuencia estos métodos, que permiten establecer las relaciones entre el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y la comunicación interpersonal; es esta condición la que favorece la apropiación de los contenidos de las asignaturas y la utilización de los recursos comunicativos verbales y no verbales, creando una situación comunicativa que propicia el intercambio entre profesor-estudiante, estudiante-estudiante y estudiante-grupo.
Palabras clave: métodos problémicos; comunicación interpersonal; proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje; evaluación.
A gestão pedagógica do professor deve proporcionar actividades que permitam ao aluno em formação aprender a comunicar, ajustadas às exigências das atividades profissionais para a qual está formado. O presente trabalho visa avaliar a percepção dos professores sobre a aplicação do sistema de métodos problemáticos de comunicação interpessoal no processo de ensino-aprendizagem do Bacharelato em Educação. Na observação das aulas e nas entrevistas de grupo com os professores participantes, é evidente que o sistema proposto sequencia estes métodos, que permitem estabelecer relações entre o processo ensino-aprendizagem e a comunicação interpessoal; é esta condição que favorece a apropriação dos conteúdos das disciplinas e a utilização de recursos de comunicação verbal e não verbal, criando uma situação comunicativa que favorece o intercâmbio entre professor-estudante, aluno-estudante e grupo de alunos.Palavras-chave: Métodos problemáticos; Comunicação interpessoal; Processo ensino-aprendizagem; Avaliação.
Studies about the teaching-learning process indicate the need to improve the teacher's intervention as a mediator. Ensure that, from his management, the teacher should promote activities that allow the student of education in training learn to communicate, tailored to the requirements of professional activity for which they are formed, enabling them to share with the group, and it is essential to be able to understand, express and interrelate with others and improve the reality and context in which they live and work (Corujeira, 2014; García, 2015; Montoya et al., 2016; Roque et al., 2018).
The active construction of knowledge, in general, arises from dialogue and interaction among people. To talk inexorably leads to talk with the other's thoughts, as well as his own; that is, to think and dialogue through and with the thoughts of others (Littlewood, 1996; Sánchez, 2000; Turró, 2017; Quintana, 2016; Flores et al., 2016). From these references, communication must be studied as the objective, content and method of the curriculum, as a transversal knowledge. However, in education careers it is attributed a specialized character, defined as pedagogical, educational or didactic, to refer to the demands and requirements of professional activity and the context in which it is carried out (Nunan, 1989; Bravo, 2004; Portela, 2015; Heredero and Garrido, 2016; Ortiz, 2017).
Consequently, it is necessary that the preparation in the domain of interpersonal communication, where the verbal, non-verbal, written, digital is highlighted, is a first order requirement in the training of the university student of these times, to be able to face the dynamics multicultural and open to the globalization of knowledge of the current era (Núñez, 2003; Alpizar, 2017; Ferrés and Masanet, 2017). However, the identification of teachers' conceptions in Ecuador and other countries revealed that theoretical reflection on the subject is still insufficient (Tejera et al., 2012; Pérez and Carballosa, 2017; Villalba, Avello, Berrios and Castro, 2020).
Interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process rests on the way in which communication networks are structured in the group, and the possibilities that these offer in teaching-learning activities to fulfill the functions defined in them (Amayuela, 2005; Contreras, 1990; Medina and Piña, 2016). It is appropriate that the teacher, from the knowledge of the factors that allow establishing an adequate interpersonal relationship, determine the direction and participation of the subjects in the communication process (Irizar , 1996; Jurado, Avello and Bravo, 2020).
This work is the result of the third phase of a doctoral research where a system of problem methods for interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process of the Bachelor of Education career is proposed. This third phase is aimed at evaluating teachers' perception of the application of the problem methods system described in Jurado, Bravo and Avello (2017).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A qualitative research methodology was assumed (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2018). For the study was taken as the unit of analysis the Bachelor of Education from the Faculty of Philosophy, Letters and Science Education, University of Guayaquil, based on the number of students and social impact of the formation processes of this faculty.
One of the researchers, as a professor in the Bachelor of Education degree, specializing in Basic Education, presented the application for the application of the method system (discussed in Jury, Bravo and Avello, 2017) to the academic authorities of the Faculty of Philosophy, Letter s and Education Sciences, who approved the application. In the debate with the authorities, it was agreed to start with a degree in Basic Education, specializing in Basic Education. The actual process started from May 2015 to February 2016.
Two group interviews with teachers were developed, in order to know the perceptions of these on the implementation of the system of problem methods proposed; an interview to start the process of intervention and another to conclude. For the group interview, a question guide was followed, according to the recommendations of Aravena et al. (2006), which would help guide the debate. These authors suggest that an advantage of group interviews is that they reproduce the forms of personal interaction that occur in everyday life, which allows to surface opinions and stories which would otherwise not be expressed with equal freedom.
The participants were professors of the Bachelor of Education degree, specializing in Basic Education. The sample selection was intentional and was distributed as follow:
- First group interview (42 interventions): 12 teachers, seven women and five men, average age 48.7 years. Of these teachers, four are from the Didactic discipline, three from Educational Psychology, three from the Spanish Language and two from Computer Science.
- Second group interview (35 interventions): nine teachers (all participants in the first interview), five women and four men, average age 46.1 years. Of these teachers, three are from the Didactic discipline, three from Educational Psychology, two from the Spanish Language and one from Computer Science.
Furthermore, 52 classroom observations were made to the teachers who participated in the research. The teachers involved were observed an average of 2.4 classes. For observation, an observation guide was used to characterize interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process, and thus be able to contrast the results of group interviews.
First group interview
Twelve teachers participated in the first group interview, which intervened openly. To be consistent, from the ethical point of view, with what was reported to the teachers at the time of the interview, they will be referred by the pseudonym P and the number assigned by the researchers in the analysis phase. From the interventions, some considerations of the teachers about the system were extracted.
Several interventions were related to the importance they attribute to the system, which was just synthesized by P1, P5 and P7. In general, an understanding of the process could be appreciated, because during the debate the main approaches collected, although oriented to the recognition of the complexity of the process that one wishes to change, value is given to its potential. In addition, it is recognized which aspects may limit the application of the system of methods in practice.
P1: "... the presented system is viable, novel, original, and it is important for practice".
P5: "the proposal attaches importance to interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process, and becomes an essential component of the process in which the actors (teachers, students, students with students, groups with groups), manage to establish communication"
P7: "... that the proposal of the method system, for interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process, is appropriate for its execution in all careers of education, of the Faculty of Philosophy, Letters and Educational Sciences, University of Guayaquil, and even more, if it is taken into account that this system responds to the demands of contemporary teacher training ".
In these and other interventions it was appreciated that, in the words of the participants, the method system facilitates and improves two interrelated processes: the teaching-learning process and interpersonal communication; to the extent in which it modifies the process of teaching and learning, interpersonal communication is stimulated and becomes a chance to bet on the quality and warmth of the training process in general. These results contrast with the findings by Portela (2015), who performs an analysis of the importance of these problem methods in the teaching - learning process.
Some teachers added affective criteria that, although they are treated in depth in the system, take up and comment on them seeking reaffirmation in these aspects, especially the emotional ones, as it was the case of P4 and P6.
P4: "... we must also consider the motivational, volitional, emotional and axiological aspects and the way in which all this is expressed in the communication that takes place between the students and between them and the teacher."
P6: " communicating with the student, is not only going to express their knowledge in activity, but through interaction, communicate your thoughts, ideas, feelings, needs, through different communication codes."
In previous comments and others it is evident that teachers are convinced that in the process of teaching and learning not only has to take into account the development of cognitive activity, but the emotional aspects, thus fulfilling the principle of psychology relationship between affective and cognitive. Likewise, as it is outlined in the fundaments of the system it should train students in critical observation of their own activity in the assessment and understanding of the problems they have to face the influential relationships in the situation presented in learning, as well as those aspects that can be overcome from openness to affective communicative interaction.
Likewise, the teachers were asked about the way in which the system contributes to complying with the regulations and objectives of training in the career, and they argue that:
P2: "... the integration of the cognitive, affective, procedural, axiological and metacognitive is a requirement of every training process and above all, of graduates in education, since in them rests the interpersonal communication of the students, based on the participatory and developer character, oriented to educational change, which is conceived as an expression of the integration of the instructional-educational ...".
Q9: "... one of the methods on which the system is based is that of problem teaching, which, integrated with others such as partial search and the investigative method, are requirements of the current academic regime, but that the proposal also contributes to the interpersonal communication as a social competence, which demands of all Ecuadorian young people so that they can participate in the democratic processes that are carried out in the country".
The methods, partial search and research, that are shaping the system ensure the preconditions, identification and motivation with the intention of the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, without devaluing the content of learning, these conditions are the ones that allow passing to the execution phase through the investigative method, from which the communicative situation that is created will allow the treatment and appropriation of the contents and the exercise of interpersonal communication. These elements also are considered by Jury, Bravo and Avello (2017), when they refer that such problem method enhance interpersonal communication and enables more durable learning.
P6: "... from the system, the teaching-learning process achieves complete learning and, during it, the students will not only develop the intelligence and achieve the necessary knowledge to enter the professional world, but also that they work so that they can be formed with a balanced personality, through the education of values (sensitivity, dialogue that allows interpersonal communication)".
P1: "... by combining the phases of the activity of the teaching- learning process with the teaching methods in the form of a system, it is achieved that the students of education acquire a comprehensive training, which is vital for this moment of their lives, if we take into account that we live in a globalized world, every day it is more important to know what is happening around us, and for this it is necessary to "communicate", understand and maintain contact with our fellow men".
It is evident, from the criteria of the participants that the teacher occupies an essential place in the orientation and creation of positive psychological situations, in which personal and professional experiences are valued, and the student can share with other students, with other educational actors and with the teacher, during the teaching-learning process that takes place in classrooms.
Q5: "... However the benefits, it is necessary to expand the possibility of using computerized means of communication, which act as mediators of the method that favors interpersonal communication, telephone calls, video calls, WhatsApp: chat on smart phones, which will help to motivate students to generate and share knowledge, to the extent in which they also develop interpersonal communication skills".
Regardless of P5's appreciation of the means, the system responds to the availability of learning resources for each career; The preparation of these by the teacher and the need for the involvement of specialized personnel to optimize computer resources and communication technologies were also foreseen; videos, email tools, the MOODLE platform, discussion forum, among other options offered by online teaching and learning.
In the observation made, it was found that during the orientation, it was possible to promote motivation, use the verbal and non-verbal communication resources that the students themselves possess, which favored the teaching-learning activities to achieve a more interpersonal communication approach.
However, at the beginning, during execution, it is shown some difficulties to promote the communicative exchange and achieve the needs of support and help for learning; especially in the control phase, in which it is essential to socialize the results and the affective states generated in the activity, through personal student-student interaction; student-group and student-group- teacher.
It is evident that the increase in the control phase of the use of individual and collective reflection, especially in 32 classes, was promoted as a didactic resource that favors interpersonal communication, by leaning on questions and notes on knowledge of the subject, both by the teacher as well as by another student; In general, an increase in student participation in the process was appreciated.
The process of analyzing the results of the observations reveals some aspects of interest in this study. At the beginning, the practice showed that:
It should be noted that many of these aspects were improved from the application of the system and the improvement of its application with the help and advice of researchers. This appreciation was verified in the teachers' criteria in the second group interview and they agree with the results found by Alpizar (2017), who, although doing it in a different context, agrees in pointing out the need for teachers of all subjects have a preparation in the subject, which allows them to design activities that provide appropriate interpersonal communication and recognize the use of methods in student learning.
Second group interview
As part of the intervention carried out, after the first group interview, teachers were invited to design and conceive teaching-learning activities from the conception of the proposed system.
Only nine professors responded to this invitation, whose disposition and commitment to research was based on professional motivations. Among the difficulties were the administrative, and because of time they could no longer participate. In this purpose, a personalized and group work was organized that allowed to go directly from theory to practice and from this to reflection and evaluation of results.
In the registered interventions, identification with the proposal and practical success could be appreciated, while revealing the barriers that this account has. In this regard they assured that:
P3 : " the system of methods for interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process of the Degree in Education career has allowed us to reflect and see how the integration of methods is possible to create new methodologies; We have verified that if teaching methods are the most dynamic component of the teaching-learning process, and that the procedures of teachers and students are based on them, they can be oriented towards communicative interrelation, always that in the conception that is designed they will give more participation to this topic".
P5: "it must be present that the actions and operations that structure the methods predominant in each subsystem and that they are related to the stages of the learning process, they are the ones that facilitate the independent and creative activity of the students, which although it is positive must be adjusted to the real possibilities of the group".
Some interventions, like the previous ones, referred to the integration and use of the methods, and insisted that they should train students in the critical observation of their own activity, in the assessment and understanding of the problems they have to face interpersonal relationships that influence in the presented situation in learning, as well as those aspects that can be overcome from openness to affective communicative interaction.
QP: "the system of problem methods allows students to apply the knowledge and skills they possess, in new situations for them and seek the solution; but we must bear in mind that the ways of responding depend on the subjectivity of those who intervene, as well as on the motivations, aspirations, conflicts, needs and personal qualities of the subjects".
P6: "My experience ensures me to use the resources of interpersonal communication, techniques of group work and enable learning through problem situations in which the student is involved and recognize how interpersonal communication helps them learn and it is very important; it enables interpersonal communication to be promoted, especially when students have the opportunity to socialize their knowledge. I had conflicts of opinion in the classroom and they were only clarified when the students based their points of view, and they reaffirmed with practical demonstrations and they expressed themselves with all conviction, when they explained to the other students their positions".
The analyzes presented show the foundations of the system of problem methods (Jurado, Bravo and Avello, 2017), where it was confirmed that pedagogical and didactic practices must be focused on practice, reflection, participation, self-management, collaborative work , experiential, through which the teaching-learning activities favor listening, reflection and the construction of knowledge, from the interpersonal relationship. From a broad and complex vision, the system of methods that attempts to systematize the integration of basic psychological resources for learning is formed. These reflections are evidenced in other previous investigations such as in García (2015), which particularizes the importance of listening, reflection, the construction of knowledge, and its involvement in the interpersonal relationships that are generated in the learning group.
P9: " there is no doubt that in the application of the system it was evidenced that this means a change of conception about the teaching-learning process and that the system is a key aspect to create opportunities for expression and appreciation of knowledge and the way of acting of those involved, which favors the link between them, promoting the understanding of individual knowledge about the object of study".
P1: "the lived experience confirmed that the teaching-learning process is a space in which a didactic value is attributed to student-student communication to appropriate the content, but at the same time it enables the student to reveal human values that the teacher possesses and those that wish to train in the students to favor the fulfillment of the objectives, the development of motivation and determination".
Several of the criteria of the participants support the relationship between the levels of communicative interaction, in correspondence with the problem teaching methods that favor communication at different moments of the teaching-learning activity. The teacher constitutes a fundamental mediator, but is not the only one, in the student's learning process; the other students also become important mediators of the process of internalization, elaboration of knowledge and become the main subjects of the externalization of knowledge; either as an exporting public, interlocutor or co-star of the learning result. From this perspective, the method system is structured.
P3: "without a doubt, how much greater was the communication in the group: a change was perceived in the affective commitment of the student, they exercised in knowing how to listen and it was evident how much linguistic and paralinguistic resources contribute to communication in the teaching presented in the teaching learning process. However, there is still work to be done in this sense, since students often do not know how to use verbal and non-verbal language in a coherent way or are capable of giving emotions to communication, this will depend on the greater or less fluency they have by getting involved in the communication process".
P8: "The experience I had in my class warns that with the proposal of the system of methods a greater involvement in the process of its formation is achieved; to the extent that it favors the psychological climate of the activity, the possibility of establishing relationships between the student-teacher, the students, the teacher and the group, and the teacher identifies himself as facilitator or coordinator of individual or group learning situations during the teaching - learning activity".
p3: "I am grateful for considering our contributions and socializing the application of proposals through interpersonal communicative interaction and putting it into practice; since through it we have enriched ourselves and consulted various bibliographic sources".
It could be verified that the teachers had identified themselves with the proposal and, therefore, included interpersonal communication as an objective, as it is also suggested in Corujeira (2014), which in their study applies various methodologies that enable the application of semantic networks for the information search, group discussion and the collective construction of knowledge. Therefore, the possibility was assumed that the teachers, during their classes, could train students in this skill, through the orientation of activities in which it was revealed, the exercise of self-assessment of the communicative development achieved and how influences learning. Activities were also designed and oriented that allowed identifying the potential of each one to contribute to the teaching-learning process of the group, form groups, networks, for the search for information and thus favor group discussion and collective construction of knowledge.
It is also included in class activities confrontation and argument knowledge, both theoretical and practical, considering the explanation of the experiences, the reference to texts and materials of several formats consulted. All these aspects were included in the activities of socialization and exposure, with the support of exemplification, and as an indicator of individual and collective evaluation, the results of learning, interpersonal relationships were used.
The possibilities of the methods proposed by the system were made explicit and the discussion about the possibilities they have to promote communicative exchange in the teaching-learning process of each subject was expanded.
In this way, the possibility of promoting, in interpersonal communication, the use of resources owned by students was identified, which allowed reconciling with them the possibilities of incorporating, in interpersonal communication, the use of messaging, discussion groups, discussion forum in networks, using the presence and skills for the exchange or digital information.
In this regard, the idea that interpersonal communication became a criterion for evaluating the teaching process and learning outcomes was also clarified, which would become a process of qualitative assessment between teacher and students, considering that this is a significant aspect in the profile that the career develops from the curriculum.
We also proceeded to delve into basic aspects of the students' learning style, at the request of one of the teachers. In this case, teachers were oriented to look for information, which they socialized and reached a consensus that the method system allows adjusting to personal learning styles. These elements contrast with the findings found by Bravo (2004) who, in the strategy developed for the teachers, reaffirms the importance of taking into account in the teaching activities that the different learning styles are carried out and, from them, selecting the method.
It is clear that in the presence of a change in the conception of the teaching-learning process, to the extent in which the purpose and content of the activities included in its projection stimulate interpersonal communication; Likewise, affective interactions between the participants were fostered, which favored the appropriation of the teaching-learning content and created spaces for verbal exchanges loaded with personal values related to professional activity.
The report of these ideas was presented in a meeting with the professors of the Bachelor of Education careers, specializing in Basic Education, and the professors in the Bachelor of Chemistry - Biologist career were incorporated, who agreed that, although they knew the methods included in the system, they understand the limitations they have worked with and argue the need for proposals that facilitate the process as conceived by the authors.
At the conclusion of the analysis, the information was interpreted and it was concluded that the system of methods to contribute to interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process is viable and has a wide-ranging formative contribution, adjusting to the demands of professional training, as Amayuela (2005) also suggests, and is inserted as a dynamic element of changes to achieve an active teaching-learning process.
In accordance with the criteria outlined here, it is concluded that the system of methods to contribute to interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning process in educational careers is valid if the perception of the teachers who have participated in this research is taken into account, which show its educational benefits and from this highlight its educational value, especially in relation to the development of independence, the exercise and discussion of criteria, motivation and research, cooperation and commitment to others and facilitates interpersonal communication, based on respect and mutual aid, which is in correspondence with Alpizar (2017), Corujeira (2014) and García (2015).
Despite the limitations of the study, especially in the number of participants , it is significant to note that the proposed system sequences the methods that allow establishing the relationships between the teaching-learning process and interpersonal communication; It is this condition that favors the appropriation of the contents of the subjects and the use of verbal and non-verbal communication resources, creating a communicative situation that fosters the exchange between teacher-students, student-student and student-group.
The results on the perception of teachers regarding the implementation of a system of problem methods for developing interpersonal communication in the teaching-learning, suggests that the proposal contributes to teachers of different educational levels have it as a reference when selecting the methods that offer the greatest possibilities to establish interpersonal relationships and thereby achieve quality learning.
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Conflict of interest:
Authors declare not to have any conflict of interest.
Authors participated in the writting process of this article and in the analysis of documents.
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Copyright (c) Marivel Jurado Ronquillo, Gisela Bravo López, Raidell Avello Martínez