Mendive. Journal on Education, January-March 2023; 21(1): e3206
Translated from the original in Spanish
Pedagogical model for the export of academic services. Perspective from the educational sciences
Modelo pedagógico para la exportación de servicios académicos. Mirada desde las ciencias de la educación
Modelo pedagógico para a exportação de serviços acadêmicos. Visão das ciências da educação
Lis Cuesta Peraza1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6689-4137
Silvia Navarro Quintero2 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9727-8775
1 Ministry of Culture. Cuba. email@example.com
2Central Institute of Pedagogical Sciences. Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org
|Cuesta Peraza, L., & Navarro Quintero, S. (2023). Pedagogical model for the export of academic services. View from the educational sciences. Mendive. Revista de educación, 21(1), e3206. https://mendive.upr.edu.cu/index.php/MendiveUPR/article/view/3206|
Received: May 31, 2022.
Accepted: November 2, 2022.
The article presents a proposal for a pedagogical model for the export of academic services, in the Paradiso agency in Cuba. The study leads to the idea of recognizing this model as a type of specialized tourism where the trip has a high didactic content, since not everything is learned in the classroom, but also in non-classroom spaces. The objective was aimed at socializing the main results of the theoretical and methodological modeling for this type of services in universities from a pedagogical approach. A macrosocial investigation on active, participatory, mixed or combined concurrent education was conceived, with emphasis on the qualitative, which includes the linking of empirical, theoretical, modeling and mathematical-statistical methods. In the same way, the forms of implementation and evaluation of the scientific result that is conceived are included. The result that is made visible establishes the end, the objectives, the principles, as well as the characterization of the duty that should govern the work of exporting academic services and its transformation strategy.
Keywords: Pedagogical model; academic services; export of academic services.
El artículo presenta una propuesta de modelo pedagógico para la exportación de servicios académicos, en la agencia Paradiso en Cuba. El estudio conduce a la idea de reconocer este modelo como un tipo de turismo especializado donde el viaje tiene un alto contenido didáctico, ya que no todo se aprende en las aulas, sino también en los espacios no áulicos. El objetivo estuvo dirigido a socializar los principales resultados de la modelación teórica y metodológica para este tipo de servicios en las universidades desde un enfoque pedagógico. Se concibió una investigación macrosocial sobre la educación activa, participativa, mixta o combinada concurrente, con énfasis en lo cualitativo, que comprende la vinculación de los métodos empíricos, teóricos, la modelación y los matemático-estadísticos. De igual forma se incluyen las formas de implementación y de evaluación del resultado científico que se concibe. El resultado que se visibiliza establece el fin, los objetivos, los principios, así como la caracterización del deber ser que debe regir el trabajo de la exportación de los servicios académicos y su estrategia de transformación.
Palabras clave: modelo pedagógico; servicios académicos; exportación de servicios académicos.
O artigo apresenta a modelagem teórica e metodológica de uma proposta de modelo pedagógico para a exportação de serviços acadêmicos na agência Paradiso em Cuba. O estudo dá sentido à ideia de que este deve ser reconhecido como um tipo de turismo especializado onde a viagem tem um elevado conteúdo educativo, uma vez que nem tudo se aprende na sala de aula, mas também nos espaços não presenciais. Foi concebida uma pesquisa macrosocial sobre educação, ativa, participativa, mista ou combinada concomitante, com ênfase na qualitativa que inclui a articulação de métodos empíricos, teóricos e matemático-estatísticos. O resultado que se torna visível estabelece a finalidade, os objetivos, os princípios, bem como a caracterização do dever de ser que deve reger o trabalho de exportação de serviços académicos e a sua estratégia de transformação. Da mesma forma, estão incluídas as formas de implementação e avaliação do resultado científico que se concebe.
Palavras-chave: modelo pedagógico; serviços acadêmicos; exportação de serviços acadêmicos.
The export of academic services, in general, is associated with the economy of culture, with the commercialization of cultural goods and services; Marketing is included in the scope of studies of this subdiscipline, but it is not limited to it, this is only a link in the economic cycle. Its characteristics and operating dynamics cannot be understood in isolation, but rather as part of this integrated cycle. For this reason, the approach that is defended is that the economics of culture addresses the economic cycle of cultural goods and services that extends from creation, through production, distribution and ending in consumption; with special emphasis on the system of relationships between the actors involved in this chain that determine their participation in the appropriation of surpluses.
There are processes and relationships of an economic nature, even when there is no commercialization. The material, technological and infrastructure requirements necessary in the different links of the cycle or value chain also demand economic support that must be supported by analysis and research. In this sense, the export of academic services is considered in the specific case of the Paradiso agency.
Academic tourism is a complex tourist typology, and although those who practice it have education and training as their main reason, through short courses, the secondary reasons for the trip, which are vacations, leisure and recreation, are the same. important than the main one (Pérez, 2022).
From the pedagogical script, there is not a sufficient methodological folder in which extensionist, undergraduate, postgraduate and academic degree offers (doctorates and postdoctorates) coexist. One can also speak of a fragile inter-institutional and intersectoral link, aspects that take quality standards into account, not in their entirety, but in the context in which the actions are requested and offered.
In the pedagogical model, the sub-processes of the modeling process are characterized from the components of the model and the functions of both the agents and the groups that intervene are determined; These are constituted as a basis to characterize the tasks of each one of them to give a solution to the problem raised above.
There are several authors who have dealt with different conceptions of training and internationalization for the development of educational or academic tourism, among which stand out: Pawlowska (2011), Camargo (2018), Corcho y Campos (2019), Bórquez et al. (2019) among others.
Educational tourism has a precedent and it is possible to affirm that trips motivated by learning go back to ancient times. In Europe, a phenomenon known as academic pilgrimage refers to the movements made by university students, pilgrims, and professors from the 11th century to approximately the 15th century, motivated by obtaining new knowledge in cosmopolitan cities. These travelers visited the holy places and the universities of that time, which allowed them to live new experiences, learn other languages, establish social relationships and acquire a different vision of reality (Pawlowska, 2011, p. 5).
Among the controversial elements, it is pointed out that cultural tourism has a precedent and must be carried out with the community and for its development, it being essential that the inhabitants of tourist areas (both educational tourism and the export of services academics has a precedent that allows them to live new experiences, learn other languages, establish social relationships and acquire a different vision of reality) participate actively in the research, planning and execution process.
Regarding the concept of academic tourism, it is conceived as: "The one that aims at all stays of short duration or duration of less than one year, carried out in university centers located in a place other than the usual environment of the person and with the objective of main objective of carrying out studies or training during their stay" (Pawlowska, 2011, p. 7).
The previous idea corresponds when it is noticed that academic tourism is a complex tourist typology; Although those who practice it have education and training as their main reason, through short courses, the secondary reasons for the trip, which are vacations, leisure and recreation, are just as important. In this sense, the results exposed by the one who states that in Cuba, when referring to it, like any tourist modality, demand effective strategies and excellent management for its implementation, call attention; For this reason, the participation of all the actors involved in its development is inevitable, and the need to see it in an integrated way, so that quality products are designed and thus take advantage of the resources of the destination, linked to science and knowledge. Undoubtedly, the need for coordination and management from different actors is stated between the lines, which is taken into consideration in the model that is presented. "Continuing education tourism is aimed at people who have already finished their studies, but decide to continue training, either in programs related to their career or in general programs" (García et al., 2005, p. 11). Taking into account the above, this work has as its main purpose to socialize the pedagogical model for the export of academic services of the Paradiso agency.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The dialectical-materialist conception was assumed as a general method of science, from a macrosocial investigation on active, participatory, mixed or combined concurrent education, with an emphasis on the qualitative.
Theoretical level methods typical of educational research were used: analytical-synthetic, inductive-deductive, modeling, the system approach and systematization.
Induction-deduction is also favoured, used to determine the problem and develop the proposed model.
The historical-logical method allowed the knowledge of the state of the art of cultural educational tourism in different times and contexts. The systemic approach was used to unravel the essential components and relationships that give rise to the model and its components, revealing the possibility of promoting this type of tourism.
The empirical methods applied are mainly framed in the observation of the work in the Paradiso agency, in the Academic Services area, basically of officials (commercial, specialists) and managers, to obtain data on how they participate in the process. Surveys were also applied, in order to determine the main achievements and deficiencies that have been obtained within the framework of the object under investigation, as well as the main causes that originate them.
In addition to the methods used, the bibliographic filing technique was used. The bibliography found has to be externally analyzed (heuristics), which today is called information management, to later submit the material obtained to internal analysis (hermeneutics); to understand the true meaning of what has been read and to be able to build knowledge. It should not be forgotten that the sciences are based on the management of information and knowledge in their internal relations.
For the systematization of the results of educational research, the foundations of educational sciences were taken, which start from the conception of Pedagogy as a social science that deals with the formation of man, his knowledge system as a special form of activity. social and its practice on the stage of scientific achievements that decide an essential role in the transformation of social life.
The main results were determined in the analysis of the proposal of the pedagogical model for the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency.
In the literature that addresses this issue, there is no unity in the definition of the term "model" or in the classification of its material representations. In the theory of pedagogical research itself, we find inconsistencies and contradictions in the definitions of the concept, which lead different authors to establish different components for their model, depending on the definition from which they started.
The meanings of the concept of model are very diverse. The researcher from the Central Institute of Pedagogical Sciences Ruiz pointed out that it is:
The representation of the characteristics of some object in another, created especially to study it. It is the ideal configuration that represents a theory in a simplified way. It is a set that represents another set, it constitutes a work instrument that supposes an intuitive approximation to reality, its basic function is to help understand the theories and laws (2002, p. 30).
In this regard, Wiener pointed out that "models help the scientist to enter new terrain" (2007, p. 34). He comments that science is enriching its models, and warns that a theoretical model can be progressively concretized by the successive introduction of additional variables: "The model is a partial representation of reality; this refers to the fact that it is not possible to explain a totality, nor include all the variables that it may have, so that it refers rather to the explanation of a specific phenomenon or process, always seen from the point of view of its author" (Aguilera, 2000, p. 15).
In another sense, the model is defined "as a pattern to follow or sample to know something, there is also the idea that a model should be used to test a hypothesis or a theory, or just to explain a process or an abstraction. "(Aguilera, 2000, p. 16).
As part of the investigative process, it was necessary to conceptualize what a Pedagogical Model is; In this regard, Sierra states that it is "the formal theoretical construction that, scientifically and ideologically based, interprets, designs and adjusts the pedagogical reality that responds to a specific historical need" (2002, p. 31).
Taking into account these analyses, for Valle the scientific model is "a representation of those essential characteristics of the object, of how it can be changed and implemented, as well as evaluated, which makes it possible to discover and study new relationships and qualities with a view to transforming reality" (2012, p. 11).
Taking into account the previous definition, the pedagogical model for the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency can be understood as a representation of those essential characteristics of the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency, of how they can be changed, implemented and evaluated; which allows discovering, studying new relationships and qualities with a view to their transformation.
The components of the model are:
The purpose and objectives are the governing categories and are closely related to the principles, which constitute the essential component, as they are general regularities of mandatory compliance. In line, the essential characteristics of the export of academic services are presented in their expression of duty, whose essential nuclei are: promotion, commercialization, development and feedback. All this is perfected from the strategy. As components, the forms of implementation and evaluation of the model are related to each one of the essential cores.
The purpose and objectives establish what must be achieved with the proposed model, in relation to the research object on which work is being done.
The principles constitute the most general and essential regularities that characterize the process or phenomenon under study and that guide the direction of its transformation.
The characterization of the object of investigation (object, phenomenon or process that is investigated) is essential to be able to later work on the evaluation of the model. In many cases, the result of an investigation is assumed and this characterization of the should be of the object of investigation does not appear in it, which makes study and comparison difficult. On the other hand, it will be shown later that this component can be assumed as a unit of analysis to be able to measure and verify the validity of the pedagogical model in practice.
The strategy was formed by stages, analyzing for each of them its objective, a characterization and the concrete actions that must be developed. It is directed to the transformation of the object of study.
The forms of implementation are those actions whose purpose is to put the proposed model into practice, which are generally addressed to commercial officials and collaborators.
The forms of evaluation are the actions that need to be analyzed in order to make value judgments about the development of the application and the results of the strategy.
The relationship and interdependence between the components of the pedagogical model for the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency is specified based on the purpose and objectives of the model.
Goal: improve the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency based on its conceptualization, establishing principles, characteristics, distinctive functions and a strategy for its improvement.
Principles of the Model:
1. Political nature of the export of the academic services of the Paradiso agency. A service is being presented that is cultural tourism, which has a political, instructive and educational nature in which an individual and collective learning process is revealed; In addition, part of the desire to share education with citizens of other countries, considering marketing criteria and in which the value of money is not essential, where the market does not regulate the process and the cooperative sense runs through the spirit of the project. Approaching the Cuban scene generally brings with it a sense of solidarity and rapport with the Cuban reality. The criteria related to Cuba are modified, the situation that the Cuban people are going through is understood, feelings of solidarity and friendship are created and from the moment of contact they begin to minimally respect the considerations of the Island regarding the blockade and the relations with the United States.
2. Integrative nature of the academic service. It is conformed in an integral way, combining the educational value with the tourist one, learning with pleasure and with the logistical resources necessary for the good performance of the service. In addition to linking theory with practice in individual and group academic exercises. The instructive, the touristic and the cultural are integrated in a harmonious way to raise the knowledge about the reality of Cuba, its environment and its culture, as well as its relations with the other countries of the world.
3. Inclusive and participatory value of the academic service. It is necessary to emphasize that the academic service in Cuba is inclusive from every point of view. There is no racial, political, religious, generational, or gender discrimination in it. This means that different currents of thought, artistic movements, generic tendencies can merge in the same group and it is very comforting to see how culture can unite men and peoples, build bridges; each one from their active participation learns and teaches as well. Let us remember that students from different countries and cultures can coincide in the same classroom. All the participants have the right to express their opinion and give criteria and, in this exchange, they are enriched and learn from the Cuban reality.
4. Appropriate use of ICT and technological advances in service processes. Today it is truly impossible to develop a tourist service apart from the development of technologies. Through them, marketing and commercialization are carried out, and even part of the development of the academic process can also happen, if necessary, as has been demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The platforms function as content containers to learn, socialize and market.
5. Relationship between marketing, service quality and economic income. It is a fact that, currently, without adequate marketing, a successful commercialization is not achieved, which must be considered in each budget and idea, to promote the export of academic services with quality and relevance. When the success of the export of the academic service is achieved after an optimal process, the fulfillment of the estimated income plan is certain and even more, the well-known process of requesting reiteration of the service (repetition) happens.
6. Flexible and contextualized nature of the process that is modeled, where coordination and subordination relationships with other entities are transcendental, especially if it is about other institutions of a formative nature, such as universities and others. These, inevitably, have an impact on the stays through the agency, so that the management of the agency in terms of academic services is aimed at promoting national and local culture and articulation with other "internationalization" activities, in those that highlight higher education and others. The actions within the strategy specify the ideas that are defended as qualities of the model in the Paradiso agency and that contemplates the need to promote cultural identity, based on respect for the multiculturalism of its participants.
Strategy for the improvement of the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency
The proposed strategy constitutes a useful instrument for the improvement of the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency.
It is made up of stages, through which the actions of its implementation take place; each of which pursues a specific objective and contributes to the general objective.
The pedagogical strategy allows raising the quality of the management of the training and commercial process, through the coherent action of commercial specialists, professors, promoters and student-clients in the planning, execution and control of the programs; linking academic, work, extracurricular and tourist activities based on the development of values and the professional motivation of those involved.
Familiarization and screening stage
Objective: to incorporate and involve all those involved in the process of exporting academic services from the Paradiso agency, as well as planning the system of actions aimed at it.
This stage, by its essence, is complex, since it contains two important moments: familiarization with the export of academic services and the projection of the system of actions aimed at its improvement.
Stage of transformation of the export of academic services
Objective: to transform the export of academic services in the execution of its activity, based on the implementation of methods and work styles that allow its improvement.
Like the previous stage, it is characterized by its dynamics, flexibility and remodeling, based on the results that are obtained in the process of mutation of the institution itself and the joint analysis of the problems and their ways and forms of solution. as well as collective decision-making.
Objective: consolidate the professional performance of officials/commercials and the actions proposed for transformation.
It is an interdependent stage of the others and can occur simultaneously with others, since certain procedures can be mastered more quickly, which implies that some processes are going through the consolidation stage and others through the transformation stage. Its importance lies in the systematic feedback and the reaffirmation of those aspects achieved correctly and their contribution to professional, individual and collective development.
The evaluation of the model must be a systematic process and constant feedback, which must be characterized by permanent stimulation and recognition of those best involved, whose results have been relevant in their daily practice.
Based on the initial diagnosis made, a goal was set to achieve in order to obtain better results. In the first place, it was recognized that it is a unique space of its kind on the Island, whose initial meaning was to make the "treasury" of the Artistic Education system. Subsequently, with the passage of time, the distribution of academic services linked to artistic education was reached, but which later included other teachings and other knowledge, given the request of the student-clients and the non-specialization, in the country, of other receptive agencies in this activity.
The duty to be of the export of academic services in the Paradiso agency
The creation of a catalog of Own Programs is justified, since the requests for long courses, associated with undergraduate and full tuition, were decreasing annually, in correspondence with various limitations; among them, the most significant, the absence of student residences and recognition by the Ministry of Tourism (MINTUR) of the need for prices in line with a segment of customers, generally from a medium to low economy, but with a real willingness to mobility. On the other hand, a lack of effectiveness in the face of the demands made to the University of the Arts with specific proposals and also the result of the effects of the North American smear campaigns on the Island.
The catalog of Own Programs visibly promotes the export of academic services, since it combines the teaching of knowledge of interest with the visit to places associated with the subject and also with the visit to tourist places. In addition, it allows the client to meet well-known personalities in the country of the subject being learned.
A procedure is drawn up for the selection of teachers to teach courses for student-clients, establishing that they must be recognized teachers of artistic education, and/or artists endorsed by the Union of Writers and Artists of Cuba (UNEAC) and the Hermanos Saíz Association (AHS) and/or cultural personalities; also professionals from research centers associated with the sciences of other fields, or teachers from other universities not dedicated to teaching the arts, or accredited figures from politics and society, among others, depending on the content to be taught. It is noteworthy that artistic education is recognized as a core element in the export of services, which is accompanied by internationalization actions of other institutions that, although essentially academic, are carriers of our national and local culture. This criterion should consider those pointed out by Llewellyn-Smith and McCabe (2018) who, when referring to university mobility as a form of tourist mobility, referring to the desire to travel, the practice of leisure activities, together with the opportunity of social interaction are the most important motivating elements. In this case, it is considered a formative activity par excellence and, therefore, of a pedagogical nature.
On the other hand, the obligation to hire professionals who work as teachers is implemented, both under the academic roof and for the Academy's own Programs, meaning that their curriculum must be known and they must present endorsements that mark their professional career and social and political conduct. since this line of business is very ideological, not only because of the teaching programs but also because of the intention of the clients. In the event that the courses take place inside the schools, the teachers are proposed by the teaching itself, respecting its endorsing criteria and, of course, its cloisters.
It is about promoting a catalog, with linear prices, that can be published on various digital platforms and in specialized international events, dedicated to this line of business, internationally recognized as one of those with the greatest potential for growth in nations where education is prestigious. and that calls for the coordinated action of those involved in the management, which is carried out from the agency itself. In this regard, Villavicencio (2019), when alluding to this type of international events developed in Cuba, recognizes its importance to promote internationalization, not only for all the knowledge and spaces to identify opportunities for new projects that favor research and training. of higher education institutions. Note that, although they are processes that go hand in hand, their assessment is made from the perspective of their authors, although it is valid to consider that they complement each other and demand integrated action, corresponding to the opinion of Campos (2018), when referring to management during the decision-making process; This indicates that the organizer of academic activities governs all management processes from the forecast stage to the control stage. In this case from the Paradiso Agency.
Another important element in the export of academic services is the final evaluation of the service, which is carried out through surveys of students and professors and the promoter leaders who organize groups, based on the identified indicators, and in correspondence with the training intentions.
Participation in specialized events for the distribution of these services, both national and international, is recognized and consolidated as a global practice where courses are offered, markets and their included conditions are promoted, confirming that the more it is covered, the more attractive the service is. Currently, the trend is to make the academic services of the most famous tourist products binding in the host cities. Universities, colleges, schools, specialized distributors, airlines, those interested in studying, parents and guardians of potential clients participate in this type of event; Undoubtedly, a very diverse and interested audience is covered.
In Cuba, the Paradiso agency distinguishes itself, among others, for the professional preparation of the expert who teaches and directs the programs, marking a trend that what is really valuable in teaching is marketed above the values of logistics services. It is important to mention that it is a prepaid service from abroad, with the resulting economic implications.
The review carried out around the export of academic services and its unavoidable relations with cultural tourism and/or academic tourism and with the internationalization of Higher Education, among others, lacks a holistic vision that allows its coordinated understanding.
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Conflict of interests:
The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.
Contribution of the authors:
The authors participated in the design and writing of the work, and analysis of the documents.
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Copyright (c) Lis Cuesta Peraza, Silvia Navarro Quintero.