Strategy of active teacher training and pedagogical professional training

Mendive. Journal on Educación, october-december, 2022; 20(4): 1109-1122

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

Strategy of active teacher training and pedagogical professional training

 

Estrategia de capacitación profesoral activa y formación profesional pedagógica

 

Estratégia de formação ativa de professores e formação profissional pedagógica

 

Pedro Luis González Rivera1 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3634-7690
1Salesian Polytechnic University, Guayaquil Campus, Ecuador. pedroluisgonzalez1958@gmail.com

 

Received: May 27th, 2022.
Accepted: June 22nd, 2022.

 


ABSTRACT

The complexity of the educational reality requires the constant training of education professionals in the training of future teachers. The objective of the work was aimed at socializing a strategy on training from the application of active pedagogies in the pedagogical professional training of Education students. Based on a fundamentally qualitative methodology, the approach to teacher training was produced from the case study. Methods derived from analysis and synthesis in vocational training was combined, together with induction and deduction. Participant observation of the teacher training process, interviews with key informants on the needs of the training, as well as the bibliographic review of updated sources, normative documents, academic reports and other basic texts in the study of the subject were applied. The training process was conceived as a case study from the analysis of fundamental theoretical aspects related to the professional training of the teacher of Initial education and Basic Education. As a result, it was perceived that the training program allowed to deepen in contents of transcendence related to the professional training of teachers and the strategies to be used for its effective execution. It is concluded that training in the domain and deepening in documents and active techniques is a fundamental premise for the elaboration of feasible and necessary strategies in the pedagogical training of teachers.

Keywords: strategy of teacher training; pedagogical vocational training; active pedagogy; educational and didactic strategies.


RESUMEN

La complejidad de la realidad educativa exige la capacitación constante de los profesionales de la Educación en la formación de los futuros docentes. El objetivo del trabajo se encaminó a socializar una estrategia sobre la capacitación, desde la aplicación de pedagogías activas en la formación profesional pedagógica de los estudiantes de Educación. A partir de una metodología fundamentalmente cualitativa, se produjo el acercamiento a la capacitación docente desde el estudio de caso en un grupo de docentes. Se combinaron métodos derivados del análisis y la síntesis en la formación profesional, junto con la inducción y la deducción. Se aplicó la observación participante del proceso de formación de docentes, entrevistas a informantes clave sobre las necesidades de la capacitación, así como la revisión bibliográfica de fuentes actualizadas, documentos normativos, informes académicos y otros textos básicos en el estudio del tema. El proceso de capacitación se concibió como un estudio de caso desde el análisis de aspectos teóricos relacionados con la formación profesional del docente de Educación Inicial y Educación Básica. Como resultado, se percibió que el programa de capacitación permitió profundizar en contenidos de trascendencia relacionados con la formación profesional de los docentes y las estrategias educativas y docentes a utilizar para su ejecución con efectividad. Se concluye que la capacitación en el dominio y profundización en documentos y técnicas activas es una premisa fundamental para la elaboración de estrategias factibles y necesarias en la formación pedagógica de docentes.

Palabras clave: estrategia de capacitación profesoral; formación profesional pedagógica; pedagogía activa; estrategias educativas y didácticas.


RESUMO

A complexidade da realidade educacional exige a formação constante dos profissionais da Educação na formação dos futuros professores. O objetivo do trabalho foi socializar uma estratégia de formação, a partir da aplicação de pedagogias ativas na formação profissional pedagógica de alunos da Educação. A partir de uma metodologia fundamentalmente qualitativa, a abordagem da formação de professores foi produzida a partir do estudo de caso em um grupo de professores. Métodos derivados de análise e síntese foram combinados na formação profissional, juntamente com a indução e a dedução. Aplicou-se observação participante do processo de formação de professores, entrevistas com informantes-chave sobre necessidades de formação, além de revisão bibliográfica de fontes atualizadas, documentos normativos, relatórios acadêmicos e outros textos básicos no estudo do tema. O processo de formação foi concebido como um estudo de caso a partir da análise de aspectos teóricos relacionados à formação profissional de professores da Educação Inicial e da Educação Básica. Como resultado, percebeu-se que o programa de formação permitiu aprofundar conteúdos importantes relacionados à formação profissional dos professores e às estratégias educacionais e pedagógicas a serem utilizadas para sua efetiva execução. Conclui-se que a formação no domínio e o aprofundamento em documentos e técnicas ativas é premissa fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias viáveis ​​e necessárias na formação pedagógica de professores.

Palavras-chave: estratégia de formação de professores; formação profissional pedagógica; pedagogia ativa; estratégias educativas e didáticas.


 

INTRODUCTION

The complexity of the current educational reality requires the constant training of Education professionals in various subjects, including the pedagogical training of future teachers at all educational levels. International organizations such as UNESCO have reiterated the importance of preparing teachers within the framework of Sustainable Development Action for Quality Education by 2030. Increasing the quality of teaching and learning through teacher training has been considered teachers within the fundamental areas for the achievement of the goals set. The 2022 World Conference on Higher Education has been entirely dedicated to addressing these issues.

Within the framework of the most contemporary reality, strategies have been assessed in the educational system to give continuity to the processes of education at a global level. Education in crisis situations reached an extraordinary dimension in the closure of schools at all levels, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (González Rivera, 2022). At the same time, criticism of the reality of the school, based on the postulates of Traditional Pedagogy, has increased in recent years. The need to overcome the pedagogy centered on the teacher, monologued and lacking in methodological resources has become a basic incentive to generate new strategies or consolidate previous postulates with positive results.

From the study of various sources, it can be inferred that the traditionalist pedagogical trend, which emerged with the appearance of the school as a social institution in the 17th century in Europe as an expression of modernity, materialized in the 18th and 19th centuries with the emergence of the public school in Europe. Europe and Latin America. This model is based on the idea that the school is the social institution in charge of mass public education and a fundamental source of information, with the mission of intellectual and moral preparation. In this institution, the teacher assumes power and authority as an essential transmitter of knowledge, while demanding discipline and obedience. Of course, that image of the teacher is imposing, coercive, paternalistic and authoritarian, it remained valid in the 20th century and in the present times. Along with its limitations, the successes of a pedagogical conception that was surpassed by Active Pedagogy at the beginning of the 20th century, with an eminently humanistic approach and developer of the student's potential must be recognized (González Rivera, 2022).

In this sense, the importance of attending to the consistent application of the activation of the teaching-learning process, based on the most up-to-date pedagogical currents, has been pointed out. In that order, the problems associated with the preparation in subjects directly linked to the exercise of the teaching profession and, in particular, the pedagogical activity of the teacher occupy a foreground. The social problem linked to teacher training processes at different educational levels remains fully valid.

From the theoretical bases provided by contemporary pedagogical currents, the active training processes of the future teacher can be conceived; in particular, the updated points of view from Cognitivism and Constructivism can become sustainable foundations of the new teaching. In turn, the historical-cultural approach in relation to the historical development of the knowledge process in the individual, has its concretion in the pedagogical practice of teachers in training. The mediation of the experience accumulated in the professional work enables the assimilation of the contents addressed in the training (González Rivera, 2022).

In the same way, the postulates of Critical Pedagogy can contribute to support the points of view in training that express the potential strategies for the "liberation" of the development of critical thinking of students in training in Education careers. To do this, it agrees on the importance of collaborative work in the professional training of the contemporary educator. In this area, flexibility in the educational system was considered as a fundamental element in current conditions.

The literature review shows that teacher training is a current need for the development of educational systems and change (Hernández, Aroche & Fernández, 2022); In particular, the various forms of training for Higher Education teachers are presented as a necessary element to achieve quality goals in university models. For this, the development of skills in educators is essential.

This is associated with questions about the conceptualization of professional pedagogical training as a formal and informal process of professional preparation for the exercise of pedagogical practice (González Rivera, 2022). This process, which has been studied for decades, is conceived as a dynamic, permanent process closely linked to concrete pedagogical practice. Comparative studies have also been conducted in various locations. For its concretion, the training can pass through various processes of reflection and application in practice.

In turn, the pedagogical professional performance is understood as the process developed by a subject through relationships of a social nature, which are established in the application of methods and techniques for the fulfillment of their work content, in correspondence with the objectives of professional pedagogical activity. In this direction, the development of the pedagogical capacities of those who direct the educational processes directly with the students is imperative (Moreno & Leyva 2022). Consequently, this performance is the result of an adequate professional pedagogical orientation, which has been suggested to be measured on the basis of the necessary operationalization of the acting variables.

In the same tone of the treatment of competences in the professional work of teachers, the need to generate innovative changes in the framework of the training of Education professionals is inscribed. This includes the preparation of the directors and teachers of the Initial Education institutions (Rivera-Paipay; Cornejo-Guevara, Ríos-Espinoza, Vidal-Negreiros, 2022). In the same way, it is dedicated with its particularities to the process of training teachers of Basic Education (Játiva, Romo & Espinoza, 2021).

The professional pedagogical activity at the university enables the direction of the students' training process, taking into account the various dimensions of the curriculum (Castro, Vega, Verano & Camaño, 2022) and substantive processes of teaching, research and the link with the community society. An adequate curricular derivation becomes a key factor to achieve the high purposes of teacher preparation (Páez Martínez, & Malagón, 2022). The revaluation of the teacher's micro curricular project is effectively specified in the class act (Picón & Correa, 2022).

In this framework, the bases of Didactics acquire a particular hierarchy based on the demands that arise in the educational model of the various educational institutions. In the case of universities and higher education schools, the specificities of didactics should promote the training of competent professionals (López-Gutiérrez & Pérez, 2021).

From a methodology, fundamentally based on qualitative elements, the approach to teacher training aimed at teacher training is produced, from the case study at the Guayaquil campus of the Salesian Polytechnic University of Ecuador. The empirical component of the training process and the updated context in which it is developed are taken into consideration (Yin, 2018).

For this, the training process of a group of teachers dedicated to the work of pedagogical training of future teachers has been used as a case study, from the approach to various updated sources and governing documents of educational institutions.

It is based on the idea that if a set of training actions are applied from the curricular project of the various subjects, then it will be feasible to build strategies for the productive learning of the students of the Education careers, relying on the processes of metacognition. These metacognitive processes involve significant learning with a view to putting it into practice in the exercise of the pedagogical profession.

Starting from the question of how to contribute to the training of teachers for the professional pedagogical training of students in Education careers from an active approach? the objective of this work was to socialize a strategy on training from the application of active pedagogies in the professional pedagogical training of Education students.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The training process was conceived as a case study from the analysis of fundamental theoretical aspects related to the professional training of the teacher of Initial Education and Basic Education at the Salesian Polytechnic University, Guayaquil, during the period 2020-2022. For this, methods derived from the analysis and synthesis of the processes that are inserted in professional training were combined, together with induction and deduction. In the same way, the participant observation of the teacher training process, interviews with key informants about the training needs, as well as the bibliographic review of updated sources, normative documents, academic reports and other basic texts in the study of the subject are applied.

From a fundamentally qualitative research conception, the population participating in the training process had 11 teachers, who represented the total number of teachers of the Education careers with the Master's in Education categories. This allowed accompanying the qualitative assessment with the data provided by the average of the results of the planned tasks.

The methodology was based on the definition of the general purposes of the training project and the objectives of each topic to be developed. Derived from the above, the structuring of the content, the methods, the evaluation, the means or resources and the fundamental bibliography to be used were planned.

The steps in the execution of the training program included, in the first place, the presentation of the topic through a variety of forms of organization such as: the brief introductory presentation of the tutor, the observation of selected videos on the Internet and others related to the theme, and the exchange of experiences among the participating teachers. Next, the individual study and analysis of documents by the participants was envisaged, taking into account articles and publications of specialized magazines and books, normative texts such as the official curriculum of the University and of the governing bodies of education in the country.

The steps in the methodology would also be complemented with joint work sessions where discussion workshops, debates, focus groups, group and individual interviews, exhibitions of fundamental aspects of the content of the subjects and other variants would be carried out. Finally, the summary and conclusions of each issue or topic discussed in each session were planned.

In the general methodology, the assessment of essential elements of the academic component was taken into account, taking into account generalities that consider it the essential nucleus of professional training. The close link between teaching and research and the link with society in the strategies to be considered was valued. At the same time, the derivation of the previous components of the conception of the university's curricular system, expressed through the study plan and the curricular mesh, and which is specified in the teacher's micro curricular project, was considered.

The qualitative assessment of the characteristics of the teacher's classroom project included ideas about the gradual derivation of the educational model of the university, assuming postulates that come from Critical Pedagogy, constructivism and cooperative learning. The components of the micro curriculum include the analytical program of the subject, derived from the study plan, and its concretion in the syllabus, as the basis for the planning and organization of student learning. In order to comply with the social needs expressed in such governing documents, it is essential to define the roles of each didactic component of the teaching-learning process. All of the above is specified in the didactic strategies that are put into practice in the teaching process.

The methods put into practice in the training and resources included the conceptualization of the subjects and their role in the curriculum. The answer to the question about what is a subject in the curricular system? It considered the ideas about the organization of content under a certain denomination and its integration in certain areas in the structure of the curricular design. As a didactic arrangement of the content of one or several sciences, the subjects are located in the study plan and provide credits from a coherent interrelation, both from the sequential point of view and in the link between educational levels. In this way, the structuring of the curriculum can be done through various forms, which include not only courses, modules, seminars and laboratories. Workshops, internships and other options considered by the institution can also be scheduled.

The evaluation system assumed that the Evaluation will be carried out systematically and continuously. Attendance and punctuality, answers to questions in the development of central conferences, as well as participation in workshops, teamwork and responses to activities sent by the tutor would be taken into account. At the end, teachers will present a subject project linked to academic integration from the subjects they teach.

It was planned that the duration of the training course would have 40 hours in total, distributed in 20 hours of autonomous work, with activities guided by the tutor and 20 hours of face-to-face work. In turn, media were used and resources such as the virtual environment of the university, tics, computer, video beam, blackboard, books and newspapers. The reference bibliography was made up of texts related to the object of study that have been published, for the most part, in the last five years.

 

RESULTS

In the diagnostic assessment of the state of pedagogical training in the case study, the problems associated with the insufficiencies represented by the students in essential aspects of their teacher training were taken into consideration, despite the strategies that had been put into practice in the substantive processes of Higher Education. The review of documents and academic reports of teachers during three semesters evidenced the existence of certain limitations of a general nature in teacher training in most of the students of the careers of Initial Education and Basic Education. In this way, the students required a higher level of accompaniment from their teachers to overcome the insufficiencies that they still had.

The training course proposal was registered under the denomination of strategies in pedagogical professional training; Its general objective was to analyze feasible and necessary strategies in the professional pedagogical training of students, from the collective contribution of teachers through cooperative work sessions. The topics to be developed included the conceptions about professional pedagogical training and the substantive processes of the university; the characteristics of the academic training practices from the curriculum, as well as the actions to develop the scientific research component, to which the pre-professional practice plans and the strategies for linking with society and promoting careers were integrated.

The methodology of the course was governed by the precepts established in the internal regulations, in particular the Internal Regulations of the Academic Regime, in force at the University. It was developed through conferences, debates, teamwork, collaborative work and autonomous work. These forms of organization of the teaching process made possible the socialization and assimilation of the content in a cooperative way. Preferential attention was given to the theory-practice link. The evaluation responded to the assessment of documents prepared such as the subject project, participation in group presentation workshops and the preparation of the first version of a scientific article related to their subject.

In the qualitative order, it was perceived that the application of the training program allowed to delve into important contents related to the professional training of teachers and the strategies to be used for its effective execution. This made possible the concretion of the teachers' microcurricular project from the subject project. The presentation and debate among the participating teachers about the conceptions in the pedagogical professional training and the substantive processes of the university facilitated reaching higher levels of precision in terms of the academic component.

The exchange of opinions focused on general aspects of the conceptions about professional pedagogical training and the substantive processes of the university, paying special attention to the academic component, from the structure of the study plan of Education careers.

The results of the group interviews and individual exchanges with the teachers in training allowed us to corroborate that 96% of the teachers who participated in the training course expressed being satisfied with the actions carried out to facilitate the development of strategies in the professional training of teachers. Only one teacher expressed to be partially satisfied, because he starts in Higher Education this semester. Likewise, 92% of the tasks located in the Virtual Cooperative Learning Environment (AVAC) of the University were evaluated with the highest grade.

In the training workshops on the study plan for education careers, the teachers delved into the possible strategies to be applied, taking into account the particularities of each career and the most significant aspects of the curricular structure. In the case of the Initial Education career, it was assessed that an integrating strategy was necessary to ensure that the title to be obtained of Bachelor of Science in Initial Education from the face-to- face modality, which is achieved in eight semesters, achieves the intended purposes from the teaching activities from the professional approach. Consensus was achieved among the participants regarding the planning and implementation of training actions to fully develop teaching skills with infants from 0 to 6 years of age.

The activities to be developed within the framework of the teaching-learning process must be based on the updated approach to the training of Education professionals, with emphasis on the humanist, legal and inclusion angle. To do this, advances in neuroscience are taken into account, as well as active pedagogies based on the playful approach, artistic expression and music. The foregoing is complemented from the training point of view by the execution of the practice in educational centers, as expressed in the approved curriculum.

Likewise, in the debate among teachers in training, the characteristics of the labor scenario of the Bachelor of Initial Education. It was taken into account that he will teach in classrooms at the initial and preparatory levels, at the same time that he will be able to carry out various actions as an advisor, consultant and pedagogical mentor. This graduate will also be competent to carry out evaluation, research and teaching and/or educational training and, at the same time, will be capable of producing educational materials and resources, as well as directing projects in formal and non-formal educational settings, which may include museums, clubs, vacation colonies, as well as children's libraries and others.

Similarly, the cooperative work session made it possible to analyze the articulation between the subjects in the curriculum, which was summarized by those present by levels or semesters. Thus, the content of some of the subjects in Level 1 was analyzed, which are dedicated to the study of the first part of oral and written communication, aspects of the relationship between education, society and politics, essential elements of General Pedagogy, as well as the fundamentals of the so-called Psychology of the stages of a person's life.

In Level 2, aspects of disciplines related to oral and written communication, the approach to the contexts and the subjects of Education from the integrative chair and pre-professional practice were valued. The initial foundations of the methodology of educational research and diversity, from cultural and social angles, were also discussed.

In Level 3, the interventions in the discussion group focused on elements related to the Psychology of the learning process, General Didactics and basic ideas of the main contemporary pedagogical currents. Details about the link between the game and Education were also addressed, as well as the significance of the study of the models and experiences of Early Childhood Education.

In Level 4, the debate focused on the importance of the integrative chair on pedagogical and curricular models, as well as pre-professional practice. Aspects about the curriculum and planning in Initial and Preparatory Education, the relationship between psychomotricity and corporal expression and methodological aspects of Initial Education were also analyzed.

In turn, in Level 5, the participants focused their considerations on the relationship between arts and education, evaluation for Early Childhood Education, the links between language and methodological aspects of Early Childhood Education, particularities of Children's Literature and pre-professional practice.

In Level 6, topics related to logical-mathematical relationships for Initial Education and its didactics, basic aspects of the methodology of Educational Research for the formulation of research projects and elements of the topics associated with childcare were explained. Issues related to Inclusive Education and innovative and inclusive environments, strategies and resources from the integrative chair and pre-professional practice were also discussed.

In the case of the training workshop on the curriculum of the Basic Education Career, the teachers in training deepened that the Bachelor of Science in Basic Education, trained from the face-to-face modality in eight semesters, develops the capacity for analysis, planning, management and evaluation of innovative educational proposals inside and outside school spaces. At the same time, it is expected that this professional obtains the pedagogical, psychological, and didactic knowledge and strategies that enable comprehensive pedagogical work with children from 6 to 12 years of age, while at the same time being able to make contributions to solve problems in the educational system.

The teachers in training understood the significance of structuring strategies that prepare the student to work in the scenario of the Basic General Education institutions, both from the direct link to the teaching activity and the administration and educational management. Similarly, the need to generate strategies so that the future graduate can function from the pedagogical point of view as an advisor, consultant and mentor was raised. This set of actions must enable the educator in training to evaluate and investigate the educational reality and put into practice the training of teaching staff.

Consensus was also achieved among the teachers in training on the imperative of generating strategies so that the studio is a producer of educational material and resources, as well as leading projects in environments, both formal and non-formal education. In that order, a broad spectrum is considered that includes museums, clubs, vacation colonies, children's libraries and others.

The analysis of the curricular mesh made it possible to assess possible strategies to establish interrelationships between the subjects of each level, depending on the purposes of the graduate's training. In this way, the contents of some subjects in Level 1 were analyzed, from the contributions of oral and written communication, the arguments that are analyzed in the close relationship of the triad that makes up Education, society and politics, accompanied by the basic sustenance provided by General Pedagogy and Life Cycle Psychology.

In the debate on Level 2, strategies were valued from the contents of oral and written communication, as well as the approach to the contexts and subjects of Education, from the teaching combination of the integrative chair and pre-professional practice. In this framework, the significance of the first approximation and

description of the educational reality, which provides the methodology of educational research and the social approach to the study of cultural and social diversity, was valued.

In the case of Level 3, possible strategies were outlined from the content of the subjects, which directly affect the professional pedagogical training of the Education student. Consensus was reached on the fundamental idea that integration actions from the psychology of learning, general Didactics and pedagogical currents, should be intertwined with the contents and applications of information and communication technologies applied to Education, as well such as play and recreation.

The training workshop on the curricular structure at Level 4 made it possible to consider the possible strategies for the internal integration of the contents in each subject and the interdisciplinary relationships. Consensus was achieved on the hierarchy of the study of pedagogical and curricular models from the confluence of the integrative chair and pre- professional practice. To this is added the contribution of the study of the curriculum and educational planning and the contents related to mathematics and its didactics.

In turn, strategies were analyzed to converge professional training from Level 5 subjects. In this sense, possible integrating axes were established from the study of language and its didactics, the evaluation of learning, as well as pre-professional practice focused on teaching mathematics and language, with the support of the foundations of inclusive education.

In the case of the analysis of the possible strategies to be applied in Level 6, the formation of integrating spaces was proposed that, from the methodology of educational research, dedicated on this occasion to the formulation of research projects and the integrating chair of environments , innovative and inclusive strategies and resources, tend to practices of community service and argumentation from the natural sciences and their didactics in full relation with Education and artistic expression . Other aspects of the curriculum were postponed for analysis in future training sessions.

In the case of Initial Education, the basic requirements of the National Curriculum (Government of the Republic of Ecuador. Initial Education Curriculum) were analyzed. The interaction between the 3 axes of development and learning was valued: personal and social development, discovery of the natural and cultural environment, as well as expression and communication. Similarly, reflection was made on the areas of development and learning related to the age groups from 0 to 3 years, from 3 years to 5 years.

In the teachers' reflection on the Basic General Education curriculum, aspects of background, pedagogical bases of the curricular design, exit profile, transversal axes and the curricular structure were discussed (Government of the Republic of Ecuador. Basic Education Curriculum).

Similarly, delving into other elements related to the characteristics of academic training practices from the university curriculum made it possible to exchange ideas about the syllabus and student evaluation, accompanying tutoring, the follow-up project for students with differentiated attention called "Lala", as well as the integrative projects developed at each level of the Education careers. Progress was made in the preparation of the dosage of the subject and the evaluation system of the subject.

The treatment of the scientific-investigative component generated details regarding the scientific production of the teachers and the work with the student research groups in the careers. It was possible to derive a proposal of research topics from each teacher and its foundation from the EDUCAREV research project, developed by the Research Group on Education and Scientific Information (GIEDIC), coordinated from the Education careers.

The final evaluation of the training process registered highly positive results in the qualitative order, especially in the deepening of teachers' awareness of possible strategies in the subjects they are in charge of and the necessary integration of knowledge in the future Bachelor of Education. From the quantitative point of view, it was perceived that 33.3% of the participants were evaluated in the high-performance category, 16.6% were located in the outstanding performance level and 50.1% obtained good results. performance.

 

DISCUSSION

It was found that, although the training of professionals has traditionally been conceived as an externalist process, in which the designated specialist assumes the leading role from the authoritarian position granted by his higher levels of scientific knowledge in the matter in question, it is necessary the self -reflection of teachers in the framework of professional pedagogical training, derived from what was expressed by Imbernón (2011). In this case, the training program, from its active conception, involved the participation of teachers as subjects and co-responsible for their own learning. From the debate in the workshop on the strategies to be applied from the content of the subjects for the professional training of the future teacher, the usefulness of promoting training actions from the activation of the learning processes of those who participate was perceived.

This training model produces a break in the conception of this type of preparation from the traditional structure, based on the presence of an expert who, orally and expositively, transmits knowledge to those who listen. The application of an active methodology through group debate, discussion workshop, group interview and other forms of learning in the analysis of documents and with the use of the results of professional experience, favors the preparation of teachers to contribute to the professional training of new pedagogues.

The training workshop favored the creation of a moment of exchange and didactic reflection of each teacher and the group as a whole. At the same time that the search for alternatives was promoted, special attention was paid to the articulation of teaching at the university, with the preparation of students for their work activity in educational institutions. The idea of preparing the Bachelor of Education coincided with the perspective of his professional work in formal and non-formal education institutions for professional pedagogical training, as pointed out by Capote, Robaina and Gallardo (2022). In the strategies to be put into practice, it is very necessary to observe the needs of the Initial Education and Basic Education curricula.

It can be concluded that the constant training for the pedagogical training of future teachers is conditioned by the complexity of the current educational reality and requires and maintains its full validity. In this sense, the principles and ideas derived from critical pedagogy, constructivism and cooperative learning, constitute theoretical bases of significance in the activation of the teaching-learning process in the pedagogical professional training of the student of the Education careers. This contributes to the application of strategies in the teacher's microcurricular project, from the gradual derivation of the educational model of the university.

The combination of methods, techniques and instruments from the qualitative approach of research, about teacher training for teacher training, allows corroborating the usefulness and relevance of this training aimed at preparing to apply active strategies to train teachers.

Training in the domain and deepening in documents and active techniques is a fundamental premise for the development of feasible and necessary strategies in the pedagogical training of teachers.

In the qualitative order, the deepening in the mastery of documents and techniques was facilitated as a premise for the elaboration of feasible and necessary strategies in the pedagogical training of teachers. Most of the participants in the training course expressed their complete satisfaction with the topics and actions.

 

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Conflict of interest:

The author declares not to have any conflicts of interest.

 

Author´ Contribution:

The author has participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.

 


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