Mendive. Journal on Education,april-june 2021; 19(2): 609-626
Translated from the original in Spanish
Teacher's preparation for educative inclusion. Manual of activities and methodological guidelines
La preparación del docente para la inclusión educativa. Manual de actividades y orientaciones metodológicas
Preparação dos professores para a educação inclusiva educacional. Manual de atividades e diretrizes metodológicas
Belkis Moreno Corrales1 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5932-4937
Lázaro Jesús Cordero Echevarria2 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6829-0137
María Cristina Salabarria Marquez3 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5630-1847
1Municipal University Center "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", Mantua. Pinar del río. Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org
2Provincial Directory of Education. email@example.com
3University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: April 30th, 2020.
Accepted: May 18th, 2021.
Educational care in Cuba for People with Special Educational Needs is one of its main achievements. Having guaranteed everyone's access to education and having made available to them the necessary material and human resources to integrate them into society with equal rights and duties explains the nobility of this work, however, we cannot fail to recognize the new approaches that have been developed in the face of the educational care model, where the economic and social transformations in which our society is immersed have substantially influenced. As a starting point, an assessment is made of the different positions in the study and the preparation of the teacher on educational inclusion, investigating through observation, the survey of practicing and training teachers, and an interview that was applied to them to the families to know the level of preparation they have regarding the willingness to collaborate in the activities carried out by children with educational needs. To address this problem, the authors propose a manual for the improvement of teachers that contains activities that revolve around a group of audiovisuals, selected for the sensitivity of the topics they address and for the way in which the same are manifested .In addition, the necessary methodological elements are provided for the extrapolation of each activity to the family and the community as a complement to the actions to achieve adequate educational inclusion.
Key words: educational inclusion; Special Educational Needs; overcoming.
La atención educativa en Cuba a las personas con Necesidades Educativas Especiales constituye uno de los principales logros del país. Haber garantizado el acceso de todos a la educación y haber puesto a su disposición los recursos materiales y humanos necesarios para integrarlos a la sociedad en igualdad de derechos y deberes explica la nobleza de esta obra; sin embargo, no podemos dejar de reconocer los nuevos enfoques que se han gestado frente al modelo de atención educativa, donde sustancialmente han influido las transformaciones económicas y sociales en las que está inmersa nuestra sociedad. Como punto de partida se efectúa una valoración de las distintas posiciones en el estudio y la preparación del docente sobre la inclusión educativa, indagando a través de la observación, la encuesta a los docentes en ejercicio y en formación, y una entrevista que se les aplicó a las familias para conocer el nivel de preparación que poseen sobre la disposición para colaborar en las actividades que realizan los niños con necesidades educativas. Para atender esta problemática los autores proponen un manual para la superación de los docentes, que contiene actividades que giran alrededor de un grupo de audiovisuales, seleccionados por lo sensible de los temas que abordan y por la forma, no menos enternecedora, en que se manifiestan los mismos; además, se brindan los elementos metodológicos necesarios para la extrapolación de cada actividad a la familia y la comunidad como complemento de las acciones para el logro de una adecuada inclusión educativa.
Palabras clave: inclusión educativa; Necesidades Educativas Especiales; superación.
A atenção educacional em Cuba às pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais (SEN) é uma de suas principais realizações. Ter garantido o acesso à educação para todos e ter disponibilizado os recursos materiais e humanos necessários para integrá-los à sociedade com direitos e deveres iguais explica a nobreza deste trabalho. No entanto, não podemos deixar de reconhecer as novas abordagens que surgiram no modelo de cuidado educacional, que foram substancialmente influenciadas pelas transformações econômicas e sociais nas quais nossa sociedade está imersa. Como ponto de partida, é feita uma avaliação das diferentes posições no estudo e preparação dos professores em relação à inclusão educacional, através da observação, um levantamento dos professores praticantes e dos professores em treinamento, e uma entrevista aplicada às famílias para descobrir o nível de preparação que eles têm em relação à sua disposição para colaborar nas atividades realizadas pelas crianças com necessidades educacionais. Para enfrentar este problema, os autores propõem um manual para o aperfeiçoamento dos professores que contém atividades que giram em torno de um grupo de audiovisuais, selecionados pela sensibilidade das questões que abordam e pela forma, não menos comovente, em que se manifestam. Além disso, são fornecidos os elementos metodológicos necessários para a extrapolação de cada atividade para a família e a comunidade como complemento às ações para a realização de uma inclusão educacional adequada.
Palavras-chave: Inclusão Educacional; Necessidades Educacionais Especiais (SEN); Superação.
In recent years, the issue of inclusive education has attracted the attention of specialists in different areas inside and outside the country, as an essential element for social development of children with Special Education Needs (NEE), associated or not to a disability.
The Cuban school is faced with the commitment, derived from the social demand, to achieve this task, with the participation of all those people who affect the child in one way or another, in the midst of a difficult and contradictory context that has served as framework for the deterioration of ethical regulations in certain groups and sectors of the population.
Educational inclusion must be assumed centered on attention to diversity that is, in all expressions of difference, from actions to improve preventive work that ensures the quality of education, based on equity and equal opportunities, and the active participation of all. "Declare educational inclusion as a trend within the adjustments of the economic model and the socio-political life of society aims to seek a social conscience regarding the problem" (Borges, 2014, p.12).
This is a concept that recognizes the right of everyone to a quality education, regardless of their particularities, characteristics that condition the variability in their development that fosters their social inclusion as full individuals in a position to enjoy the possibilities that it offers and contribute to its improvement.
Educational inclusion pre-conceives the school open to diversity, as a flexible entity that must adjust to the demands of its children, family and community, which provides a variety of educational initiatives, aids, supports and resources according to the needs and potentialities of each child, promoting their development.
The family is the human group in which people live, where they manifest important psychological motivations and carry them out in various activities. In it, its members satisfy material needs, at the same time that they develop complex motivational and affective processes closely related, where they acquire habits of conduct, standards of life and values. The family has been and remains the first socializing institution; its influence on the human being is the most profound and enduring (Martínez, 2016; Ramos & González, 2017).
That is why the child and his environment must be placed as the center of the process in the school institution. It is not intended to change the educational contexts of today for tomorrow; educational inclusion is a process that will be carried out to the extent that all those involved are prepared for it.
Regarding educational inclusion of great significance, the studies carried out by Echeita (2017) appear; Ortiz, Figueredo, López & Martín (2018) when assessing inclusion as the purpose and implementation of providing opportunities to learn to all schoolchildren based on an interaction between them.
It has been shown that, in this noble task, the greatest resistance is imposed by the contradictions that exist between the factors acting in the area of social development of the child and the lack of empathy and the lack of knowledge that they demonstrate to give the priority that this important mission deserves.
The teacher performs the main function as responsible for the fulfillment of the planned actions to favor inclusion, especially with those that strengthen the school/family/community ties, in the desire to reduce or eliminate exclusion in and from education, by what must become a fully convinced individual, full of convictions that can be extrapolated; However, the exploratory study carried out in the Primary Education centers of the Mantua municipality showed that the knowledge that teachers have is insufficient to care for the relationships that are generated between the child and their social environment, expressing themselves and consolidating themselves in the actions that develop and, in turn, limit educational inclusion.
Despite the great efforts made by the Ministry of Education, through the qualified personnel it has to achieve adequate improvement of teachers in dealing with this issue, there is still a long distance to travel to achieve the expected results.
The permanent improvement of Primary Education teachers is also part of this conception. It is considered that they must be prepared to attend to the new personal and social needs of their children, guide their integral formation and promote spaces that promote their future life projects.
In this process, all the resources available to the teacher must be taken into account, but above all the unlimited power and great motivational impact offered by the technological resources at their disposal and the necessary influence of external factors to the educational institution; but they have a direct relationship with children.
Scientific- technological policies, and also educational ones, must displace the old approaches or conceptual frameworks with which they operated in the past and replace them with contemporary ideas, which inevitably require an understanding of social innovation processes. It is necessary to work for innovation, but placing the social objectives that it must attend to in the forefront.
Therefore, the fundamental emphasis must be made so that the child assimilates the necessary modes of action to be appropriated, independently of the knowledge that he will later require in his professional work and in his journey through life, and that helps him to establish adequate social relationships. One of the aspects that needs to be oriented in the education of the human being are social relationships, since in each of the things that he does there is a component of relationships with others, which determines, to a large extent (facilitates or hinders) the personal development and the pursuit of happiness.
Inclusive Education does not establish requirements, or elements of selection or discrimination to make the rights to education, equal opportunities and effective cooperation; it guarantees all students access to a common culture that provides them with training and education for life; It is based on the right of all students to receive a quality education, regardless of their characteristics and their vital circumstances (Alejandro, Erraéz, Vargas & Espinoza, 2018).
Starting from this premise, it is decided to venture into the problem that is addressed from the following objective: to socialize the manual of activities and methodological guidelines that contribute to the improvement of the Primary Education, in a way that favors educational inclusion in the Mantua municipality.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the theoretical order, the following were used:
Historical-logical: It allowed an analysis of the origin and evolution of educational inclusion up to the present time, facilitating the understanding of the historical and social conditions that characterized the confrontation over educational inclusion, thus establishing the links between this aspect and the different educational agencies (school, community, and family, among others).
Analysis- synthesis: it led to the evaluation of the studies developed on the subject in the international, national and territorial context, facilitating the understanding, explanation and generalization of the main trends in terms of educational inclusion. It was useful in the analysis of the sources consulted, as well as in the interpretation of the results of the diagnosis in an effort to organize and structure the manual of activities.
Modeling: its use allowed making a theoretical, methodological and practical representation of the conception that supports the structural organization of the activities manual that is proposed.
Systemic approach: It provided, both in the design of the manual of activities and implementation, those general elements to consider as well as the chronological order in this proposal to establish educational guidelines.
In the empirical order, the following were used:
Observation: in order to verify how educational inclusion is treated.
Survey: with the idea of verifying the level of improvement that educational inclusion has to face
Interview: it was carried out with each of the selected parents, with the intention of knowing the level of preparation that the family has regarding the willingness to collaborate in the activities carried out by children with educational needs and the particularities of their children.
We consider that due to the intentionality that we pursue, it acquires an applied research character and within this, the experimental one: it is used in that kind of scientific experience in which some change is deliberately caused and its result is observed and interpreted, with some cognitive purpose. It is characterized by the control of variables. Within it the pre experimental method was used, since it only works with an experimental group to compare the values of the dependent variable before and after performing the independent variable.
The manual of activities and methodological guidelines has been applied in the Primary Education centers of the Mantua municipality and in the different groups of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education of the CPE of the municipality itself. It is currently in the generalization phase.
For the development of this proposal, a sample made up of 42 practicing teachers and the families of 102 children, and 66 teachers in training, was taken as the unit of analysis.
This article serves as a tool for managers, university professors and teachers, to improve on a subject as sensitive as educational inclusion. It facilitates the educational work of the teachers with the children's families, offering activities and methodological guidelines that, supported by audiovisual materials with great educational content, favor the empathy of the participants and gradually contribute to the transformation of the modes of action of people with children who have special educational needs.
The value of this work is regulated by the social impact that has already reached all the groups of the Bachelor of Primary Education of the CPE of the municipality and all the Primary Education centers of the territory and, consequently, the direct work with the families and communities of the Mantua territory, involving the well-being of the children who today constitute enrollment in our schools and even those who are not.
In-service teachers, 85 % and 55 % of in-training teachers adequately identify and define educational inclusion, but they have difficulties in its implementation within the different educational processes. 70 % of teachers in training show little or no interest in this subject. An adequate school-family- community integration is not achieved for the treatment of this problem in 100 % of the sampled centers. 93 % of the families reveal collective ignorance of the advantages of the child's training in the school where they live, of the possibilities that relationships with their peers in the area of residence provide for their development, also demonstrating a lack of sensitivity and empathy.
From studies carried out, it has been possible to verify that the greatest resistance in this noble task is given by the lack of empathy and the ignorance of factors acting in the area of social development of the child and in which the important role of the teacher stands out. .
If the levels of sensitivity, empathy and commitment of teachers are compromised, their modes of action will be blind steps that will lead nowhere and that will reveal a transfer of this phenomenon to the rest of the people linked to the process, since it is the teacher who radiates with his example before the rest of the group of children, the family and the community in general.
This verification consolidates the principles of the authors of the necessary precision to prepare teachers better and better, in order to provide them with all the necessary actions to achieve adequate educational inclusion.
In this sense, this article offers a manual of activities and methodological guidelines, in order to correct the problem defined above.
The consultations carried out, the application of the theoretical methods and the results obtained, led to the determination of the most important aspects that should constitute the manual of activities and the methodological guidelines.
Structure of activities
1. Activity number
5. Questions or reflections that lead to debate
Elements that were taken into account to design the activities
1. They are structured from a system approach that particularizes the message.
2. Each one must have an audiovisual product that favors reaching the desired objectives.
3. That debates on a climate of understanding and empathy be promoted.
4. Audiovisual products adjusted to the computer resources that the centers of the territory have and the possibilities of the teachers.
5. Information supported by the established legal basis.
6. Short-duration activities so as not to bore, but with a very clear message.
IT resource used
1. Vega Movie Studio Platinum 11.0: application that allows creating videos from images, sounds and other digital materials.
2. Digital sound recorder: present on PCs and mobile of all kinds.
Technological resources that can be used
1. T V
2. DVD, Nbox or radio recorders
It took into account the R/111/2017, which establishes procedures for the design, implementation and monitoring of preventive work in primary education and the master's thesis of Marta Rosa Roques Corrales Corrales and Belkis Moreno.
Those modalities of education and guidance to families were selected that, due to their importance and easy conception by teachers, will allow a greater approach to them and to the communities, thus complementing not only the educational work of the teacher but also the active participation of the parents in the socialization and attention to diversity.
The essential characteristics of each of the modalities and the various ways in which they can be conceived by teachers, the methodological requirements to be taken into account and the way to extrapolate the activities from the particularities of the communities where the different centers are located.
The activity manual presented by the authors is by no means immutable; It is only intended to present some ideas of how, from a different perspective, the ways of thinking and acting of people can be transformed, so that with a little imagination and the help of technology they could become enriching of these ideas or bring some newer contribute to achieve the same goals.
These activities are designed to work both in training teachers, as teachers in exercises; from these angles they have been implemented in order to achieve short, medium and long term results.
For practicing teachers, the proposed activities must be included in the activity plan conceived by the center for their preparation and may constitute the themes to be reflected in the strategic planning. In the case of teachers in training, preventive work is inserted as part of the study plans in the elective courses aimed at working with the family.
The last activity is designed to be carried out jointly with the families of the children in a community, so that it serves as a demonstration activity. In the case of teachers in training, it can be coordinated in the area where it is located or the Municipal University Center (CUM) or impart it in an instructive way (without the family).
In accordance with the provisions of Resolution 111/2017, when teachers decide to adapt these activities to work with the family, as conceived in their evaluation system, they must be part of the planned family education school topics in strategic planning or in any of the modalities that, in education and family orientation, the teacher has selected.
Manual of activities for teacher preparation
Topic. Some elements of educational inclusion must master.
Objective: Sensitize to teachers with the importance of recognizing the individuality of each child (a) and its role in addressing them.
Audiovisual: The best teacher.
What is inclusion?
In order to say that we are inclusive, three things are necessary:
1. Know the concept.
2. Understand the concept.
3. Act on it.
Then, let see who have expired this three moments.
The corresponding questions will be asked:
Do you know the concept? (It is imperative to listen to definitions, just see how many nod).
How many have children with SEN in their classrooms? (The response will be evaluated in dependence on those who assume them or not). Those who nod will be asked how many? to others: why don't they have?
This is the question that will trigger the main debate on the subject, since the very concept of educational inclusion in schools can be exclusive since inclusion is assumed as the integration of children with certain disabilities into regular education, moving away of the truth ; because inclusion (worth the redundancy) includes everyone.
We all have in our classrooms children with NEE (this is another concept that should be clarified therefore not always these are associated with disabilities). These need more careful attention, including the cooperation of all and, above all, of his contemporaries, both at school and outside it.
If the idea is not understood, it would be worth asking .How many of you have children with SEN in the group.
We invite you to listen to the story: The best teacher.
Questions for discussion:
1. Was Pedro a child with SEN?
2. What fault was committed in this story that we teachers cannot afford? (The characterization of the group and the children is not mastered).
3. How is this problem solved in our education? (Pedagogical delivery and initial diagnosis).
4. The pedagogical delivery is more than an act or a moment in the course, it is a whole process, is it always carried out properly? (exchange criteria in this regard).
5. Some authors consider inclusion to be nothing more than an attitude problem. How does this idea manifest itself in the story we just heard?
Activity # 2
Theme. If you misjudge me, I'll lend you my shoes.
Objective: sensitize teachers with the importance of home visits as part of the diagnosis of students and the group, so as to avoid excluding traits.
Audiovisual: If you misjudge me, I'll lend you my shoes.
How many of your students are homework breakers?
Do you know the causes that cause these breaches?
How important is home visits to meeting this goal?
On many occasions we misjudge our students and unjustly condemn them for "ignorance of cause"; but this ignorance does not make us less responsible for the injustices that we commit and the implications that they bring with them.
We want to establish a debate based on the following questions, after visualizing a story that will make us reflect on the subject.
1. What do you think of the attitude of the teacher?
2. How many times have we acted like him?
3. Is the attitude of the classmates indigenous or is it induced by the teacher?
4. What role does the teacher play when he finds himself in situations like the one observed?
We invite you to share the audiovisual and then establish the planned debate.
Theme. The need for integration for children with SEN.
Objective: sensitize to the teacher with the need for integration, as part of the social development of children (as) with SEN.
Audiovisual: The ring.
In the first topic of these preparations we were talking about SEN associated or not with disabilities and these as part of educational inclusion.
In this new activity and in the subsequent ones, we intend to cover this issue because of how sensitive we consider it to be and because of the preponderant role that teachers play, not only in caring for these children, but also for the family and the community in which they are unwrap.
Martí once said that "no one speaks ill of what they know well" and in the interviews, surveys and observations carried out, prior to this work, it has been found that there is general ignorance of some precepts that are detrimental to the care of the children with SEN. As we have done until today, we will start from an audio visual story that allows us to understand why we have to be the specialists that we are and then act as such.
You are invited to view The Ring
After listening we reflected.
The young man in the story could be any of our students, one of those who, for no reason, we condemn to exclusion with phrases such as: cannot, does not know, does not prepare, I do not agree, that is not so and another that marginalize their integrity and affect the development of their personality, creating insecure, shy, defenseless individuals who will wander through life at the mercy of others, that is why we ask you.
Questions for discussion:
1. If you have been able to understand the message of the story that we have just heard: what is your opinion in this regard?
2. What negative positions led the young man to think that he was useless and that he was worthless?
3. Who do you think could have contributed with this idea fixed in their mind?
4. What role do we have as a teacher in similar situations?
5. What methods would you use to access these people and show them the correct way to act?
Activity # 4
Topic. A different look at SEN.
Objective: sensitize the teacher with the need for integration, as part of social development, of children with SEN.
Audiovisual: Romance of the bad girl.
In the previous activity we learned about the story of a young man with SEN whom society (reflected in his surrounding environment) excluded only because he was different. We learned, then, the importance of providing care to these people and the role that the teacher plays in this task.
Who could explain (as a retrospective) which role belongs to us in these situations?
In today's activity and as we had already informed you, we will continue to address this issue, this time from the poetic gaze of Raúl Ferrer and in the voice of Pedro Luis Ferrer, with a poem well known by the most experienced teachers "Romance de la bad girl", to remember that the teacher's gaze should and has to be different from the rest of society, for the only reason that the teacher shares most of his time of the day with the children and should (because it is his duty) identify all their needs and potentials and exploit the latter to the limit of their possibilities.
You will listen to this audiovisual to discuss the following topic:
A question will be asked (as a reflection) that will be answered in the next activity.
Taking into account this audiovisual: exclude children to other children by choice or follow patterns that adults gradually planted in them?
You are invited to observe the audiovisual product, focusing your attention on the topic that is proposed for discussion.
Activity # 5
Theme. SEN associated with disability, a challenge for teachers.
Objective: sensitize to the teacher with the need for integration, as part of the social development of children (as) with SEN.
Audiovisual: The perfection of God.
The empyrean has shown for many years that behind a child with difficulties in school there is a dysfunctional family or a hostile environment in the community that allows nothing more than to adapt, even if this implies demonstrating against our will.
Many times we accuse children of harassing others, mistreating them or any other type of abusive activity that is outside the social canons; but it is that children continue to own patterns of leadership exerted by force or simply replicate what they learn from the adults around them?
Taking into account the previous audiovisual reflects: Do children exclude to other children by choice or follow patterns that adults gradually planted in them?
At this point of the meeting it is important to listen to all opinions and reasoning, consciously, the role played by adults as negative examples often be imitated. Phrases such as "don't play with that one", "stay away from him and if he approaches, you know", "why won't they take him away from here, he's delaying others", they create negative patterns of action that allow the exclusion of individuals in certain social groups.
Today we invite you to see a new story where children teach us how great and perfect can they be. This is titled The Perfection of God; with it we closed the theme.
Activity # 6
Theme. Don't think for others.
Objective: sensitize teachers with educational inclusion based on their own criteria and evaluations, but taking into account that of others.
Audiovisual: The best gift.
Today we are reflecting on a new story that will also allow us to see how a child can surprise us, especially if we move ahead to think about him and how beautiful is to give rather than receive. The story is titled The Best Gift.
As we observe it, let us reflect on how positive attitudes of one person can help another and change the ways of thinking and acting of others; at the end of the story we will talk about it.
The audiovisual is projected.
After seeing the proposal, they will talk about the theme that is proposed; making it clear that, with our actions we can and must positively influence others, as the child does in the story. If we manage to infect others with our positive energy, they will become replicons of an infinite chain of this type of energy.
Activity # 7
Theme. Let's help make dreams come true!
Objective: interchange ideas about the topics, assessing the real possibilities of each center of the area and its surrounding communities for the successful achievement of educational inclusion
Audiovisual: The little fireman.
During the previous meetings we handled some ideas that are essential for an adequate achievement of educational inclusion in our centers. Today I want us to reflect a little, especially in order to reaffirm what we have learned.
Questions will be asked such as:
What is inclusion? How does this look from an educational point of view?
Who participates directly in the development of an adequate inclusive practice and what role corresponds to each one in it?
What did we learn about SEN?
What role does the teacher who has children with SEN associated with disabilities in his group play?
What is your opinion about the participation of children in inclusive practice?
General evaluations will be made of all the topics studied and it will be explained that an essential idea will be handled in the corresponding topic, which has been seen in each audiovisual presented, but which will be more explicit in the new material, so that it is better understood.
The audiovisual the little fireman .will be presented
Activity for reflection and debate:
History shows us how much we can do to make our children's dreams fulfilled because every one of those dreams can decide a life, opening its doors to the future or just being someone's last wish.
Taking into account everything you have learned in these topics, your teaching praxis and the audiovisual presented, express your opinions about how to achieve an educational process where equity and homogeneity are the starting point to favor diversity.
Activity # 8
Teachers and family joint activity.
Topic. Who are we?
1. Exchange with teachers how to project these types of activities with families and the community.
2. Exchanging with the family the importance of recognizing the individualities of each child and their role in caring for them.
Who are we?
Are we equal?
How Do I look?
How do others see me?
These are reflection questions that we should ask ourselves more frequently to understand how equal or different we can be and what our children can be and to be able to understand a group of problems that are given to us by adopting negative attitudes in this regard. Discuss a bit about it to understand the possible positions they adopt, the correctness or not of their judgments and evaluations and invite them to share a different experience.
We invite you to listen to the following story: "The Lame Dog."
In the subsequent analysis it is explained that this could well be a true story and that the child could well be his own child, the question would be.
Questions for discussion:
Cuba is immersed in a new Educational Revolution, dedicating considerable material and human resources to its development, destined to the improvement of educational systems and the permanent improvement of its professionals.
It is precisely the conscious and permanent overcoming of the teaching staff which can provide the biggest and best results in this new, as sensitive as sublime process, which reaches precedent values in the history of education, adjusted these to the historical and concrete moment where we live.
Social interaction skills must be formed and developed in the child, in its strategic sense, from the earliest ages, so that they become tools for compensating the deficiencies that these present in their cognitive activity and, with this, provoke a progressive improvement of its functioning not only in the intellectual order but in general, that is, in the socio-affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects (Valdés Valdés, I., Guerra Iglesias, S., Camargo Ramos, M. 2020, p. 14).
Cuba, in the recent signing and ratification of the Convention of Persons with Disabilities, recognizes the knowledge and understanding of this 21st century human rights treaty, which is not common among the population and, as in many other countries, the children and adolescents with disabilities are often excluded from many aspects of society. Within the educational policies of some Western countries, in recent decades the family involvement has been willful in a conscious and active way Llevot & Bernand, 2015).
Therefore, the fundamental emphasis must be made so that the child assimilates the modes of action necessary to appropriately, independently, the knowledge that he will later require in his professional work and in his journey through life, and that helps him to establish adequate social relationships . One of the aspects that needs to be oriented in the education of the human being are social relationships, since in each of the things that he does there is a component of relationships with others , which determines, to a large extent (facilitates or hinders) the personal development and the pursuit of happiness.
There is still work to be done in an education for all, but this will no longer be an entelechy, but a reality where the family, among other agents, plays a key role: family participation is an essential requirement for an inclusive school as part of innovation and educational quality. Elaborate inclusive policies, create inclusive cultures and develop inclusive practices, expanding lines of research, evaluating participation and family-school relationships to determine their impact on learning, involvement and participation in the community (Aguiar Aguiar, G., Demothenes Sterling, Y., Campos Valdés, I., 2020, p.11).
To achieve a quality education and form committed citizens, the participation of teachers, children, families and the community is necessary. Legislation at the international level maintains that attending to the special educational needs of those children who present them, from the perspective of inclusive education, is the obligation of the entire educational community, with the active participation of parents being essential throughout the entire period of educational detection, identification, and evaluation and response process.
In Cuba, education is inclusive by nature. It is guaranteed from government policy, care for all boys and girls without distinction, beginning in early childhood, and extended to other areas such as culture and sports (Borges, Leyva, Zurit a, Demósthene, Ortega and Cobas, 2016).
We can say that inclusion is closely related to social development as recognition of diversity. From this angle of analysis, Inclusive Education is part of a process of social inclusion; it is an ethic based on active, social and democratic participation and, above all, on equal opportunities. Inclusive Education offers the student the possibility of developing intellectually and improving their learning; prepares them for their insertion into an inclusive and non-exclusive society with equal rights for all (Cabo, 2017).
The experiences contributed by the Municipal University Center (CUM) in Mantua and those achieved by the authors of this work in the field of educational inclusion have been taken into account, and from a group of indications left in the schools of the People's Council by the different visits about the treatment of children with SEN who are incorporated into the student community, as well as the priority that our ministry gives to this issue. In addition, with the collaboration of the direction of the rural area "Antonio Pozo" and other centers of the territory, the companions of the Municipal Diagnosis and Orientation Center (CDO) and other people involved, a manual of activities and methodological orientations was drawn up which has gradually and effectively contributed to solving this problem.
The manual is approached from a perspective in which technological development is based on integration, thus maximizing the role of the school as the most important cultural center in the community.
Activities are offered that revolve around a group of audiovisuals, selected for the sensitivity of the topics they address and for the no less touching way in which they are manifested; In addition, the necessary methodological elements are provided for the extrapolation of each activity to the family and the community as a complement to the actions to achieve adequate educational inclusion.
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Martínez Abreu, J. (2016) La familia y sus funciones como célula fundamental de la sociedad. RevMéd Electrón, 38(3): [aprox. 10 p.]. Disponible en: http://www.revmedicaelectronica.sld.cu/index.php/rme/article/view/1831/3051 , http://scieloprueba.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-18242016000300021&lng=es&nrm=iso [citado 1 Nov 2016];
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Valdés Valdés, I., Guerra Iglesias, S., Camargo Ramos, M. (2020) Las habilidades de interacción social: un puente hacia la inclusión. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 18(1): 76-91 https://mendive.upr.edu.cu/index.php/MendiveUPR/article/view/1646
Conflict of interests:
The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.
Belkis Moreno Corrales: conception of the idea, general advice on the topic addressed, coordinator of authorship, literature search and review, translation of terms or information obtained, application of instruments, compilation of information resulting from the applied instruments, statistical analysis, drafting of the original (first version), review and final version of the article, correction of the article, revision of the applied bibliographic norm.
Lázaro Jesús Cordero Echevarria: conception of the idea, coordinator of authorship, literature search and review, translation of terms or information obtained, preparation of instruments, application of instruments, compilation of information resulting from the applied instruments, statistical analysis, preparation of tables, graphs and images, preparation of database, drafting of the original (first version), review and final version of the article.
María Cristina Salabarria Márquez: conception of the idea, general advice on the topic addressed, literature search and review, translation of terms or information obtained, preparation of instruments, drafting of the original (first version), review and final version of the article.
This work is under a licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Belkis Moreno Corrales, Lázaro Jesús Cordero Echevarria, María Cristina Salabarría Márquez