Mendive. Revista de Educación, January-march 2020; 18(1):105-119
The Methodology for the organization of Open Educational Resources in the career of Labor-Computer Education
Metodología para la organización de los Recursos Educativos Abiertos en la carrera de Educación Laboral-Informática
Metodologia para a organização dos Recursos Educativos Abertos na carreira da Educação Laboral-Informática
José Alexis Trujillo Sainz1
1University of Pinar del Río "Hnos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba. ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1965-2063. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: May 9th, 2019.
Accepted: January 28th, 2020.
The "knowledge society" is a phenomenon that has been gaining great importance in the educational movement, as a means for the generation and socialization of knowledge. The management of open educational resources (OER) available on computer networks freely and free of charge, are used in teaching-learning processes. The article addresses one of the partial results of the research "The initial training of the career of Bachelor of Education-Computer Science in the Faculty of Middle Education", which proposed the study of resources or educational media in the subjects of the career in study. Methods of the theoretical and empirical level were used, all under a general dialectical methodological approach. The result was a theoretical analysis of the OER, which currently supports the theory of digital teaching media with open access. It was possible to establish a methodology that manages the organization in teacher training in the production of educational resources and their socialization, in the subjects of the -Computer Education career at the University of Pinar del Río.
Keywords: open educational movement; Open educational resources.
La "sociedad del conocimiento" es un fenómeno que ha venido cobrando gran trascendencia en el movimiento educativo, como medio para la generación y socialización del conocimiento. La gestión de los Recursos Educativos Abiertos (REA), disponibles en las redes informáticas de manera libre y gratuita, son utilizados en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje. El artículo aborda uno de los resultados parciales de la investigación "La formación inicial del profesional de la carrera de Licenciatura en Educación-Informática en la Facultad Educación Media", la que propuso el estudio de los recursos o medios educativos en las asignaturas de la carrera en estudio. Se utilizaron métodos del nivel teórico y empírico, todos bajo un enfoque metodológico general dialectico-materialista. Se obtuvo como resultado un análisis teórico de los REA, lo que sustenta en la actualidad la teoría de los medios de enseñanza digitales con acceso abierto. Se logró establecer una metodología que gestiona la organización en la formación del profesorado en la producción de recursos educativos y su socialización, en las asignaturas de la carrera de Educación Laboral-Informática en la Universidad de Pinar del Río.
Palabras clave: movimiento educativo abierto; Recursos Educativos Abiertos (REA).
A "sociedade do conhecimento" é um fenômeno que vem ganhando grande importância no movimento educacional, como meio para a geração e socialização do conhecimento. A gestão de Recursos Educativos Abertos (RCE), disponíveis em redes de computadores gratuitamente e sem custos, são utilizados nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem. O artigo trata de um dos resultados parciais da pesquisa "A formação inicial do profissional do curso de Educação-Informática na Faculdade de Educação Secundária", que propôs o estudo dos recursos ou meios educativos nas disciplinas do curso em estudo. Foram utilizados métodos de nível teórico e empírico, todos sob uma abordagem metodológica dialético-materialista geral. O resultado foi uma análise teórica da AER, que atualmente suporta a teoria dos meios digitais de ensino com acesso aberto. Foi possível estabelecer uma metodologia que gerencia a organização na formação de professores na produção de recursos educativos e sua socialização, nas disciplinas da carreira Educação-Informática Laboral da Universidade de Pinar del Río.
Palavras-chave: movimento educacional aberto; Recursos Educacionais Abertos.
In the last decades, in the international context a series of educational practices are presented that have in common the development of emerging pedagogical tendencies that seek not only methodological novelty, but to achieve qualitative results from the involvement of students.
UNESCO (2010) assumes as its main objective "... quality education for all throughout life", that is why one of the qualities of higher education at the present time is the constant updating of knowledge for professional successful performance of the students. There is a development and evolution of the training models, ranging from traditional education, with the use of printed materials from lending services in libraries, the use of computer networks or the Internet as a tool to bring such training closer to the students, although there is evidence of the increased use of mixed or hybrid learning.
The open access movement (Ortega, 2016) is one of the main initiatives that have emerged in response to the high prices of textbooks and scientific journals for an important part of the academic community, a factor that has manifested itself both in countries developed as developing.
The foregoing fosters the opening and democratization of knowledge aimed at expanding possibilities and opportunities for access to information, which requires providing the teaching-learning process of Open Educational Resources (OER), developed and managed by universities under Common Creative open licenses, that reduce the problems derived with the Copyright to be able to use or share, distribute, reuse or modify the works (López, G., 2007).
In the "print and digital teaching-learning media management policy in Higher Education Institutions" designed by the Ministry of Higher Education (MES), actions, legal norms, economic valuations, etc., are clearly expressed, to be followed for a correct organization of this process (MES, 2016).
In correspondence with the above, the article delves into theoretical aspects of educational resources in open, which supports the elements for the implementation of a methodology that guarantees the organization of the process of elaboration of the teaching means for the subjects of the career Labor and Computer Education.
What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?
UNESCO, in its document A Basic Guide To Open Educational Resources (OER), defines OER; In its simplest form, it describes them as any type of resources (including curricular plans, course materials, textbooks, video, multimedia applications, audio sequences, and any other material that has been designed for use in processes of teaching and learning) that are fully available for use by educators and students, without the need for any payment for rights or licenses for their use (UNESCO, 2015).
The term OER was first used in 2002 at a conference organized by UNESCO, who defined it as those materials that, aided by ICT, could be consulted, used and adapted by the user community for non-commercial purposes (Johnstone, 2005). The definition currently used by UNESCO on OER is those "digitized materials offered free, and openly for teachers, students and self-taught, to be used and reused in teaching, learning and research" (UNESCO, 2019).
The term is practically synonymous with others as open course materials, although the latter can be used to refer to a specific and more structured subset of OER.
OERs have emerged as a concept with great potential to support educational transformation, although their educational value lies in the idea of using resources as an integral method of communicating curricula in educational courses (that is, resource-based learning). Its transformation power lies in the ease with which these resources, once digitized, can be shared through computer networks or the Internet itself; essentially, there is only one key difference between OER and any other type of educational resource that is its publication license. Therefore, OERs are simply educational resources that incorporate a license that facilitates their reuse and potential adaptation, without having to request prior authorization from the copyright holder.
Openly licensed content can be produced in any medium: printed paper texts, audiovisual or multimedia resources for computers.
Many learning courses use OERs, but that does not necessarily mean they are the same for online learning; in fact, many of the currently produced open resources can be shared in digital format and others can be for distribution in printed format.
Although the use of OER can provide support for open learning or open education, both distinguish each other. Open learning is a conception of education, whose objective is to eliminate all superfluous barriers to learning and, at the same time, provide students with a reasonable chance of success within an education and training system, focused on their specific and localized needs in multiple areas of knowledge. This incorporates several key principles (UNESCO, 2019):
These principles of open learning are supported by educational materials and resources in various formats and supports; OERs are part of these and are well received by users and students.
Indications of the Ministry of Higher Education of Cuba
In the MES teaching-learning media management policy, printed and digital, a group of indicators are manifested to be taken into account and that should be a pattern for the execution of strategies in each of the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) (MONTH, 2016). It indicates the responsibilities of HEIs regarding the generation of OER, public domain is established for OERs that are generated in each institution, types of OER, designate the governing centers responsible for the selection of OER, issue responsibilities of management and generation of educational resources and who should be the actors involved in its development. The policy establishes those moments and stages for the management of OER, as well as the main actions in the management and generation process. These indications established by the MES, establish work guidelines for development, content generation management and educational resources in open format and distribution.
What is the transformative potential of OER in education?
The transformative potential of OER also includes the benefits of sharing and collaborating between institutions and countries, as well as the creatively disruptive role of OERs in opening new educational models. (Ortega, 2016).
How can education benefit by taking advantage of OER?
The most important reason for the use of OER is that openly licensed educational materials have enormous potential to contribute to the improvement of the quality and effectiveness of education. The challenges of increasing access, combined with the continued deployment of ICT infrastructures in schools, indicates that it is increasingly important that they support, in a planned and deliberate manner, the development and improvement of the curricula, the design of ongoing programs and subjects, the planning of contact sessions with students, the development of quality learning and teaching materials and the design of effective assessments, activities all aimed at improving the teaching and learning environment, together with the control of costs through increased resource-based learning.
According to Trillo Miravalles (2012), the transformative potential of education that OER have, revolves around three intertwined possibilities:
The deliberate opening, therefore, confirms that:
How can Open Educational Resources be shared or socialized?
Once the resource has been developed and issued its open license, it must be stored in an online repository, so that other networked users have access to it.
There are several options when it comes to the place where these resources can reside:
How much can I alter OER in pedagogical objectives?
In most cases, users have enormous freedom, as far as the license permits, to alter educational resources in order to adapt them to contextual needs whether the license restricts or not; The 1 Creative Commons open license with "No Derivative Work" restriction cannot be altered and must be used "as it is". This right is not reserved very often in OER.
The vast majority of published OERs allow users to adapt the original resource. The most common ways in which OER can be altered are:
To a large extent, the fact that changes can be made to the original is what makes OERs - compared to other types of copyrighted material - especially useful for program developers.
What development model to use for the management of OER?
The model that will help the development of an OER in a specific way is based on the models of instructional design, conceived for planning and process control.
Various actors must participate in each of the previous stages: teachers or experts in the field, software developers or specialists in educational informatics and students, who have different roles in development.
What technical-organizational conditions are identified at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" to establish the necessary conditions for the management of OER?
From the theoretical studies, the analysis of the technical-organizational strengths of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", a methodology was projected that allows establishing the organization in the development of teaching means or educational resources for the Bachelor's degree in Labor-Computer Education, contributing to the improvement of the Integrated System of Means of Teaching in the career, line of work in the research project "The initial training of the professional of the Bachelor's Degree in Education-Computer Science in the Middle School. "
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research had an explanatory character of the studied phenomenon, assumed an integral or dialectical approach. We worked with professors and subjects of the Career-Computer Education career, members of the research project. The materialistic dialectical method prevailed that made it possible to operate with its laws, categories and principles. In the theoretical level the methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction, for the processing of the information, the interpretation of the results and elaboration of the conclusions on the foundations that makes possible to understand the process of management and development of the OER, as well as the systemic-structural to achieve methodological coherence between the stages of the methodology provided.
The theoretical study began in the 2016-2017 academic year, using theoretical materials on OERs focused on the organizational management of their design, typologies and forms of socialization so that they were available to teachers. In addition, an analysis of the various services offered by the university network was performed.
The inquiries and the documentary analysis confirm the need to manage didactic means and educational resources for the subjects of the career; the absence of educational resources and resources in several subjects demonstrates the lack of organization in the management and development of a unique media system for the subjects that is part of a sustained and progressive methodological work.
Research methods and techniques were used that facilitated the verification of evidence and the identification of the real problem that was manifested and provided the establishment of the scientific problem, object and objective of research.
General aspects are evidenced in the objective and subjective order such as: inability of teachers to manage materials and educational resources, inadequacies in knowledge and skills to develop resources and limitations of technologies that facilitate their development.
The main results evidenced by the research work are in the results of the analysis developed:
From the analysis of the results of the irregularities and supported by the theoretical foundations on OER, the educational need to solve, through the research project, the problem expressed as the "Need to organize the process of development of digital educational resources in the -Informatics Education career ", which allows establishing as a problem how to contribute to the management of the process of elaboration of digital educational resources (teaching means) that respond to the demands and needs of teaching-learning processes in the disciplines of the Computer Education career?
Based on the problem identified, the process of development of Open Educational Resources as means of teaching in the -Computer Education career is specified as the object of study.
Methodology for the organization of the process of development and implementation of Open Educational Resources (OER) as means of teaching in the -Computer Education career
Manage the process of preparing OER in the -Computer Education career, which responds to the demands and needs of the teaching means in the teaching-learning processes.
As discussed in the theoretical foundations, OER are digitized materials offered freely and free for teachers, students and self-taught, to be used and reused in teaching, learning and researches.
They are classified into various types of materials such as: learning objects, content modules for online courses, open textbooks, multimedia materials, educational software, digital presentations, documentaries, films, educational videos, virtual laboratories, evaluation tools and instruments, simulations, role-playing games, databases, among others.
The methodology is conceived in three stages of work that gives it a consistent structural body, which facilitates raising the knowledge in the management and development of publications in open format at the level of discipline and subjects of the career under study. In addition, a stage is planned for the projection of the improvement or training for teachers involved in the project.
A series of requirements are implemented in higher education institutions, which must be carried out through necessary actions, in compliance with the methodology and an approach is made to the typology of the most commonly used OER in the teaching-learning processes, scope and publication in the institution's university network.
Stage 1. Management and generation of OER at the level of discipline and subject
1. Identify the educational needs of the subjects:
2. Process of management and generation of educational resources:
3. Certification and approval process:
4. Publication process:
Stage 2. Improvement and training of teachers in the management and generation of OER
Stage 3. Certification of publication and improvement
There is a need today for the university professor to be updated in all those aspects that can broaden the spectrum of pedagogical didactics, which strengthens their work and promotes significant learning, which lead to the more effective compression of concepts applied in different areas of the knowledge. One of these aspects is training in the use of ICT applied to education.
The effectiveness of OER depends on their relevance, for which it must be evaluated according to the visual and instructional design verifying the quality of content, usability, accessibility, if the resource is useful for generating learning and has the ability to motivate and generate interest in the subject. As Burgos (2011) states, each evaluation carried out on an OER enriches the value of the same, this when considering that new knowledge is added to the previous knowledge, as well as the experience and personal judgment of the evaluator when reviewing the educational resource in question, taking as a reference each of the evaluation criteria and issuing a feedback through a clear, simple and informative wording.
In some cases, the use of ICTs is limited, so the creation and use of OER (Charnelli, ME, 2014) should be encouraged, in order to generate a university repository from which the elaborated resources can be used, both by students and teachers of each of the faculties, as well as expanding collaboration with other institutions.
Experiences of other authors (Montera, FJ 2010, Mendoza, F. 2010, Minutti, L. 2012) point out that an active policy in favor of OER can contribute to training, to school didactics, increases the prestige of the institution and It helps students in their learning. The proposed methodology favors the organization of the process of developing educational resources for learning in a university career.
As a result of the analysis of the methodology in the pedagogical collective, the reorganization of the work methods in the subjects, the projection of new forms of work in the design and conception of the educational means was implied.
We can argue as a summary that, in each career in a university center you must:
The fact that in the research project the realization of the theoretical study on OER is projected, achieves the projection of teachers in favor of pedagogical innovation, aided by a methodology, which organizes work in the design of media and resources in the subjects.
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Conflict of interests:
The authors declare no conflicts of interest .
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) José Alexis Trujillo Sainz