Mendive. Journal on Education, 22(2), e3776

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

Ideological and political teaching in the Spanish audiovisual course: diagnosis at LinYi University


Enseñanza ideológica y política en el curso audiovisual de español: diagnóstico en la Universidad de LinYi


Ensino ideológico e político no curso audiovisual espanhol: diagnóstico na Universidade LinYi


Shuke Jiang1
Tania Yakelyn Cala Peguero2
Leonardo Pérez Lemus2

1 LinYi University. China

2 University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba;


Citar como
Jiang, S., Cala Peguero, T.Y., Pérez Lemus, L. (2024) Ideological and political teaching in the Spanish audiovisual course: diagnosis at LinYi University. Mendive. Journal of Education, 22(2), e3776.


Received: February 14, 2024
Accepted: April 1, 2024



With the dissemination and development of the concept of Ideological and Political Teaching in all Courses in many specialties of Chinese universities, a new trend of teaching strategy reform emerged. However, the limited EIPC reform in the Hispanic philology major at LinYi University limits the development of the educational level. The purpose of this article is to socialize the current situation of the EIPC in the PEA of the audiovisual course at LinYi University. In this research, research methods and techniques are adopted that recognize documentary review and survey, carrying out an analysis of a quantitative and qualitative nature. The results demonstrate the current situation of the EIPC, in this context, highlighting the limitations in the knowledge and management of the EIPC of teachers in the audiovisual PEA, corresponding with other results at an international level and in China. This reality expresses the need to transform the current state from a scientific perspective, for which it will be necessary to conceive alternatives in the future.

Keywords: Ideological and political teaching; Spanish audiovisual course; foreign language; language teaching.


Con la difusión y el desarrollo del concepto de Enseñanza Ideológica y Política en todos los Cursos en muchas especialidades de las universidades chinas, surgió nueva tendencia de reforma de estrategia didacta. Sin embargo, la escasa reforma de EIPC en la carrera de filología hispánica en la Universidad de LinYi limita el desarrollo del nivel educativo. El propósito de este artículo es socializar la situación actual de la EIPC en el PEA del curso audiovisual en la Universidad de LinYi. En esta investigación se adoptan métodos y técnicas de investigación que reconoce la revisión documental y encuesta, realizando un análisis de naturaleza cuantitativa y cualitativa. Los resultados demuestran la situación actual de la EIPC, en este contexto, singularizando las limitaciones en el conocimiento y la dirección de la EIPC de los profesores en el PEA audiovisual, haciéndose corresponder con otros resultados a nivel internacional y en China. Esta realidad expresa la necesidad de transformación del estado actual desde una visión científica, desde alternativas en el futuro.

Palabras clave: Enseñanza ideológica y política; curso audiovisual de español; lengua extranjera; enseñanza de idiomas.


Com a disseminação e desenvolvimento do conceito de Ensino Ideológico e Político em todos os Cursos de muitas especialidades das universidades chinesas, surgiu uma nova tendência de reforma da estratégia de ensino. No entanto, a reforma limitada do EIPC na especialização em filologia hispânica da Universidade LinYi limita o desenvolvimento do nível educacional. O objetivo deste artigo é socializar a situação atual do EIPC no PEA do curso de audiovisual da Universidade LinYi. Nesta pesquisa são adotados métodos e técnicas de pesquisa que reconhecem a revisão e levantamento documental, realizando uma análise de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa. Os resultados demonstram a situação atual do EIPC, neste contexto, destacando as limitações no conhecimento e gestão do EIPC dos professores do PEA audiovisual, correspondendo a outros resultados a nível internacional e na China. Esta realidade expressa a necessidade de transformar o estado atual a partir de uma visão científica, a partir de alternativas no futuro.

Palavras-chave: Ensino ideológico e político; Curso audiovisual de espanhol; língua estrangeira; Ensino de línguas.



In recent years, with the development of China's reform and opening up and the improvement of its international position, political, economic and cultural ties with Latin America and Spain are increasingly frequent. Chinese society has a growing demand for Spanish-speaking talents, which is why it is necessary to enhance the training of Spanish teachers. The education of the specialty of Hispanic philosophy in Chinese universities has gained development opportunities, and its teaching scale has grown by notable steps over the years, which enhances the development of international talent.

Consequently, after 2020, a trend of educational reform has emerged in China known as "Ideological and Political Teaching in All Courses" (EIPC). The Ministry of Education of China issued Guidelines for the Construction of CPE of Higher Education Institutions (2020), which clearly requires: "Ideological and political education should be integrated into the talent training system, comprehensively promote construction of ideological and political education in all university courses, make full use of the role of each course in people's education, and improve the quality of talent training in colleges and universities" (Ministry of Education of China, 2020).

In China, "comprehensive education", also known as "three-whole education", is an educational requirement put forward by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council, which means: "all teaching staff participate, in the whole process, in all aspects", strives to realize the direction of ideological values throughout the entire process and links of education (Government of China, 2017). The EIPC is an educational concept to meet that requirement. This corresponds with the opinion of Lazo Hernández and Nicado García (2023, p. 356), when they state that: "The essence of ideological political work in the university is aimed at the education and training of individuals in principles, value judgments, criteria, points of view, motivations, moral norms, convictions, conscious ways of acting in society". China's EIPC is not limited to that, contents such as law, history, culture, etc. are added, pursuing a comprehensive education. According to what Wang and Shi (2020, p. 50) explain: "The EIPC is a concept of comprehensive education, which requires the construction of a comprehensive education model for all students, throughout the teaching process and in all courses, aimed at ensuring that professional courses and ideological and political courses collaborate with each other, creating a synergy effect. The fundamental task of that concept is to fulfill the educational objective required by the Ministry of Education of China: to establish morality and cultivate talents with comprehensive ability. In this sense, several proposals have been made, from this perspective, however, the desired level has not been achieved. It is worth mentioning that "cultivating talents" of EIPC has a broader category than pure ideological and political education. The education of morality, intelligence, physique, beauty, work, etc., are all part of "cultivating talents". Ideological and political education is one of the most important and fundamental aspects (Liu, 2020, p. 28).

Currently, the audiovisual teaching-learning process in China is fundamentally directed in two directions: the first, to increase the amount of exercise that immerses students in an audiovisual environment in the Spanish language; the second, to control the difficulty of the practice. At Linyi University (ULY), where the study is conducted, there are sufficient hardware facilities and abundant audio-visual resources to support that process.

Even so, the Spanish audiovisual course has difficulties in achieving the objectives required by the country: to train the audiovisual skill of the Spanish language, to improve communicative competence in Spanish, and to cultivate talents with comprehensive ability. What evidences the intentionality around it, plus the pedagogical practice, as well as the research carried out, makes visible an emphasis on the development of audiovisual skills and communicative competence of the Spanish language, without specifying how to articulate with the EIPC, as an expression of comprehensive training.

However, it is difficult to do so with the current teaching process of the Spanish audiovisual course at the ULY. In order to solve this problem, the objective is to diagnose the current state of the EIPC in the teaching-learning process of the Spanish audiovisual course at the ULY.



To carry out the investigative work, surveys were applied that made it possible to collect professors' opinions on ideological and political teaching in the Hispanic philology career at the ULY. With the intention of determining the current state of the teaching-learning process of the audiovisual Spanish course at the ULY, a population of 9 teachers who worked in the audiovisual Spanish course for at least a full semester was defined.

For the design and application of the diagnosis, the research content is divided into two dimensions: knowledge and direction. The knowledge contains: knowledge of the theory of the EIPC and didactic knowledge to integrate the EIPC into the PEA. The management is composed of the organization, implementation and integration control of the EIPC.

Likewise, as documentation of interest, for a better understanding of the existing problems, the study programs, lesson plans and teaching materials related to the Spanish audiovisual course and the demands and regulations around the IPE were reviewed. The processing of the information allowed us to reach the conclusions that appear below.



Firstly, the survey (Graph 1) investigates the dimension of knowledge of the EIPC theory.

Graf. 1 - General knowledge of the EIPC theory

The survey results are divided into: "high" (with a percentage between 100%-80%), "medium" (with a percentage between 80%-60%) and "low" (with a percentage between 60%-0 %). According to the graph, it can be seen that no knowledge reaches the level of "high", which shows that the overall level of knowledge of teachers needs to be improved to ensure the implementation of the EIPC.

Only the percentage of socialist moral norms, values and personality, and social sciences and cultures reach the level of "medium", then the development of EIPC from these areas would have a better basis and should be studied further by teachers.

The others are at the "low" level, knowledge of Chinese ideologies and basic knowledge of Chinese law do not exceed 40%, they are the lowest. Since it is the main content of the EIPC, it is urgent to strengthen teachers' knowledge of Chinese ideologies. And given teachers' attitudes, weak foundation, and weak linkage to the Spanish major, investment in basic knowledge of the law must be carefully considered.

From the perspective of knowledge of CPE, it can be seen that teachers are more or less aware of carrying out CPE, they also have certain knowledge related to it, they agree on the need and feasibility of carrying out CPE in the audiovisual course of Spanish and have made certain attempts and explorations.

Teachers who do not know the details and those who do not know the knowledge each account for 33% of them, with a total of 66%. It is striking that 78% of them acknowledge that they do not have sufficient knowledge and ability to teach the EIPC, and the other 11% do not know it, which is undoubtedly a limitation for its implementation in didactic practice. This is related to the knowledge they have of the history of the Chinese Communist Party.

44% of teachers have knowledge of the history and current situation of the country, 56% also have knowledge, but only a little. 33% have knowledge of the country's governing ideology, and 44% have a little knowledge, because they are in contact with those fields during their study and daily work, they have a certain basis. Therefore, they deserve to continue learning and developing that knowledge.

Relatively, knowledge related to the law has little to do with knowledge of the Spanish language, only 33% of teachers believe that they have sufficient knowledge in that field, and the percentage who do not have any knowledge reaches 44%. A teacher comments in the survey that the excessive investment of time and energy in the field of law will cause a negative influence on the teaching effect of the Spanish audiovisual course. Therefore, teachers should consider well when researching knowledge in the field of law and its implications in the integration of the EIPC.

Knowledge in ethics, values, humanities and social sciences is more related to the didactic content of the audiovisual Spanish course, the teachers master them better, those who are confident of mastering them in each area are two-thirds or more, no one lacks them completely. This shows that teachers have a better basis for carrying out CPE in these areas, prioritizing research on CPE in them is more likely to produce results efficiently.

In general sense, the majority of teachers have almost never integrated the EIPC into the PEA of the Spanish audiovisual course, which is related to the limitations of their knowledge of the EIPC and constructivist didactic theory.

On the other hand, the direction dimension is investigated. First, the organization of the integration of the EIPC.

Graf. 2- The percentage of teachers who direct the EIPC

According to graph 2, it can be seen that only the percentage of social sciences and cultures reach the "high" level, because the teaching content of the Spanish audiovisual course is highly inclusive of knowledge in the field of social sciences and cultures. The teachers have a good command of this field.

The use of constructivist teaching strategies and single standard responses achieve the level of "medium." The constructivist case is related to the fact that all teachers know more or less the constructivist didactic theory, and believe that the theory helps the integration of the EIPC. The case of single standard answers is related to the traditional model of teaching materials, in which objective topics represent a large proportion and subjective topics are less.

The others on the chart are at the "low" level. Regarding the case of expressing different opinions, he has his own peculiarity, and it is not only the teachers who lead to this situation. Generally Chinese students do not take the initiative to answer open questions, Lv explains that the "silence" of Chinese students is linked to a traditional Chinese ethic, which requires them to "examine their own perspective, take into account the feelings of others and the surrounding situation, contain one's own desire" (Lv, 2020, p. 87).

Considering the correlation with ideological and political education and with the Spanish major, the difficulties in integrating knowledge are that of history and society, social sciences and cultures, socialist moral norms, values and personality. Furthermore, that of Chinese ideologies is the most serious, since almost no one does it.

Graf. 3 - Comparison between the percentage of teachers who direct the EIPC and those who know the knowledge of the EIPC well

Through comparison (Figure 3), it can be seen that the two data sets are related. Both the percentages of history and current affairs, Chinese ideologies, and law are at the "low" level, while the other four are relatively high, all reaching the "medium" or "high" level. This shows that there is a positive correlation between the degree of knowledge mastery and management performance, and the more knowledge is mastered, the more beneficial it is for performance.

Furthermore, teachers generally have some knowledge about Chinese ideologies, but no one integrates them into the classroom; and generally have a knowledge of social sciences and cultures at the "medium" level, but reach the "high" level in implementation. Those are because the current Spanish audiovisual course materials contain almost no knowledge of Chinese ideologies, but are full of social sciences and cultures, and teachers rely heavily on the materials in the PEA, which leads to results in graph.

The deficiencies described are in contradiction with the demands of the study plans and documents issued by the Ministry of Education, which raise the need to integrate ideological and political education into the training system and cultivate talents with comprehensive skills.

The didactic knowledge to integrate the EIPC into the PEA is recognized as a necessity to manage this process, based on the opinion of teachers, who consider (100%) to know constructivist theory somewhat or very well, coinciding with the opinion of their contribution to integration in the Spanish audiovisual course, while 78% (7) affirm its importance and 22% (2) say they do not know; however; The act of directing the process and integrating the EIPC into the process in the didactic process presents insufficiencies, according to data obtained, in all of the empirical methods used. However, only 22% of teachers report always using these teaching strategies, along with 33% who use them almost always. Likewise, more than 60% of them encourage students to express different opinions and ideas, promoting critical and reflective thinking, typical of the EIPC. This recognizes the relationship between teachers' knowledge of constructivist didactic theory, and consequently its use in the process of integrating the EIPC into the audiovisual course.

It is striking that teachers opt for "unique standard replacements for questions and exercises in the course" relatively more, with 56% for "almost always" and 22% for "always", or 78%, depending on the levels. of frequency used acknowledges presenting difficulties in doing so; which is related to the traditional model of teaching materials, which means that having technology in the process, by itself , does not achieve the desired transformation. Situation that presents lower levels in terms of the scope of the law, given that teachers have less knowledge and consequently do less integration, 56% report doing it "never" or almost never 33%, say 89%. Although it is valid to recognize that this indicator alone does not limit the EIPC in the audiovisual course.

The integration of history and society (67%), and morals and values (56%) are a little better, but there are also almost half of the teachers who almost never integrate this knowledge.

On the contrary, teachers have a high level of knowledge in the field of humanities and social sciences, with 78% choosing "almost always" and 11% choosing "always", because the teaching content of the Spanish audiovisual course It is highly inclusive of knowledge in the field of humanities and social sciences, teachers have a good command of this field, recognizing in this an opportunity to continue perfecting the process and that may be conditioned by the teachers' own training in this field. area of knowledge.

In the end, the integration control of the EIPC is investigated.

56% of teachers know constructivist didactic theory well, while another 44% have little knowledge of this theory, no one does not know it. 78% of teachers believe that constructivist theory helps to integrate the EIPC into the PEA of the Spanish audiovisual course. Another 22% of them are not sure of the effect of the constructivist theory, but no one denies that it serves for the integration of the EIPC in the PEA. A situation that becomes more complex today, in the Spanish major, by not paying enough attention to the EIPC, 33% of teachers almost never take the initiative to communicate with the counselors and teachers of the ideological and political theory course to improve the educational effect, and 56% of them never do them.

According to what they added in the survey, 3 teachers can explain in detail the basic content of the constructivist theory and consider that they can organize group activities so that students learn the Spanish language by interacting with audiovisual materials, such as movies, television programs, educational videos, etc.

The results obtained show that the situation is insufficient. Forms of organization such as "Internet +" and "flipped classroom" require sufficient study and pedagogical reforms, but the audiovisual Spanish course lacks attention for a long time, which is why 33% of teachers almost never use them and 44% of they never use them. From the perspective of integration organization, teachers prefer to use multimedia media and traditional forms of didactic organization, such as: images, audios, videos, software without internet, they rarely use online media, open questions, group discussions.

Teachers usually have a clear and alert perception of the current situation of the EIPC of the Spanish audiovisual course: no one thinks that the situation is good, 78% of them think that the situation is not good, 22% of them choose " It's good, but it's not remarkable." That complements previous survey results.

In general, not many contents about the EIPC are integrated into the evaluation criteria of the Spanish audiovisual course, no one always integrates them, 33% of teachers opt for "almost never", 33% opt for "never". This is consistent with the integration of teachers' EIPC.

Two-thirds of teachers believe that qualitative evaluation and developmental evaluation should be used more, 78% of them believe that evaluation of emotions, attitudes, values should be used more, 44% support process evaluation, while the same as the percentage of support for summative evaluation. This shows that the majority of teachers are aware of changing the form of evaluation that depends too much on the final exam, and of promoting the comprehensive development of students beyond the ability to pass the exam. Likewise, Yan once comments on the mistakes made in the implementation of the EIPC in Chinese universities, one of which is: "didactic research is forgotten, lack of educational evaluation" (2020, p. 89), the situation of ULY corresponds to what Yan comments. To improve the situation, in his opinion, one should "use quantitative and qualitative methods, carrying out the evaluation with tests, such as the graph."

The difficulties during the integration process of the EIPC, in the opinion of its protagonists, "it is difficult to explore the ideological and political elements in the course", an alternative chosen by 89 % of the teachers, because exploring the ideological and political elements in different courses it has always been a difficult and time-consuming task. This is limited by the form of didactic organization and the content of the course, so far, those of the Spanish audiovisual course are not all suitable for the EIPC. The EIPC reform investment is insufficient and there is a lack of systematic strategy, therefore, it is natural that teachers encounter difficulties.

56% of professors almost never seek examples or expertise from experts beyond the teaching resources provided by the university, and 33% of them never seek them. Because the seats in multimedia classrooms and other multimedia hardware facilities are fixed, the flexibility of organizing student groups is limited, so 89% of teachers almost do not form learning groups to carry out education, thus limiting themselves. the possibility of promoting cooperative work and social conditions of learning.



LinYi University allows us to assert that there are insufficiencies in the conception and management of ideological and political education in the Spanish audiovisual course, while the majority of teachers have almost never integrated the EIPC into the PEA of the Spanish audiovisual course, which is related to the limitations of their knowledge of the EIPC and constructivist didactic theory.

The deficiencies described are in contradiction with the demands of the study plans and documents issued by the Ministry of Education, which raise the need to integrate ideological and political education into the training system and cultivate talents with comprehensive skills.

On the other hand, the potential around the use of technologies is recognized, with the "Internet +" and "inverted classroom", but they are not sufficient due to the transformation of the EIPC into the Spanish audiovisual course, which calls for reforms. pedagogical techniques supported by constructivist theory, this corresponds to the trend of the current era and to the constructivist didactic theory, taking into account the opinion of Kang, who states that: "The process of abandoning the traditional forms of didactic organization, animating the environment of the classroom and teaching the language is essentially a process of complex psychological activities" (2022, p. 42), combined with the result of teachers' didactic knowledge, it can be seen that although they have a partially rational perception of the integration organization of the EIPC, are still not very active in their practical innovation.

The integration of the EIPC in the audiovisual course is recognized by the majority of teachers as a difficult and time-consuming process, which, in the opinion of these authors, has to do with the complexity of the process and its own subjectivity. While the Government of China points out (2019, p. 3), it insists on specifying that: "the reform of the teaching methods of the EIPC should be promoted, the computerization capacity of EIPC teachers should be improved, and the application of modern information technologies such as artificial intelligence in the EIPC". Without a doubt, a challenge in the current context for comprehensive training. Please note that "The key to the effectiveness of the EIPC lies in the students, the ability of students to construct their own meaning through ideological and political elements is an important manifestation of the effectiveness of the EIPC. Therefore, "It is of great importance to use constructivist theory to guide the construction of the EIPC" (Liao and Huang, 2022, p. 26).

The situation described above regarding the current state of the integration of IPE in the Spanish audiovisual course corresponds with opinions from other studies such as Sha, 2020 and Ding, 2022. By recognizing that "the implementation of ideological and political elements is fragmented, superficial and rigid, which makes the value orientation rigid and disorganized, the ideological and political contents are not naturally integrated, and the ideological and political objectives are unclear and unspecific" (Sha, 2020, p. 103).

It is the opinion of these authors that it is also necessary to combine the specific attributes of the Spanish course, those of the audiovisual course, to build the EIPC. According to the survey, ULY professors are best versed in knowledge of "worldview, life, values and a healthy personality." In addition, "humanities and social sciences, traditional Chinese culture and the culture of Spanish-speaking countries" and "history, national conditions, major national policies, current international and national affairs" are also areas good for them. This shows that prioritizing research in the aforementioned areas will undoubtedly improve ECIA with high efficiency. As long as the opinion of Rodríguez Santana, Lorenzo Fernández and Cruz Cabrera (2019, p. 55) is taken into account: "The peculiarity of educational work, and especially political-ideological work, from the curricular vision, rests on the foundations scientists of the design of the disciplines that make up the study plan". The scientific foundations for the construction of the EIPC include didactic knowledge, in the case of the ULY, the result of the survey shows that the ULY teachers also have certain didactic knowledge to integrate the EIPC into the PEA, despite the fact that They rarely apply them to teaching, which indicates that a strategy is needed to guide teachers to transform didactic knowledge into practice.

Finally, it is appropriate to mention that the audiovisual course essentially enhances the objectives and contents of language teaching, with the EIPC being relegated in this process, which may be given by the conditions and complexities of the process, also considering the opinion de Ding (2022, p. 88): "Language teaching itself is also one of culture, it is a kind of reproduction of political behavior, culture and politics are inseparable from social ideology." This recognizes that second language teaching itself has natural ideological and political attributes.

Without a doubt, "Political-ideological education must be a continuous and constantly developing process in educational institutions" ( Rodríguez, Hernández and Gutiérrez, 2018, p. 98 ), although the knowledge and direction of teachers are still limited and the didactic effect requires urgent improvements, the results obtained remain conducive to a continuous development of the EIPC in the Spanish audiovisual course in the future, they provide an important reference for the development of a didactic strategy for the integration of the EIPC in the PEA of the Spanish audiovisual course. The intention of this article is only to attract more ideas, which will still require a lot of research and organized and conscious work in the future.



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Conflict of interests:

The author declares that she has no conflicts of interest.


Authors' contribution:

The author participated in the design and writing of the article, in the search and analysis of the information contained in the consulted bibliography.


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