Mendive. Journal on Education, 21(4), e3632

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

Digital didactic resources in face-to-face settings: challenges in good teaching practices


Recursos didácticos digitales en la presencialidad: dificultades en las buenas prácticas docente


Recursos didáticos digitais na presencialidade: desafios nas boas práticas docentes


Lorena Albán Romero1
Marcia Mendoza Jara2
Raúl López Fernández3
Tatiana Tapia Bastidas3

1 Luis Fernando Ruiz Educational Unit. Ecuador.
2 Bernardo Valdiviezo Millennium Educational Unit. Ecuador.
3 Bolivarian University of Ecuador.;


Cite as
Albán Romero, L., Mendoza Jara, M., Tapia Bastidas, T. (2023). Digital didactic resources in face-to-face settings: challenges in good teaching practices. Mendive. Journal of Education, 21(4), e3632.


Received: September 9, 2023
Accepted: October 24, 2023



In the context of the educational paradigm shift caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the main difficulties faced by teachers was the implementation of virtual resources in face-to-face. The objective of the research was to identify the specific difficulties from the perspective and experience of teachers to promote the planning, implementation and evaluation of teaching. The applied methodology is based on the descriptive qualitative approach, the phenomenological hermeneutic methods were used and the semi-structured interview technique was applied, whose instrument had its content validation by expert judgment on the relevance, clarity and importance of the subject matter. The sample for this study was non-probabilistic for convenience in which eight teachers of General Basic Middle Education belonging to two educational institutions were selected. The analyzed results were classified into three categories: Difficulties in planning and using virtual resources, implementation challenges, technical limitations, and progress in interaction and academic performance. It is concluded that the implementation of virtual resources in face-to-face teaching arises as a result of the virtual education modality during the pandemic, transforming the traditional approach and allowing a more flexible education in line with social changes.

Keywords: Learning; teacher; strategies; students, virtual resources.


En el contexto del cambio de paradigma educativo causado por la pandemia de COVID-19, las principales dificultades que enfrentaron los docentes fue la implementación de los recursos didácticos digitales en la presencialidad. La investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar las dificultades específicas desde la perspectiva y experiencia de los docentes para propiciar la planificación, implementación y evaluación de la enseñanza. La metodología aplicada se fundamenta en el enfoque cualitativo descriptivo, se utilizó los métodos hermenéutico fenomenológico y se aplicó la técnica de la entrevista semi estructurada, cuyo instrumento tuvo su validación de contenido por juicio de expertos sobre la pertinencia, claridad e importancia del tema tratado. La muestra para este estudio fue no probabilística por conveniencia en la que se seleccionó a ocho docentes de Educación General Básica Superior pertenecientes a dos instituciones educativas. Los resultados analizados se clasificaron en tres categorías: Dificultades en la planificación y uso de recursos didácticos digitales, desafíos en la implementación, limitaciones técnicas y el avance en la interacción y rendimiento académico. Se concluye que la implementación de recursos didácticos digitales en la enseñanza presencial surge como resultado de la modalidad de educación virtual durante la pandemia, transformando el enfoque tradicional y permitiendo una educación más flexible en consonancia con los cambios sociales.

Palabras clave: Aprendizaje; docente; estrategias; estudiantes; recursos didácticos digitales.


No contexto da mudança de paradigma educacional provocada pela pandemia da COVID-19, as principais dificuldades que os professores enfrentaram foram a implementação presencial de recursos virtuais. A pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar dificuldades específicas na perspectiva e experiência dos professores para promover o planejamento, implementação e avaliação do ensino. A metodologia aplicada baseia-se na abordagem qualitativa descritiva, foram utilizados métodos hermenêuticos fenomenológicos e aplicada a técnica de entrevista semiestruturada, cujo instrumento teve seu conteúdo validado por julgamento de especialistas sobre a relevância, clareza e importância do tema discutido. A amostra deste estudo foi não probabilística por conveniência na qual foram selecionados oito professores do Ensino Médio Básico Geral pertencentes a duas instituições de ensino. Os resultados analisados foram classificados em três categorias: Dificuldades no planejamento e utilização de recursos virtuais, desafios na implementação, limitações técnicas e avanços na interação e desempenho acadêmico. Conclui-se que a implementação de recursos virtuais no ensino presencial surge como resultado da modalidade de educação virtual durante a pandemia, transformando a abordagem tradicional e permitindo uma educação mais flexível e alinhada às mudanças sociais.

Palavras-chave: Aprendizagem; professor; estratégias; alunos; recursos virtuais.



The COVID-19 pandemic generated an unprecedented impact on the educational field (Chanto Espinoza and Mora Peralta, 2021), which caused the need for teachers to adapt to new ways of teaching (Posso Pacheco, 2022a); In this context, the use of digital teaching platforms and resources became essential to guarantee the continuity of the teaching-learning process (Artopoulos and Huarte, 2022). According to Posso et al. (2021), in Ecuador, remote classes were applied, explaining that it was a modality between virtual and distance, this encouraged teachers to increasingly use virtual tools with the aim of facilitating teaching and providing access to educational content effectively.

Ministry of Education guided the return to face-to-face classes (Ministry of Education, 2021a), the teachers went through a challenging process due to the significant changes that this entailed, due to teaching remote classes, for two school years, which had adapted to the dynamics of this type of teaching (Posso et al., 2022), so they had to adjust again to a face-to-face learning environment, in which a series of challenges and important considerations were presented (Pérez García, 2021).

These challenges, according to Ríos Sánchez (2021), were the reevaluation and modification of their teaching methods to adapt to the face-to-face classroom; This explains, according to Cervantes Rosas and Alvites-Huamaní (2021), that in virtual education teachers used digital teaching resources, such as online platforms, which promoted interactive activities in student participation and learning. Upon returning to the classroom, Posso Pacheco (2022b) adds that there was a need to adjust his pedagogical approach, balancing the use of digital tools and traditional teaching strategies.

Another challenge for teachers was to level students according to the learning gap generated by the lack of knowledge that teachers had before the pandemic in the teaching of virtual education (World Bank, 2021). This deficiency was detected during the diagnostic tests (Ministry of Education, 2021b). The emotional effects, anxiety, social uncertainties, among others, caused in the students must be considered in this transition according to Palacios Ortiz et al. (2022). In this sense Contreras et al. (2022) comments that teachers played an important role in providing emotional support, creating a safe environment and establishing a routine that facilitated students' adaptation to the use of digital teaching resources in class.

It is assumed in this research that digital teaching resources are the complete integration of technology in teaching; which in many cases represented a transformation in the way teachers conceived of education. The use of these resources generated an interactive, personalized and effective learning environment, which allowed us to face the challenges and opportunities that arose in this new and necessary educational paradigm.

The lack of connectivity and access to virtual tools, in certain educational institutions, was another difficulty to overcome (Castillo Armijo, 2023); although during the pandemic, alternative solutions were implemented, such as the delivery of printed material, adapted technologies that worked without the need for connectivity, to guarantee quality education. Huamán Rozas and Muñoz Rado (2022) assure that teachers had to adapt quickly and look for alternatives, like the previous ones, to maintain student participation; This implied, according to Mina Quiñonez et al. (2023) that traditional teaching methods, such as whiteboards and printed materials, will be used, while strategies were explored to gradually integrate the available virtual tools.

It must be considered that teachers who used traditional classes had to update their way of teaching in which educational technologies will be applied; who acquired knowledge, capabilities, skills and values in the implementation of virtual platforms, educational applications and digital resources, in a general sense.

It should be taken into account that virtual education is flexible in terms of access to content and learning at a personalized pace, important in face-to-face education; That is to say, digital teaching resources and their platforms facilitate learning due to their variety of multimedia and interactive elements, quite the opposite of traditional education, which only encourages direct interaction, but favors social interaction and the development of communication skills in a physical environment.

Both modalities have unique benefits that can complement each other so that there is a more enriching educational experience. In the scenario where this research is developed, the need arises to identify the specific difficulties that teachers face when using digital teaching resources in person, using the cycle: diagnose, plan, implement and evaluate the prospective conception in the teaching process. learning. It also highlights the direction of the educational institution and the awareness of teachers on the problem of adapting the components of virtual teaching in conjunction with those of in-person teaching.

The aforementioned elements have raised the following question: How to contribute to the adaptations and means of digital teaching resources from the virtual modality to the face-to-face modality? To solve this question, the objective was proposed: to identify the specific difficulties, from the perspective and experience of teachers, in the use of digital teaching resources of virtuality for their diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation of the in-person modality.



This research is based on the qualitative descriptive approach as it focuses on the exploration and understanding of the experiences, perceptions and behaviors of people in their natural context (Buendía- Eisman, 1998), coinciding with this statement Guevara et al. (2020) adds that "it consists of getting to know the prevailing situations, customs and attitudes through the exact description of activities, objects, processes and people" (p. 171).

Hermeneutic and phenomenological methods were used, which allowed us to analyze and interpret the meanings and subjective experiences of teachers in relation to the use of digital teaching resources in face-to-face teaching. According to Álvarez (2021), these methods lead to the understanding of the subjective experiences of individuals and interpret the phenomena studied. That is, the perceptions, thoughts and emotions of teachers can be explored in detail in relation to their specific difficulties in using digital teaching resources and how these impact microcurricular planning.

The technique used was the semi-structured interview which enabled an open, fluid and flexible conversation with the interviewees, obtaining a deep perspective by being able to ask follow-up questions and add additional topics; In this sense, Villarreal Puga and Cid García (2022) mention that the interviewer benefits from asking a set of more predefined questions, serving as a guide during the interview, allowing the adaptation and exploration of additional topics.

The instrument applied in the interview was a script with seven questions; These were previously designed by the authors based on the objective of the research and the identification of relevant topics; The relevance, clarity and importance of the content was validated through the expert judgment method (López Fernández et al., 2019) in which the constructed instrument was improved, a content validity index of the instrument was obtained (I -IVC) of 0.968, which indicates that there is a high degree of agreement among the experts.

The sample for this study was non-probabilistic for convenience, due to the availability of participation; for this purpose, eight teachers of General Basic Secondary Education belonging to two educational institutions were selected. Valderrama-Sanabria et al. (2022). mentions that this technique is used when a complete list of the population is not available or is difficult in terms of cost and access for certain elements of the population, so it generally includes friends, family, co-workers or anyone who is located in the place where the investigation is carried out.

The interviews were carried out during the month of June 2023, in person with a duration between 20 to 30 minutes; The teachers' participation was voluntary, so before the interview they were told the objective and purpose of the research, their identity was guaranteed anonymity, thus complying with the requirements of informed consent.



The results obtained from the analysis of the interviews conducted with eight teachers were classified into three categories: Difficulties in planning and using digital teaching resources, Challenges in implementation and technical limitations, and Impact on interaction and academic performance. Below is a description of each category, primarily highlighting areas of concern and positive aspects that emerged throughout the study.

Difficulties in planning and using digital teaching resources

This category describes the perceptions that the participants had about the difficulties when planning their face-to-face classes using digital teaching resources. One of them was the lack of experience in the integration of these resources, making it difficult to prepare activities and work in class. This was due, to a large extent, to doubts about the selection and adaptation of digital teaching resources.

This lack of familiarity with educational technologies according to Cujia Berrío (2023) was generated because it was not known how to make the most of the potential of platforms and other digital teaching resources in face-to-face classes, which led to slow and meticulous planning to ensure its effectiveness, which is why it suggests that teachers rely on virtual platforms to manage and organize planning and thus achieve teaching autonomy.

Likewise, they mentioned that they had difficulties in improving the time dedicated to planning, this led to a feeling of overflow of workload and stress in the preparation of microplanning, taking away time for continuous improvement and feedback between colleagues. To this Inga Aguagallo et al. (2023) assures that it is necessary to explore the use of new virtual tools to create adequate materials that imply reducing planning time.

The teachers mentioned that, despite the efforts to acquire digital skills, they felt insecure in the selection and use of platforms and other digital teaching resources, this raised doubts about how to make the most of these tools, López Fernández (2010) mentions this. as "the measurement in its two dimensions with the subjects and with the tools, the relationship between the interpsychic and the intrapsychic as regards the zone of proximal development" (p. 59), which weights the learning experience of the students; That is, continuous training needs to be reinforced in the knowledge and use of educational platforms and other virtual tools available for planning.

Acosta Jaramillo et al (2023) mention that it is necessary to train teachers in the use and application of digital teaching resources adjusted to the needs and learning styles; for this, educational institutions must have access to appropriate technological equipment and connectivity. enough.

Another difficulty expressed was that they did not have sufficient feedback on the effectiveness of the virtual activities and materials used, which limited the continuous improvement of their pedagogical practices. This meant that there were teachers who felt insecure about the effectiveness of meeting their curricular objectives; Furthermore, because they had the perception that not all digital materials were suitable for all students at the levels and sublevels of education; On the contrary, Marquez and Baquero (2022) ensure that digital teaching resources are useful for the learning of students of any age as long as they are adapted to their characteristics and needs.

Lastly, and not least, the teachers expressed that they are receiving pressure from the authorities of the institutions to apply digital teaching resources in classes, this negatively affects their creativity and academic freedom to design activities and materials. that, in their opinion, enhance teaching. Peñafiel et al. (2023) states that new technologies improve teaching and facilitate the teacher's work, but the use of technology in the classroom does not guarantee that the learning objectives are met, because it depends on knowledge, skills and values. in interaction with the rest of the components of didactics.

Implementation challenges and technical limitations

In this other category, the impressions that the participants had about the challenges in implementation and technical limitations are detailed. The teachers mentioned that, during the implementation of digital teaching resources in the classroom, they faced different problems with connectivity and access to technologies, that is, the lack of connectivity in educational institutions became an obstacle that guarantees educational quality. Cruz and Herrera (2023) share this criterion when they say that the lack of connectivity causes a delay in the aspirations to improve constructivist teaching, since one of its postulates is to learn with the help of others.

This lack of internet access also made it difficult, according to the teachers interviewed, to be able to apply the planned teaching strategies, which generated a digital divide between different groups of students, because there are teachers who used their own mobile data to have it and be able to give classes; In this sense Santana et al. (2023) complement this idea by suggesting that the interruptions generated insecurity in class planning and dependence on digital teaching resources.

The effective integration of technologies into the teaching curriculum is important, but it requires careful, technical planning and a mastery of actively taught science teaching methodologies and how digital tools can improve learning. Teaching and learning processes. To achieve the above, teachers must be creative when designing their classes, which will lead to the enrichment, not only of the student's training, but also of their social development by improving participation and collaboration with their classmates, which that will promote their learning autonomy.

Deficiencies in interaction and academic performance

The teachers interviewed reported that there was dehumanization in the interaction of the teacher-student and student-student binomial, because they focused on the problem of managing educational technologies, that is, according to Salgado (2023) the dependence on platforms and other resources. digital didactics for teaching-learning and by not having adequate connectivity and technology in educational institutions, they lost opportunities to improve the teaching-learning process and the interaction of the personological component.

Other elements associated with possible negative results in the academic performance of students, due to the non-introduction of digital teaching resources in the teaching-learning process, may affect the commitment and participation of students as proposed by Lizcano et to the. (2023) when expressing that digital teaching resources provide opportunities for active learning, increasing motivation and interest in learning.

The teachers stated that they did not have the expertise to be able to design asynchronous type assignments, so they did not obtain the desired objectives due to the lack of direct interaction, which limited the opportunity for feedback or review of content, considering that they did not all students had connectivity and electronic devices in their homes. Addressing this idea, there are digital platforms that enabled online testing and exams, which streamlined the assessment process and provided detailed data on student performance. However, teachers noted the need to find a balance between online assessments and traditional in-person assessments to ensure a fair and accurate assessment of students' knowledge, skills, and values.

In general, shortcomings in interaction and academic performance that stand out are the following:

The identification of specific difficulties from the perspective and experience of teachers was evident in the research, which allowed us to understand their shortcomings in the diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation of teaching-learning. The implementation of digital teaching resources in face-to-face teaching-learning is a consequence of the continuity of virtual education worked during the pandemic; This breaks the traditional face-to-face scheme used before COVID19, which makes it possible to have a flexible education that adapts to the accelerated changes in the requirements of today's society.

This incorporation of digital teaching resources in person has revealed technological and social challenges, at the teaching and educational institution level, such as the lack of connectivity and access to technological equipment; generating a gap in the equity of learning among students and communication interaction in the classroom, which asserts the need to find a balance between the digital and the human; Faced with this problem, the teacher is called to rethink his methodological approach so that he obtains the expected learning achievements in a hybrid teaching context.



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The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.


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The authors participated in the design, analysis of the documents and writing of the work.


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