Mendive. Journal on Education, january-march 2022; 20(1):158-171

Translated from the original in Spanish

Original article

Exploring linguistic intelligence in children aged five to six


La exploración de la inteligencia lingüística en los niños de cinco a seis años de edad


A exploração da inteligência linguística em crianças de cinco a seis anos de idade


Yennis Alfonso Amaro1
Damarys Carreño Ortega1
Jorge Félix Massani Enríquez1

1University of Cienfuegos Carlos Rafael Rodríguez. Cuba.,,


Received: July 12th, 2021.
Accepted: January 11th, 2022.



This article is based on the result of the research project stimulation of neurodevelopment in early childhood children that is carried out at the university Carlos Rafael Rodríguez of Cienfuegos. it answers to the claims of studies to stimulate the integral development of early childhood children in Cuba. in this sense, its objective was to analyze the guide for the exploration of linguistic intelligence in children between five and six years of age, based on the results obtained from the study of the Terré protocol for the evaluation of the potentialities of the multiple intelligences in the children Neuropotential, with a view to its contextualization. Hence, theoretical methods such as analytical-synthetic and inductive-deductive were used; within the empirical the documentary analysis, the interview and the scientific observation. As a result, indicators were obtained for the exploration of linguistic intelligence that are contextualized in the education of children aged five to six years in Cuba and the standards for their application by educators. These elements will allow educators to identify the potentialities of students in this regard and transform their intervention strategies.

Keywords: stimulation; linguistic intelligence; neurodevelopment.


El presente artículo parte del resultado del proyecto de investigación "Estimulación del neurodesarrollo" en los niños de la primera infancia, que se lleva a cabo en la Universidad de Cienfuegos "Carlos Rafael Rodríguez". Responde a los reclamos de los estudios para la estimulación del desarrollo integral de los niños de la primera infancia en Cuba. En tal sentido, tiene como objetivo presentar una guía para la exploración de la inteligencia lingüística en los niños de cinco a seis años de edad, basada en los resultados obtenidos a partir del estudio del protocolo de Terré para la evaluación de las potencialidades de las inteligencias múltiples en el neuropotencial infantil, con vistas a su contextualización. De ahí que se emplearon métodos teóricos como el analítico-sintético y el inductivo-deductivo; dentro de los empíricos el análisis documental, la entrevista y la observación científica. Como resultado se obtuvieron los indicadores para la exploración de la inteligencia lingüística, que se contextualizan en la educación de los niños de cinco a seis años en Cuba y los estándares para su aplicación por parte de los educadores. Estos elementos permitirán a los educadores identificar las potencialidades de los educandos en este sentido y transformar sus estrategias de intervención.

Palabras clave: estimulación; inteligencia lingüística; neurodesarrollo.


Este artigo é baseado no resultado do projeto de pesquisa "Estimulação do neurodesenvolvimento" em crianças da primeira infância, que é realizado na Universidade de Cienfuegos "Carlos Rafael Rodríguez". Responde às demandas dos estudos para a estimulação do desenvolvimento integral da primeira infância em Cuba. Nesse sentido, pretende apresentar um guia para a exploração da inteligência linguística em crianças de cinco a seis anos de idade, com base nos resultados obtidos no estudo do protocolo Terré para avaliação das potencialidades das inteligências. neuropotencial infantil, com vistas à sua contextualização. Para tanto, foram utilizados métodos teóricos como analítico-sintético e indutivo-dedutivo; dentro dos empíricos, a análise documental, a entrevista e a observação científica. Como resultado, foram obtidos os indicadores para a exploração da inteligência linguística, que são contextualizados na educação de crianças de cinco a seis anos em Cuba e os padrões para sua aplicação pelos educadores. Esses elementos permitirão aos educadores identificar o potencial dos alunos nesse sentido e transformar suas estratégias de intervenção.

Palavras-chave: estimulação; inteligência linguística; neurodesenvolvimento.



The last decades, internationally, have been marked by the growing search for the development of human potential in all its magnitude. Science has shown that when the child is born already has a potential for possibilities. It is proposed that in the first years of life the brain creates around seven hundred neural interconnections per second, a speed that will never reach again. These are the basis of development, which will allow you to assimilate all human experience; all of which will be possible if the living and education conditions in which they grow and develop offer a sufficiently rich set of stimuli of all kinds.

From this point of view, it is indisputable that the first years of life are the most significant for the development of the human being. Hence the extraordinary importance for early childhood educators this age for the future of the man who is drawn; Therefore, several authors of the Ministry of Education (2017), in their studies for the foundations of the Cuban preschool curriculum, children define early childhood as "intense growth in biological beings; social and cultural beings originated from individual to become active appropriation of the experiences provided by their specific environment; affective and dependent beings, able to transit the self-validation; with extraordinary potential for development; and especially rights holders for achieving full life "(p. 24).

It is evident that if you want to achieve the possible maximum potential development, being consistent with the purpose of early childhood education, it is necessary to know the particularities of each and every one of the children, the causes and conditions of their development, the course of their biological and maturational, physiological and functional, psychological and social processes, in such a way that all educational agents can exert a positive influence on said mechanisms and structures that are in full formation and maturation, to achieve maximum potential achievements of this development.

At present, research has been carried out aimed at the stimulation of child neurodevelopment in order to achieve an optimal comprehensive development of each and every one of the children. Current studies have ventured into offering variants for the exploration and stimulation of child development.

One of them is the exploration of multiple intelligences. These studies represent a transformative vision in the field of educational psychology, which emerged at the end of the 20th century from the theory of multiple intelligences, elaborated by the psychologist Gardner Howard (1983), which modified the way of understanding and to signify what intelligence is by stating that "not everyone has the same interests and abilities; not all of us learn in the same way" (p. 27).

The investigations carried out during the last 15 years by this psychologist show that each child has different ways of being intelligent, through words, numbers, drawings and images, music, physical expression, experiences with nature, social interaction and self-knowledge; defining intelligence as the ability to solve problems and create products that change culture.

According to the model proposed by Gardner (1983), intelligence is not seen as something unitary, which groups different specific abilities with different levels of generality, but as a set of multiple and independent intelligences.

Gardner (1983) defines intelligence as a capacity and states that: "intelligence implies the necessary ability to solve problems or to produce products that are important in a cultural context or in a given community" (p. 33). In turn, this author points out that "intelligence would not be fixed and static when one is born. It is dynamic, it always grows, it can be improved and expanded" (p. 54).

It recognizes, then, that as skill can be developed in line with the social environment in which each subject is developed from the experiences or personal experiences, which plays a fundamental role education that is received; hence the value of stimulation to achieve the maximum development of each one of them.

The aforementioned author defined eight types of intelligence: linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, spatial intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence and naturalist. All these intelligences are present in every person, but with different developments. Consequently, each has a profile of intelligence in which all make their own contribution to the efficiency of the individual.

On the other hand, García Paida AM (2018), ensures that:

   There is no doubt that culture is an important point in the development of intelligence; the living conditions, customs and traditions of the people determine the development of the different types of intelligence in people. Human beings sometimes need to develop a specific type of intelligence, because the environment they inhabit requires it; In other words, intelligence emerges as a form of adaptation to the culture of the individual (p. 99).

According to Mena Reinoso (2020), "the theory of Multiple Intelligences is not, therefore, a program of fixed techniques and strategies, on the contrary, it offers educators the opportunity to creatively adapt its fundamental principles to any educational context" .

It is a challenge for professionals in the education of children in Early Childhood to enhance these types of intelligence in their students. It is vital to explore and determine which ones stand out or typify each child and offer the necessary help or resources to enhance them.

This article will delve into linguistic intelligence, the importance of communication and language for the integral development of the child in early childhood.

Linguistic intelligence, according to Gardner (1983), relates to the capacity and ability to handle language in order to communicate and express one's thinking and makes sense of the world through language.

It is considered that individuals who show good development of this intelligence have skills to explain, teach, remember, convince. Usually they perform activities such as reading for a long time, telling stories, watching movies, writing poems, creating works, learn languages, play word games, or research on topics of interest. Hence it arises that is the intelligence of writers, lawyers, poets, teachers, comedians and speakers.

Linguistic intelligence is the ability to formulate the thought in words and use language effectively. It includes sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and functions of words. It lets remember, analyze, solve problems, plan and create. The basis of this intelligence are set in the gestation period, because of the intrauterine hearing (Macias Figueroa, YG; Vigueras Moreno, Rodriguez JA & Gamez, M. 2021, p . 6).

On the other hand, Casanova Zamora T. A (2020) expresses that "Linguistic intelligence has been established as the ability to handle language effectively; in it we must develop the skills of expression and communication with reading, writing and reading activities and oral expression" (p. 173).

This intelligence can be recognized in children from their first words; its ability to articulate and the amount of vocabulary that will depend largely on the family and social environment where it develops.

Regarding the development of linguistic abilities, Gardner supports his theory in studies carried out by Chomsky, who affirms that the child is born with an innate knowledge of the rules and forms of language, with little support from environmental factors; the semantic and pragmatic domains are tied to a lesser degree to an organ of language.

Moreover, linguistic intelligence in children of preschool children, it helps them establish appropriate interpersonal relationships, to bond in which meets their needs and to express emotions and feelings. Allowed to develop their communication skills to build relationships with their peers, exchanging moods, preferences, games and / or concerns. This type of intelligence allows children to understanding and producing messages, develop own ideas, think and solve problems.

On this particular, Terré Camacho (2017) creates an innovative method, designed and thought of education, stimulation and enrichment of the intelligence potential of boys and girls at an early age, between 0-6 years of life; uses effective neurobiological strategies and psycho pedagogical techniques that guarantee early learning and the diversification of children's intelligence.

The result presented has as a reference the neuro point method (Neuropotential of child intelligence) Terré Camacho (2017), which is based on constructivist theories based on projects similar to those elaborated in the theses and referential frameworks of child development and the contemporary psychology currents. These approaches encourage children to create meaning through interactions with the physical, the psychological, and the social.

It addresses an educational model or activity focused on Programs and Projects, duly organized and adapted in learning centers. These programs and projects are focused on the systematic and active achievement of the development of skills and abilities, in the quality of health, as well as in the various domains of intelligence at an early age. In general, it includes the following aspects:

This last aspect will be emphasized in the present result, since the guidance proposed is related to the assessment of skills, knowledge and achievements that children from five to six years have achieve, and that must be potentiated by the different educational agents.

Linguistic intelligence and its influence on the integral development of the child is essential, because in the development of a child's learning, language is used in all moments of daily life, hence linguistic intelligence, without a doubt, allows the use of correctly the language to communicate with the social and educational environment.

As a result of systematic observation of the performance of practicing teachers who run the educational process of Cuban children five to six years, it has been seen that the end of this year of life children are assessed through a diagnosis which it provides qualitative and quantitative assessments in the area of language, such as closing the preschool. This is not an instrument to be used during the whole stage, so other devices which must not only evaluate but discovering, exploring, enhance the language development of children in this age is used.

Due to the importance it has for the comprehensive development of the child's personality, linguistic intelligence aims to present a guide for the exploration of linguistic intelligence in children from five to six years of age, based on the results obtained from of the study of the Terré protocol (2017), for the evaluation of the potentialities of multiple intelligences in children's Neuropotential, with a view to its contextualization



The research assumes the dialectical-materialist conception as a general method of science and as the main methodological approach of it, where the methods and techniques of pedagogical sciences research are articulated.

It is based on qualitative methodology, exploratory and descriptive, to contextualize and apply a guide that allows exploration of linguistic intelligence, in a population of 63 children, which is sampled 33 children aged five to six years old, of the Children's Circle "Amiguitos of the Granma" Cienfuegos municipality in the province of Cienfuegos and teachers of the people's council "Punta Gorda". Within the theoretical methods, the analytical-synthetic allowed the study of the theoretical and methodological approaches of multiple intelligences and the neuro point method and the interpretation of results derived from the study.

Within the theoretical methods, analytical-synthetic allowed the study of the theoretical and methodological approaches of multiple intelligences and the neuro point method and the interpretation of results derived from the study.

The inductive-deductive was used to study the particularities of linguistic intelligence of the Cuban children five to six years of age, which revealed the need for theorizing and contextualization of the guide for exploration.

Within the empirical methods, documentary analysis was used to assess how the issue of multiple intelligences is addressed in Cuba and in the world, as well as to analyze the exploration guide and determine the indicators and standards to be used in the Cuban context.

The interview is applied to verify the knowledge that teachers of early childhood have in relation to the exploration of multiple intelligences (linguistic) and on techniques and instruments to explore it.

The objective of scientific observation was to verify how teachers evaluate the potentialities of linguistic intelligence in children's Neuropotential.



As part of the documentary analysis, the plans of overcoming the educators of children from five to six years of age were considered, the Methodological Work Plan of the Children's Center, the systematic assessments of children and the most recent investigations in the subject Addressing.

In this review it was found that the improvement of teachers is still below their current needs; they include actions aimed at topics that have already been addressed at another time and do not meet the expectations of teachers and improvement is maintained at the same level with little updating. In the same way, the center's methodological work plan includes very general aspects related to the direction of the educational process, particularizing in the areas of development with greater difficulties, but without a growth in the actions in this sense, maintaining the regularities presented frequently in other courses.

With regard to systematic assessments of children, they are very linear, little is accurate and not particularized in the potential of each child; they declare the need or difficulty of the child. Methods or techniques to enhance, solve and intervene in child development of each child are not clearly evident.

When carrying out a review and analysis of research in Cuba and the territory, it was possible to appreciate the lack of these in the subject of the stimulation of child neurodevelopment, and with more weakness studies on the development of intelligences, so it was inferred that the background is few and most belong to the decade of the 80s and 90. It is verified as the nearest and most current of Terré Camacho in 2017.

In the interview with early childhood teachers, in relation to the exploration of multiple intelligences (linguistics) and on techniques and instruments to explore it, educators were outdated and unfamiliar with terminology, revealing employment of traditional techniques and methods, with little creativity. They refer more to the deficiencies of children than to the knowledge of their potential.

When carrying out the scientific observation, the result was not the most encouraging, since the teachers have insufficient knowledge of how to evaluate the potentialities of linguistic intelligence; they do not create situations that make possible the development of the child in this sense and the expression of its potentialities.

The results obtained, both theoretically and empirically, allowed the authors of the research to design a contextualized instrument taking as a reference the one proposed by Terré (2017), which is part of the neuro point method and includes the seven intelligences of Gardner H. (1983). Suggestions and ways of how to evaluate this type of intelligence are also offered.

In this particular, the instrument is presented for assessing linguistic intelligence as a result of the research, from studies performed.

Observation guide for the exploration of multiple intelligences (adapted from Terré Camacho, 2017)

Variables rating:

1: fails

2: He succeeds with help

3: It achieves it

Table 1- Indicators to evaluate linguistic intelligence





1. Understands and produces messages from the interpretation of different signs.




2. Create imaginary stories or everyday events.




3. Easily memorizes names, places, stories, poetry, dates, and trivia.




4. Create puns and enjoy it.




5. He likes to have books read to him and enjoys listening.




6. Make strokes with pleasure, adjustment to the line, precision and continuity.




7. Likes to hear the spoken word in different environments and media (conversations, stories, radio comments, etc.).




8. Uses different terms in his vocabulary, according to the communicative situation in which he finds himself.








When observing children, the following indicator should be marked with a cross:

1: Not achieved

2: It does this with the help

3: He does it

Then it is processed as follows, each item you are adding a score corresponding to the values suggested:

1 (Value 1 point)

2 (value 2 points)

3 (Value 3 points)

In correspondence with the sum of each indicator and the score obtained, the following levels are determined for each indicator:

High: From 20 to 24 points

Medium: 15 to 19 points

Low: from 10 to 14 points

Based on the results obtained, the level of intelligence achieved is determined.

Table 2- Levels of Linguistic intelligence







Simpson Table (2018), in its study, it states that "the best way to evaluate multiple intelligences is to make a realistic performance assessment in the different tasks, activities and experiences associated with each intelligence. Therefore, observation is the main method". Appointment with which it is fully agreed, so it is suggested that, to assess the linguistic intelligence of children from five to six years, systematic observation should be used fundamentally, where the educator registers with systematicity what he observes in each little boy; For this, indicators can be used as:

Furthermore, it is suggested recording the skills and showing the number of times that observed Example: creates, stores, mimics, and enjoys reacts expresses comprises.

Systematic observation must be carried out not only in a specific activity, but both in group and individual, grouping the information from the previously set criteria. As an instrument to collect data, it should be taken into account that it must be planned, in order to gather the requirements of validity and reliability, have skills in the data record, differentiating the significant aspects of the situation and those that do not matter. As well as establishing the conditions in such a way that the observable events are carried out in the most natural and without influence of the researcher or other intervention factors. Therefore, the observer has to define how, when and where and, at what point to apply the instrument.

Another technique that can be used is anecdotal records, which allow the most relevant events or situations to be recorded, whether it be amazement, curiosity, active participation, disposition in correspondence with the activity carried out. In this way, the areas of development of greatest interest, the activities that they enjoy the most or the predisposition towards carrying out the activities can be determined. The basic idea is to write down what you see or hear, without making any interpretations.

Another resource is the analysis of the product of the creative activity; this is to select some task performed by the child who calls attention because it may reflect a clear provision to a certain type of skills or, on the contrary, some difficulty. The educator in question describes the education in the context in which he performed the task and what draws attention to him, to analyze what this small production can reflect and what practices can advise to enhance the skill in question or use it to compensate other.

In all these techniques, various communicative situations can be used to satisfy the needs of the child in his development. We illustrate some of the situations that educators can use to assess this type of intelligence:

Pedagogical Situation 1. Explores whether the child is capable of understanding messages from the interpretation of different signs.

For this, symbols, icons and indications can be used.

We can play the recording of sounds, starting with those sounds that are most familiar to the child and closest to their environment. The children listen and comment on the sounds they have heard, their characteristics, where they come from and who makes them. The recordings will be played more than once, so that the children recognize the greatest number of sounds on each occasion.

They can also understand the different intentions that can have a message, depending on the intonation of the sentence.

Understand, from watching films or gestures made by adult, different moods: happiness, sadness, tiredness, serenity, boredom, fear.

Elaborate messages using different expressive languages. To do this, it is necessary to start from the fact that the child has understood the message well and can use verbal and non-verbal expression. You must start from the fact that the child understands the essential idea.

The essential ideas represent the most relevant information from the text, or facts of which we cannot do without understanding what the text wants to communicate. These ideas are those that give the text a unit of meaning; the absence of which could change the meaning of the text itself.

For example: the essential ideas in narrative text represent:

In another type of text, the essential idea is summarized in

For example, the child is told:

Maria Fernanda left her house early, but stopped on the road and wept. "I do not want to go to school," said to her mother. "I want to stay home with you. I play with my friends, playing with my toys, read my stories and swing on my swing. Please, I can stay home with you?".

The essential idea that children can best express and that this text represents is: the girl does not want to go to school; she wants to stay at home with her mother.

To verify that the child understood the key idea, we conducted open questions to facilitate responses to stimulate oral expression and the development of thought. Promote listening and have more than one valid response.

For example: how did María Fernanda feel when she went to school? Why?

Then ask the child to name the story, tell the story, or the part they liked best, and change the story.

To tell the story, the child can use pictures, puppets, gestural expressions, represent crying and/or modulate their voice.

Pedagogical situation 2. Explore if the child is able to create imaginary stories or everyday events. Explore if the child is able to create or invent stories or stories from your imagination or some event of everyday life.

For this you must bear in mind:

If the child can organize your ideas in a sequential and coherent manner, the ability to express their ideas in a precise, understandable, clear and metaphorically. Creative ability in the text using its originality and fantasy.

In its creation he controls the voice, the look, uses gestures and body movements, the story has an argument. Gives originality to the speech, speak correctly and fluently.

The educator can also start a story with a first sentence, following the order and sitting in a circle, each child adds a new sentence, giving continuity to the story so that it makes sense. Then they make their own story on their own.

Pedagogical situation 3. Explore whether the child can easily memorize names, places, stories, poems, dates and trivia.

Explore if the child is able to memorize the name of people, animals or objects that are presented, as well as their qualities and actions: Show several real objects or toys you will be asked: What is it? How is it? What do you do, what is it for? Then they are asked to remember as many objects or toys presented.

The same proceeds with the places, you can show sheets or photos. For the dates, you can ask yourself about the birthday of your family members or some of your friends.

As another variant can be made the game "of Havana has come a ship loaded with animals, fruits."

The educator will record all the words that the child remembers.

Pedagogical Situation 4. Explores whether the child is capable of creating word games and enjoys them.

Explore if the child is able to play with the words and creates some word games with pleasure. For this you can ask yourself to play with the words cat and four. If the child does not believe by itself, a game of words can be offered an example:

In my yard a cat is raffled and always touches at number four. One, two, three, and four.

Another situation that can be presented to children can be adding elements to a given sentence or completing the sentence:

As white as...

As high as…

As slow as...

The strength of a...

Pedro jumps like a ...

My hand has ...

I see…

Pedagogical Situation 5. He likes to be read to and enjoys listening. Explore if the child likes reading stories, to ask him what types of books, tales or stories he likes the most. Based on the answers, read them a story and observe the expressions on their faces to determine the state of their emotions and feelings when listening to the play.

It would be interesting to present them with problematic situations that affect the characters in the story and that force them to offer creative and alternative solutions.

Pedagogical Situation 6. It explores whether the child makes strokes with pleasure, adjustment to the line, precision and continuity. Next, each of the strokes that the child must make with quality are presented, since they constitute the basis for the development of the calligraphic skills of the cursive strokes of our language. Educators and parents can stimulate the realization of the same, through the technique of drawing in which they can complete figures or objects.

Pedagogical situation 7. He likes to hear the spoken word in different environments and media (conversations, stories, comments on radio, etc.).

Explore if the child likes pay attention when establishing a conversation between adults or child-child and if you enjoy conversing with adults and peers.

Pedagogical Situation 8. Uses different terms in his vocabulary according to the communicative situation in which he finds himself.

It explores if the child is capable, during his daily communication, of using various terms or words. It can also be determined by offering different games such as starting from sentences in which qualifying adjectives, synonyms and antonyms will be used. For example:

This tree is very large and this is very ...;

This man is very thin and this is very...

This bird is… and this…

Vocabulary games:

After looking at the picture of an animal, describe it without mentioning its name.

Guess what animal it is.

Search comparisons: Large as an ... Elephant

Hairy like a wolf...

Dirty as a… pig

You can also play the well-known game "of Havana has come a boat loaded with ... Animals".

The child will name different animals, without repeating them. Subsequently, the game will be extended by following the instructions below:

"A ship loaded with... has come from Havana.

Animals that begin with the sound /l/

Animals that begin with the sound /k/

Animals with four legs

Animals that have a body covered with hair

Animals that have no hair

Animals Coming Meat

Animals born from their mother



The analysis carried out shows that this instrument constitutes a valuable resource for early childhood educators, especially for those who work with children from five to six years old, since it allows evaluating the potentialities of linguistic intelligence in their students and in this way contribute to the human development potential of each of them in correspondence with their particularities.

The instruments offered allow logical processing of data collected by the observer and complement each other. They can offer a more complete view of the process, allowing inferences of their movement and current status through concrete evidence of this. It enables educators to better understand their students, recognize individual peculiarities of children and redesign their strategies educational intervention.

For this type of attention, strategies must be developed that promote stimulation and adapt to the rhythms and learning styles of each one. Only in this way, the development potential of each child can be reached, increasing the chances of performance in different areas.

Children's education professionals from preschool children should propose to enhance this type of understanding intelligence and for this it is vital to explore and determine at what level is each child to offer the necessary aid or resources that potentiate it.

The stimulation of childhood neurodevelopment from the earliest ages makes it possible to achieve the optimal scope of the integral development of each and every one of the children, since this is the moment in the life of the human being in which stimulation is capable of exerting the most decisive action on development, precisely by acting on formations that are in the maturation phase. Then, it is up to the educators or agents in charge of the education of the children to apply various techniques that allow them to explore the intelligences of each one to offer in this age group all the opportunities that make it possible to develop their potential to the maximum. The exploration and evaluation of linguistic intelligence in early childhood children must become a work tool for educators to provide all opportunities in a diversified way, which strengthen the skills and linguistic resources that contribute to the development of bio psychological potential and of each of the children who possess it.

This research sets a precedent for other studies that may be related to the updating of the subject and the improvement of practicing personnel.



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Conflict of interests:

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


Authors' contribution:

The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.


This work is under a
licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional
Copyright (c) Yennis Alfonso Amaro, Damarys Carreño Ortega
, Jorge Félix Massani Enríquez