Mendive. Revista de Educación, July-august 2020; 18(3):689-701
Translated from the original in Spanish
The analysis of phonetic changes, from different approaches , for language teaching
El análisis de los cambios fonéticos, desde diferentes enfoques, para la enseñanza de la lengua
A análise das mudanças fonéticas, a partir de diferentes abordagens, para o ensino de línguas
Carmen de las Nieves Ramos García1, Vilma María Pérez Viñas1, Arturo Pulido Díaz1
1 Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hnos Saíz Montes de Oca". Pinar del Río. Cuba. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2927-5521, http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3041-096X, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8694-9836. E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Recibido: 22 de enero 2020
Aceptado: 19 de marzo 2020
This work addresses the improvement of the teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes in Spanish Phonetics and Phonology, with the aim of systematizing and contextualizing different theories and approaches for their didactic treatment in the Bachelor's Degree in Spanish-Literature Education. Research methods such as historical-logical, induction-deduction, analysis-synthesis and theoretical systematization were used to identify and order the information presented. The main results of this article are the systematization of different international and national didactic approaches, which allow establishing a coherent perspective for the analysis of phonetic changes based on pronunciation and phonetic correction in the mother tongue, in correspondence with the professional pedagogical way of action.
Keywords: phonetic change; pronunciation; phonetic correction.
El presente trabajo aborda el perfeccionamiento del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del análisis de los cambios fonéticos en Fonética y Fonología Españolas, con el objetivo de sistematizar y contextualizar diferentes teorías y enfoques para su tratamiento didáctico en la carrera Licenciatura en Educación Español-Literatura. Se emplearon métodos de investigación como el histórico-lógico, la inducción-deducción, el análisis-síntesis y la sistematización teórica, que permiten identificar y ordenar la información que se presenta. El artículo ofrece como principales resultados la sistematización de diferentes enfoques didácticos internacionales y nacionales, que permiten establecer una perpectiva coherente para el análisis de los cambios fonéticos en función de la pronunciación y la corrección fonética en lengua materna, en correspondencia con el modo de actuación profesional pedagógico.
Palabras clave: cambio fonético; pronunciación; corrección fonética.
O presente trabalho trata da melhoria do processo ensino-aprendizagem da análise das mudanças fonéticas na Fonética e Fonologia espanholas, com o objectivo de sistematizar e contextualizar diferentes teorias e abordagens para o seu tratamento didáctico no curso de licenciatura em Educação-Literatura Espanhola. Para identificar e ordenar a informação apresentada foram utilizados métodos de investigação como o histórico-lógico, a indução-dedução, a análise-síntese e a sistematização teórica. Os principais resultados do artigo são a sistematização de diferentes abordagens didáticas internacionais e nacionais, que permitem estabelecer uma perspectiva coerente para a análise das alterações fonéticas em função da pronúncia e correção fonética na língua materna, em correspondência com a forma pedagógica profissional de atuação.
Palavras-chave: Mudança fonética; Pronúncia; Correção fonética.
The main goal of the educational research is not to describe, explain or understand a "reality" (understood as something that is out there, waiting to be described, explained or understood) in which educational processes occur, but rather to reveal,raise the pedagogical question that is in it Contreras and Pérez, 2013, p. 39. In this sense, the present study addresses the teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes in Spanish Phonetics and Phonology, in the Bachelor of Education in Spanish-Literature course.
For Dolz, Gagnon and Mosquera (2009), researchers at the University of Geneva in the curricular design of language teaching the elements maintaining relevance and are not still solved the progression and temporal organization of content to achieve optimal learning and it leads to focus attention on the interdisciplinary, intradisciplinary and transdisciplinary relations of the conception of the curriculum.
In a comprehensive study on the state of teacher training in Spanish and literature, Lorente (2012) asserts that, in the Spanish context, both language and literature teaching are based on the repetition of content established by the training institution, without considering, in many cases, linguistic contexts and realities. This author criticizes what he calls conservatism of a discipline that has evolved very little in recent years, despite changes in study plans. This situation reflects the distance between the curricular design, the theoretical-methodological precepts that are promoted and the educational practice with its strong subjective charge.
In Latin America, the teacher training process is of& particular importance;regarding the teaching of the mother tongue, it has been called to overcome reductionist approaches of a structural, normative and formalist nature and to stimulate approaches that develop multiple forms of discursive understanding and production. In this way, a study approach to the language in use is favored, as well as oral and written discursive practices that allow students to interact with the world, interpret it, transform it from language, create and recreate possible worlds, relate to and construct subjectivities through the contextualized use of their mother tongue(Quitián 2017).
In the Colombian context itself, Cisneros, Rojas and Olave (2016) raise as point on the research agenda for the mother tongue teacher-training curriculum:
a) Relocate the role of sociolinguistics with a pragmatic and variations' approach in the teaching of the mother tongue
b) Introduce aspects of school linguistics teaching in all the subjects of the basic and secondary education curriculum that is, teaching to read and write in the several disciplines.
Despite the full agreement of the authors of the article with point (a), it is necessary to point out the traditional emphasis on reading and writing that appears in point (b) to the detriment of pronunciation, also necessary, seen as a mark of professional and cultural identity.
However, despite the indicated dissatisfactions, Cañón and Cedeño (2016) in their study on trends in the current training of teachers of the Spanish language in Latin America, show optimism, saying:
Now, the curricula of the different degrees focused on the training of teachers in the Spanish language, both locally, nationally and internationally, point towards the consolidation of teachers with academic and human excellence (...) and, in a more specific sense, towards a disciplinary training that allows the teaching of the mother tongue (...) the consolidation of linguistic and literary knowledge where research as such becomes a fundamental element in school action (p.13).
In Cuba, the initial training of university students in pedagogical careers facilitates the early professionalization of the future teacher that is why the teaching-learning process is organized from the perspective of professional functions, based on the academic, labor, and research components and extensionist, closely related to the purpose of the profession for the formation of a contextual professional action mode hoisted in the sphere of action (Robaina, 2017).
Consequently, the professional model for the Bachelor of Education in Spanish-literature, Study Plan E (2016) establishes:
The professional performance of the educator in this career includes the education of adolescents, young people and adults who access basic and upper secondary education. They assume the responsibility of directing the teaching-learning process aimed at the integral formation of the personality, through the linguistic and literary contents, and the coordination, from the school, of the educational and sociocultural influences of the family and the community. (MES, 2016, p. 8).
In this training context, linguistic studies have occupied a significant space between the cognitive domains fundamental for the professional training of graduates in Education, especially among those who are trained as specialists in Spanish-Literature, by providing the theoretical and methodological knowledge necessary to the development of communication skills, which contributes to the training of these professionals as true models in oral and written communication and consolidates, in practice, those competencies in the direction of the educational processes that constitute the object of their professional performance.
In this sense, the present study sets out to analyze how to contextualize different theories and approaches in order to improve the didactic treatment of phonetic changes in Spanish Phonetics and Phonology, in the Bachelor of Education in Spanish-Literature course, so that the student appropriates the scientific contents on the study of language in use and lay the foundation for the teaching - learning of pronunciation and phonetics correction of the mother tongue in the different spheres of professional action.
Linguistic theories aim to describe the functioning of linguistic units and, from there, build a theoretical corpus; instead, linguistics applied to language teaching seeks to reveal the most effective methods to optimize the teaching-learning process based on activating and perfecting verbal knowledge and abilities in students; for this reason, the following study addresses some aspects that, from different didactic approaches, favor the analysis of phonetic changes.
Early approaches to language teaching focus on purely linguistic analysis that points to the accuracy and correctness of students' language productions; in this way, the prescriptive approach aims to distinguish correct forms (prescribed) from incorrect forms (proscribed) ; The productive approach develops skills for oral and written expression, but does not integrate and systematize the teaching of linguistic content appropriate to different contexts , while the descriptive approach , although it provides the terms of performance and linguistic competence, prioritizes the study of syntax and does not reveal the use of linguistic structures in real communication (Roméu, 2007).
These approaches are considered to base the teaching-learning of the language on "( ) a certain style of speech (considered better or more desirable) to establish a social norm of pronunciation ( ) leaving aside the study of geographic and despising the conjectural variants" (Cantero, 2015, p. 11). This has meant that the teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes responds to rigid normative patterns.
This panorama changes with sociolinguistic theories, Londoño (2019), from a tour of different theoretical and methodological works on sociolinguistics and stimulates us to understand it as a zone of contact between various language sciences from disciplinary integration.
The contributions of the sociolinguistic research fields have been relevant to the pedagogical sciences ; In this way, urban quantitative sociolinguistics or variations , the sociology of language and the ethnography of communication have had a great impact on the didactics of language, defining conceptualizations such as: speech community, communicative competence, repertoire, communicative situation, event and communicative act, very significant in the teaching of phonetics, since they make it possible to establish coherent relationships of analysis between phonetic change and the language in use.
Based on sociolinguistic theories, Cassany, Luna and Sanz (2009) propose to make correction criteria in language teaching more flexible with broader criteria of adequacy. In this context, they define adequacy as "Knowledge and mastery of linguistic diversity. The language is not uniform or homogeneous, but presents variations according to various factors: geography, history, social group, communication situation, interrelation between speakers" (p.317), so being adequate implies choosing among the different options offered by the language, the most appropriate for each communication situation.
However, as Lagares (2019) affirms, it is not a matter of substituting correction for adequacy, since this leads to assuming simplified positions, where:
The variants would be acceptable as long as they were appropriate to their context of use, as if the social world were a space with perfectly delimited compartments (...) where the speaker should mechanically adapt to each specific situation to choose among all the available variants those (...) correct in context (s/p).
It is considered, then, that the concept of adapting the phonetic correction to the context of use involves a prior and conscious preparation by students and teachers, where the teaching-learning process deepens in the description and explanation, in this case, of the phonetic change, not absolutizing the analysis from definitive positions because with it one would return to a dogmatic and prescriptive perspective; but enabling the reflection and evaluation of its use as a linguistic phenomenon in constant change and transformation to, consequently, establish the norm / use relationship in its didactic treatment.
Also located in the second half of the 20th century, the pragmatic theory that focuses studies on the language in use emerges and from these assumptions the theory of speech acts and the principle of cooperation is developed, which fosters a change in the paradigm structuralism for the study of language and the transition to the communicative paradigm.
In this field, conceptions of transformational generative grammar emerge and develop, which focuses its studies on the structures and processes that occur in discourse and the structural systemic model that deepens the relationship between discourse and society. It is considered that both concepts are complementary in discipline Analysis of the speech, as to properly study the social functions of speech is necessary to understand what linguistic structure is concrete; thus, for example, the use of a phonetic change can indicate social position, intellectual level, age, sex. In this regard, the analysis of the phonic changes are manifested in their relationship with the contexts, social and cultural conditions and the interests of those involved in communicative acts.
This scenario fosters the emergence of a new approach, the communicative one, which on interdisciplinary and trans disciplinary bases directs its objectives to perfect the study of the language in use as an instrument of communication or social interaction that allow students to appropriately use the language in everyday situations.
In general, the communicative approach revolutionizes language teaching, but Cantero (2015) warns that for the educational applications of phonetics and phonology offers:
(...) univocal and closed models (...) focused exclusively on the production or perception of isolated sounds or, at the most, sounds in contact: production, perception and interaction are not, in any case, distinguished as communicative activities clearly differentiated (...) phonetic correction is not very effective and rarely goes beyond being a poor exercise, focused on the development of exclusively school skills: the perception of minimal pairs and the correct pronunciation of isolated sounds that have little to do with the communication skills required of a competent speaker (p.12).
It coincides with the previous criterion and it is considered that it is in an open, interactive and dynamic pronunciation model that responds to communicative criteria of adequacy where the teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes has a place.
One approach that provides references for interactive and socio-discursive language teaching and is booming in today's university settings is the approach of socio-discursive interactions, advocated by Bronckart (2017). In an interesting theoretical discussion in this regard, Riestra (2016) points out that it is an approach that differentiates phraseological aspects from epistemic aspects in language teaching whose object is language activity as human activity that mediates other activities; It analyzes the ontogenesis of conscious thought, the borrowings of philosophy , psychology, sociology and linguistics, converging in epistemological coincidences with Voloshinov's (1973), Bakhtin (1975) and Vygotsky's (1934) theses of social interactions.
As stated,in this theoretical configuration the ideas of Voloshinov are taken up (1973), who believes that no single sign exists as part of nature, but reflects and refracts and can even distort it ; in this way, the terrain of ideology coincides with that of signs. The Russian semiotic provides an important look to understand the determinant role of the socio historical conditions in the linguistic dynamics based on interaction and agreed on the language-society dialogue.
In turn, the works of Bakhtin (1975) come into force, supporting the idea of language as a concrete and situated activity as the guiding idea.
Language should not be conceived as an abstract structure full of grammatical rules" (...) Against the difference between language and speech, he showed language as a living process or what exists in the practical activity carried out by speakers", where " The subject must be understood as constitutively dialogical and that the social must be approached as a polyphonic process that has never been completed, always under construction" (Sisto, 2015, pp. 4-8).
For their part, the psychological theories of Vygotski (1934) demonstrate that the appropriation and internalization of signs are constitutive processes of conscious thought, properly human, because signs are always social. From the ontogenetic point of view, it introduces historicity in the formation of the human psyche and this comes to be understood as a result of the appropriation, by man, of the products of human culture in interaction with his fellow men. Language becomes the semiotic mediating tool in this process (Riestra, 2016, p. 57).
In the approach of the socio discursive interactionism, semiotic and psycholinguistic theories converge considering that the external or communicative language is internalized to become the basis of the internal language. In this process individual consciousness as ideological social event and the word as the semiotic material of the inner life of consciousness lead to a process of teaching and learning of the analysis of phonetic changes, not with a view univocal and monological, but as polyphonic and dialogical phenomena that occur in the concrete and situated discursive activity.
Generally, the current forward scientific allows learning processes are in constant enrichment; From this perspective, the referents addressed facilitate a teaching-learning process that reveals the adequacy of the analysis of phonetic changes to the different contexts of use and integrates the correction to the communicative dimension without which it is not possible to explain the phonetic changes in the discursive activity that are produced , as a result of the historical and cultural development of a natural language in its diversity, from the consideration that the language is not a finished process, but an activity under construction.
The analysis of the phonetic changes in phonetics and Spanish phonology
Florit (2017) points out that both phonology and phonetics study the phonic components of languages, their objective is to analyze the characteristics, and behavior of speech sounds and determines how they are organized to constitute sentences.
However, the study of the teaching-learning process of phonetics, pronunciation and phonetic correction in the mother tongue has been little discussed. This is explained from the social relevance given to teaching to read and write, since when the student enters the educational system it is assumed that he already knows how to articulate, speak and listen; However, he does not know how to dialogue (Riestra, 2016). Consequently, skills focused in the reading writing that make up the model to be imitated orally are developed, where the analysis of phonetic changes responds to rigid corrective criteria and models.
It agrees with Ferreiro, Álvarez and Ocaña (2018) when they state that in the phonological level teaching-learning process, in the degree course in Spanish Education-Literature, "The greatest limitation is framed in the priority given to theoretical learning, away from the needs of the future professional and to the detriment of development or practical skills" (s/p) and with the application of the communicative approach.
The Phonetic studies are relegated to one side and, for many teachers; it remains a key subject in professional training. The contents of the subject are increasingly distant from those of the middle school; among the Spanish Phonetics and Phonology teachers there is not enough clarity in the relationship between the phonetic plane and the phonological level with the processes of understanding and construction of new meanings. This shows that the potentialities of the subject are not exploited for the solution of students' pronunciation problems for a communicative purpose (Ferreiro et al., 2018, s/p).
Currently, the teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes in Spanish Phonetics and Phonology, in the degree course in Spanish-Literature Education is carried out in correspondence with the cognitive, communicative and sociocultural approach to teaching language and literature defined by Roméu (2007) as: A theoretical construction, result of the complex process of development of new linguistic concepts that focus their attention on discourse and on the processes of understanding and production of meanings in different contexts that , in our field, They interpret in the light of Marxist psychology and pedagogy, according to the postulates of the Historical- Cultural School and the most recent contributions of developing didactics (p.8).
The focus of the approach is to contribute to the development of the cognitive, communicative and sociocultural competence of the student; the cited author defines this competence (2013) as:
A psychological configuration that includes the cognitive and metacognitive capacities to understand and produce meanings, the knowledge about linguistic and discursive structures and the abilities and capacities to interact in diverse sociocultural contexts, with different ends and purposes. Thus, cognitive and metacognitive processes, the domain of discursive structures and the sociocultural performance of the individual are articulated, which implies their personological development (cognitive, affective-emotional, motivational, axiological and creative) (p. 55).
One of the first studies that covers the didactic treatment of the phonological level, from the aforementioned approach, is carried out by Pérez (2007), who defines phonological competence as "Component of cognitive, communicative and sociocultural competence that includes knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes that allow the units of the phonological level to be used in the process of understanding and producing meanings and interacting in various contexts" (p.141). In order to achieve this competence, it proposes two fundamental directions: the analysis of the structures of the phonological level and the phonetic correction.
However, in the didactic analysis of the structures of the phonological level not always part of a systematic and contextualization of sociolinguistic criteria, semiotic, communicative discourse and interactive, among others, that allow to establish the coherent correspondence between the context and use, which is considered an attempt against the achievement and development of the aforementioned skills. It agrees with Vilá (2016) in that culture, identity and Higher Education run cross-relationally, so it becomes urgent to dynamize the understanding of the sociocultural elements of the communication process, say internalization and appropriation of language, in human diversities.
Currently, in the teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes in Spanish Phonetics and Phonology, in the degree course in Spanish Literature Education, the formulation of the objective is due to its treatment as articulation error in pronunciation, without establishing diatonic, diacritic and diphase contextualization in the structure-use relationship, which encourages a prescriptive and mechanical analysis of phonetic changes, where rigid behaviors and attitudes prevail in the exercise of phonetic correction in the mother tongue.
It is considered that the orientation of the objective should not only encompass the analysis of phonetic changes as linguistic processes, but as a multicausal, historical, social, cultural and identity process. In this way, the students appropriate, in addition, the knowledge of the linguistic system, of other elements such as the values that in turn determine the attitudes; and from the cognitive, ideological, ethical and emotional components that influence the analysis of phonetic changes, configure individual experiences and contextualize them, in correspondence with their professional pedagogical way of acting.
In accordance with the developing didactic for Higher Education Diaz (2016) explains that the objective must be viewed in terms of the learner, must be verifiable and define the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, as "it is what is aspired to achieve within the teaching-learning process. It is the purpose of curricular training" (p.21).
For the treatment of content, knowledge, skills, values and attitudes are assumed as dimensions, as a fundamental way to acquire methods that allow students to transform the information they receive, transform them and the reality that surrounds them. In agreement, the use of investigative methods and independent work make it possible "for the student the transition from cognitive learning to metacognitive learning by making conscious what he learns ( ) permanently reflecting on how and for what he learns" (Díaz 2016, p 27).
The treatment of content for the analysis of phonetic changes, in the acting model, is organized around the concept of spelling or pronunciation of the written language, which makes it difficult to analyze the phonetic changes that are manifested in orality and that respond to the incidence of external and internal factors already treated in the present study.
For this, the study that is presented, advocates the students to fit the knowledge of the language system, of other elements such as values which in turn determine attitudes (Roméu, 2013, p.86) and, from this, they can configure individual and contextualized experiences, where the analysis of phonetic changes is encompassed as a multicausal, historical, social, cultural and identity process, in correspondence with their professional pedagogical way of acting.
It is also assumed that intra / inter and transdisciplinary relationships are established for the treatment of the content, based on the invariants of the content of the subject, discipline and career, which favors the integration of the knowledge of the sciences that make up the curriculum. However, there are no indications necessary to carry out this integration in a systematic way.
In the application of the methods, Díaz (2016) starts from analyzing the contradiction that is established between the social character of teaching methods, the individual character of learning methods and the need for the teacher to raise awareness of this contradiction , in for the sake of meeting learning objectives. From this position it favors a developer education, where the student transit from a cognitive learning towards a reflective metacognitive learning, conscious and how and what to learn, position with which we agree.
Regarding the classification of methods, Roméu (2013) proposes the binary classification of teaching methods: "( ) takes into account both the external aspect (degree of participation and protagonism of the subjects in the teaching-educational process), such as the internal aspect (level of development of the cognitive activity of the students "(p.86). In all cases, the author cited specifies, the application of the methods" (...) will give integrated treatment to discourse, cognition and interaction in sociocultural contexts" (p.91).
Specific methods, that in the current context are applied for the analysis of sound changes depending on the pronunciation and phonetic correction, have been founded, essentially, on methods applied in the teaching and learning of foreign languages (Pérez, 2013); These methods are considered, on the one hand, ineffective for university students who have consolidated the pronunciation of the mother tongue and , on the other hand, decontextualized in order to solve professional problems of a pedagogical career. He agrees with Cantero (2015) when he expresses:
Phonetic correction is not very effective and rarely goes beyond being a poor exercise, focused on (...) the perception of minimal pairs and the correct pronunciation of isolated sounds that have little to do with the communication skills required of a Competent speaker who will rarely utter an isolated sound, and will rarely, throughout his life, face minimal and descontextualized lexical pairs such as house / game or chicken / poyo (p.12).
In the specific didactics for the teaching of language and literature , the method of discursive-functional analysis already endorsed by the studies of Callejas is applied (1989), whose objectives to describe and explain are specified in the characterization of the structures that make up the text, explained in the relationships between the structure of discourse, cognitive processes and the sociocultural context, as found in the research by Rad and Galiano (2018) and Portal, Gallardo and Martínez (2019). The validity of having a method of analysis is undeniable; However, in the present study, it is agreed with García, Fierro and Montaño (2019) that: " ( ) the quality that distinguishes the communicative competence to be developed in students of pedagogical careers is in the analytical-discursive aspect, expressed at the level reached in the analysis of description-explanation and reflection- valuation on language and its impact on the quality of the processes of understanding and construction of meanings and senses" (s/p).
In this sense, it is considered that the reflection in the analysis implies that the student appropriates, in a conscious way, not only what and how but also why and for what the appropriate phonetic changes to each context of use are analyzed: In this way Reflection on language, literature and communication in general allows students' linguistic and communicative awareness to be gradually and progressively promoted about the resources and techniques they use in each situation and communication context in which they participate as subjects. Likewise, it allows having a greater awareness of linguistic diversity, in order to avoid prejudicial and segregationist behaviors (MES, 2016, p. 171).
Regarding the assessment, García, Fierro and Montaño (2019) consider that "It represents the result of the influence of a complex integration of objective and subjective factors (needs, interests, goals, knowledge, previous experience, ideals, world conception), which interact in the reader-text-context-author relationship" (s/ p). The authors of l this article consider that, by assessing the realizations described and explained in various text types make sense as actual embodiment in a historical specific context; Thus, by the valuation consciousness it is generated using the phonetic changes and it propitiates respect and acceptance for different phonetics varieties in use.
The sociolinguistic, pragmatic, communicative, discursive and interactive implications enable a change in the traditional teaching of the language-language-speech relationship in language-speech-language, thereby favoring a teaching-learning process of the analysis of phonetic changes since an inter -Multi and transdisciplinary vision.
The teaching-learning analysis of phonetic changes in phonetics and phonology is conceived in terms of the direction of the process of teaching and learning of Spanish-literature as part of the social mission of this professional and, at the same time, it allows to influence in its formation as a communicative, discursive, cultural and identity model in the social environment in which it interacts, to transform it as it is transformed.
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