Mendive. Revista de Educación, july-september 2019; 17(3): 454-465

Translated from the original in Spanish

Management educational work in the university student institutions: methodological theoretical foundations


La gestión del trabajo educativo en las instituciones universitarias: fundamentos teórico-metodológicos


Yurien Lazo Fernández1, Juan Lázaro Márquez Marrero1, Mayra Ordaz Hernández1

1University of Pinar del Río «Hermanos Saíz Monte de Oca». Cuba. E-mail:


Received: April 23rd, 2019.
Approved: June 18th, 2019. 



Faced with the need to continue improving the process of training in Higher Education, with emphasis on educational work and considering its projection as a priority, from a management that adapts to the demands of the current context, a group of ideas are proposed that model the process of management of educational work, with the recognition of specific strategies that are oriented towards the particularities of this scenario and in consonance with the policy of perfecting the system of management of the process of integral formation of university students in the basic link. This process is conceived in its transit through stages that lead to the formation of knowledge, habits, values and attitudes in function of the improvement of coexistence, interpersonal relations and socio-cultural development, through psychopedagogical orientation and the coordinated and integrated action of all educational managers who participate in personalized attention to university students. It is considered that this proposal contributes to the improvement of the management of the educational work in the university, as a key element in this context, insofar as it propitiates systematicity, coherence and efficiency in the personalized attention to the university student, which undoubtedly impacts on the personal-social-professional development of the students with their protagonist participation in the process.

Key words: University; education work; management; orientation


Ante la necesidad de continuar perfeccionando el proceso de formación en la educación superior, con énfasis en la labor educativa y considerando como prioridad su proyección, desde una gestión que se adecue a las demandas del contexto actual, se proponen un grupo de ideas que modelan el proceso de gestión del trabajo educativo, con el reconocimiento a estrategias específicas que se orientan hacia las particularidades de este escenario y en consonancia con la política de perfeccionamiento del sistema de gestión del proceso de formación integral de los estudiantes universitarios en el eslabón de base. Se concibe este proceso en su tránsito por etapas que conducen a lograr la formación de conocimientos, hábitos, valores y actitudes en función del mejoramiento de la convivencia, las relaciones interpersonales y el desarrollo sociocultural, mediante la orientación psicopedagógica y el accionar coordinado e integrado de todos los gestores educativos que participan en la atención personalizada al estudiante universitario. Se considera que esta propuesta contribuye al perfeccionamiento de la gestión del trabajo educativo en la universidad, como un elemento clave en este contexto, en tanto propicia la sistematicidad, coherencia y eficacia en la atención personalizada al estudiante universitario, la que sin dudas impacta en el desarrollo personal-social-profesional de los estudiantes con su participación protagónica en el proceso.

Palabras clave: universidad; trabajo educativo; gestión; orientación.



Achieving an increasingly developing and integral formation of the new generations is the social object of the University, which means understanding that the training is ineffective if it only serves to guarantee the appropriation of certain knowledge and skills. (Horruitiner, P. 2006 ).

This author's reflection is shared about the importance of addressing the formation of convictions in students, based on the determination of a value system that fosters their full performance as professionals in society.

The execution of actions in this regard, should be subject to the direction of all those who participate in university education, systematically joining the management of all the processes that are developed in Higher Education. One of the ways to contribute to the formation of values must be the educational work that is carried out in the university context, depending on the integral training of future graduates.

In line with these approaches, continuous research is recognized as a necessity in the management of all the processes carried out in universities, in order to improve the educational work that is carried out as part of the professional training. (Garbizo, 2016)

In this sense, the present communication has focused on the relationships and functions of the agents involved in personalized attention to the university student from the academic year and other spaces, say principal professor, guiding professors, tutors of the academic year and the managers of Educational work of the Student Residence. (Ordaz and Márquez, 2014)

This approach is consistent with the policy of improvement from the base link drawn up by the Cuban Ministry of Higher Education in recent years and with the regulations and provisions implemented in university student residences, with the aim of strengthening personalized attention to the resident student (MES, 2012, 2014).



The university institutions welcome subjects with different histories and trajectories, which carry different meanings, but that must be oriented towards a single objective, this demands the development of educational proposals that favorably affect students and educational managers who attend in a personalized way your needs.

These proposals must take into account that the subjects are inserted in a variability of situations, of contexts, of cultures, that require a collaborative work with the constant challenge of recognizing and respecting diversity, through dialogue in reflective and critical spaces with the optics of building new knowledge, promoting a social interaction, which dialectically articulated, allows to transform this educational scenario.

In consequence it is necessary to promote in this scenario, interpersonal relationships and living in different spaces and significantly influence the social-professional staff student development proposals that take into account their individual needs and potential, also considering the ones of the group in which they are inserted and those of the university context.

In order to complete the above, in the projection of educational work it is proposed to take into consideration as essential elements:

1. The coordinated and integrated action of all educational agents involved in the management of educational work, which is strengthened by the articulation of the actions that must be designed from the educational projects of the brigades.

2. The use of psycho pedagogical guidance systematically in personalized attention to students taking advantage of the potential offered by the new educational work structure designed for this scenario. (Ordaz and Márquez, 2014)

These ideas are based on research from theoretical-methodological conceptions that are based on the materialist dialectical philosophy, while it is considered that from these the understanding is achieved in the analysis of phenomena and processes, with a complete, multilateral and objective of the educational reality vision.

Historical-Cultural Theory as the basis of the educational work process

The assumptions of several theorists among which Vigotsky and his historical-cultural theory stand out, emerge as immediate references in research to recognize the unity between the biological and the social things in an integrative way, the socio-historical determinism of the personality, its regulatory character conscious and active, the role of self-consciousness, the unity of the affective and the cognitive and the reflex character of the human psyche.

These authors place psychic development as a product of the process of appropriation of different forms of social experience, which is manifested in the recognition of the role of experiences and experiences in the formation of personality in general.

The Cultural Historical Approach of Vigotsky, S. L (1987) recognizes that human behavior is the result of the process of internalization of the social that is refracted in a particular way in each individual, which evidences the relationship of the biological and the social and as they condition each other.

This author gives reason for this relationship by postulating the dynamic law of development or social situation of development, which explains that each moment of development is characterized by a peculiar combination of internal and external factors that condition the experiences that the subject has in that period and the new achievements or psychological developments of the stage.

Through this approach, personality is studied as a diverse unit in a given space and time, where social interactions between individuals become the source of subjectivity. Society, understood as culture, becomes the mediating agent of the relationship between external behavior and internal behavior. So the social factor is conceived as the driving force of psychic development.

Vigotsky, S. L (1987) defines the category Next Development Zone (ZDP) from which it recognizes the role played by others, its importance in the activation of the potential of the individual, as well as the possibilities of educability with which account to appropriate the culture accumulated by humanity, which can be achieved from the activity.

This reveals the importance of the role of educational managers in the direction of the process that takes place in a very peculiar and vulnerable context, as it is framed by constant interactions that demand acceptance, respect for diversity, and assertiveness in the management of standards that are established in terms of living together.

It is recurrent to recognize the role of experiences in the formation of personality as another of the ideas developed by Vigotsky, S. L (1987) that undoubtedly is implicit in the previous ones but that has an invaluable theoretical-methodological value for the proposal that results from this investigation.

From this postulate it is recognized that the significance of the different experiences and events that the individual faces in his relationship with others and the environment, depends on the experiences he has in them, based on the meaning they gave to his life and how they influenced in its subjectivity. The orientation as a process and the link on which it is based are based on the experiences that the subject accumulates. (Del Pino and Recarey 2005).

Consequently, with the type of relationship established in the investigated process, it is important to recognize another of Vigotsky, S. L's (1987) ideas related to levels of aid. This author seeks, from a dynamic and developmental conception of the diagnosis, to test and evaluate the capacity of reserved, latent learning that the subject has, that is, its potentialities and establish the path for a developmental intervention (Del Pino and Recarey, 2005).

Regarding this relationship of support, of support to the student in his time at the university, Ordaz (2011) assigns a leading role to psycho-pedagogical orientation, considering it as a process that involves the entire institution and whose central objective should be the realization of educational work, aimed at the multilateral training of university students' personality, integrated into professional training (Ordaz and Márquez, 2015) . Take a tour of the work of several Cuban authors who, when studying the particular relationships that occur in educational contexts, is based on the historical-cultural current, and in this regard affirms that:

They agree that orientation is a helping relationship; in attributing to the subjects an active role; in considering the problems from a social understanding; see the need to stimulate the potential of students and conceive the performance of the teacher's guiding function as part of their duties as a professional educator. (Ordaz, 2011 , p. 66)

1. The Integral Approach for Educational and Political Ideological Work in universities, its concretization in educational projects

In this sense it is transcendent to retake a group of referents that support the idea that is proposed from the intention of strengthening the links between the educational agents involved in personalized attention to the university student.

«The Integral Approach for Educational and Political-Ideological Work in Universities», is recognized as the fundamental instrument for educational work in Cuban universities, the considerations made by Horruitiner, (2007 ) on this approach express the meaning, character, roles and spaces that the educational work occupies in higher education institutions and the necessary integration of the educational processes specified in educational projects that allow the integration of all factors in the educational work.

In this regard, the MES explicitly states:

The Integral Approach includes all levels, structures and organizational forms of the university, to guarantee the formation of a comprehensive general culture of the student. Due to the breadth of its content The Integral Approach is the main strategy of our organization and is reflected in all the objectives of the university's work, the educational project is carried out as a working method. The educational project is the realization of the integral approach in the base. (MES, 2012, p. 8)

It is necessary to take into account in terms of this approach that the Ministry of Higher Education defined as one of the Master Strategies its creative application, and as one of the strategic actions, reinforce the educational work in the Student Residence

The Student Residence is a basic component of the Integral Approach. The results achieved indicate that it is still necessary to work intensively in the educational work, in such a way that it constitutes a space for systematic debate with the students that contribute to their training. (MES, 2012, p. 9)

«This Comprehensive Approach includes the subjective components of the fundamental processes of the university: professors, students and non-teaching workers and its direction is carried out by objectives based on values». (Lazo, García and García, 2017, p. 177) From this approach, the educational projects of the brigades and academic years become particularly relevant.

It is recognized from this approach the teacher-student binomial, fundamental relationship in university life. It is up to the teacher to conduct the training process, in which, the student becomes an active component of the same, by providing creative answers to the solution of problems that arise in the assimilation of knowledge, skills and values (MES, 2012, p. 9 ).

In the educational work that is projected in the university context means from this relationship (teacher-student), the leading role of the student in the realization of the brigade's educational project and the teacher's guiding function. (Garbizo, 2016 )

The educational project of the brigades, when designing this proposal, is recognized as a key element, since from these it is necessary to channel the educational work to be carried out in all spaces, with the design of concrete actions that impact on personal-social development -professional students and sociocultural development as an important element to take into account in the university. (MES, 2013)

In correspondence with the above, the need to achieve brigade projects of the different academic years is emphasized, so that the students are protagonists in the actions, which should enable their active participation in both processes (teacher and educational work) and also evaluate how they participate and contribute to each other in their integral training, this constitutes an appreciable weakness in each of the educational projects.

In order to channel the link between all educational agents that attend university students in a personalized way and achieve articulation between curricular and extracurricular, it is necessary to establish roles, in order to be consistent in the influence on the student.

So that all the information related to the development of the student flows at every moment of the school year, meeting spaces must be conceived between all the educational agents where they come together, a representation of the agents involved in the student's training in order to make analysis, valuations around situations that violate the regulations, and take together, decisions in this regard.

2. The psycho pedagogical orientation in personalized attention to university students: their conception from pedagogical approaches.

The process of educational work in the university directly involves a group of subjects (professionals), who as part of their performance must perform personalized attention actions with university students.

This specific activity of professionals is based on the possibility of developing personalized actions with the student, based on the criteria of a group of authors that address the orientation in educational contexts Del Pino and Recarey , (2005); Ojalvo, (2005); Ordaz, (2011), those who agree that educational work is the essential objective of orientation in the university context.

In this senseOjalvo (2005) points out, that the teacher should tutor the student in his transit through this context, explicitly recognizing that it is a right that the student has; Although recently, at the University of Pinar del Río itself, peer tutoring experiences have also been carried out, with satisfactory results. Peer tutoring is a special form of guidance, characterized by the support and accompaniment that students perform with each other, as part of their group relationships. (Ordaz, García and Márquez, 2017); (Ordaz, García and Márquez, 2018)

In these cases, students of higher years are those who execute the tutoring, performing non-professional orientation modalities (García, Ordaz and Márquez, 2015).

However, from the professional role of the teachers, specifically if we start from the fact that one of the functions to be performed is the counselor, the activation of potentialities in the student is facilitated from the relationship established with the same, providing the resources, necessary information, from the use of techniques, mechanisms that cause change, transformation.

The psycho-pedagogical orientation in the process of educational work in the university is recognized as a supportive relationship that favors the personal-social-professional development of university students. The educational nature of the psycho-pedagogical orientation process also makes it a training strategy. (Ramos, Ordaz and Pacheco, 2018).

This personality orientation process leads us to reflect on how to meet the fundamental basic needs of subjects living in a work-centered world, and how to help meet individual needs with full respect for their freedom choice.

The aim is to achieve «meaningful learning is to ensure that the information he receives has a meaning for him that meets certain needs and is one of overcoming, affection, personal fulfillment». (García, O. 2016, p. 30)

In this sense and being consistent with the particularities and potentialities of this educational scenario, the use of dialogue, assessment, reflective reasoning in this guiding process is considered appropriate, which will undoubtedly imprint a deeply human, formative and axiological character to the educational work

It is considered that the psycho-pedagogical orientation is adequate to identify the orientation with an updated, globalizing approach, in addition to linking psychological and pedagogical elements from its semantics.

The guiding function, as part of the work of teachers of any educational level, allows to appreciate in practice and theory, that particular combination that occurs between psychological and pedagogical factors, which in their unit has come to determine the denomination of a branch of psychology applied to education, with emphasis on the investigation of educational problems through psychological methods and concepts. (Márquez and Ordaz, 2018, p.166); (Márquez and Ordaz, 2015).

Since the establishment of this in the investigated process, it is consistent with the interests of the Cuban education project, which recognizes the importance of influencing the student in a personalized way throughout his training, and his right to receive guidance. (Márquez and Ordaz, 2014)

Due to its character, the educational orientation in the university is aimed at facilitating the development of the student's personality, expressed in their culture, language and thought; in the way in which they take advantage of learning in the regulation of their way of thinking and acting according to external conditions by building their representations, experiences, interests, emotions, values, in correspondence with their professional identity. It is in this framework that the teacher is entrusted with the guiding function. (Sánchez, P. 2017, p. 1)

In this sense, mentoring as a way of realizing the orientation in the process of educational work in the university, allows to attend the social personal; prepare the student for life in a context very marked by interpersonal relationships, the diverse origins, cultures and other factors that at certain times become barriers that the student needs to overcome, but that can be exploited in their training, as well as their professional future may be interacting in coexistence with counterparts who come from other regions, and even from other nationalities.

The psycho pedagogical orientation in the process of educational work in the university is assumed under the criterion that it promotes helping relationships between students and teacher guides, tutors, teachers of educational work of the residence and the psycho pedagogical or psychologists of the institution.

In this sense it is important to achieve an adequate characterization of the students' behavior in the current university context, by virtue of this it is considered elementary to recognize their social development situation, which means interpreting it as a given combination between the internal psychic processes of these and the contextual conditions in which they operate, which will be conditioning their development.

Second, that the university context is characterized in its essential aspects and the most frequent educational problems are identified.

It is proposed that the identification of risk factors in students (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, psychotropic drugs, among others) and the assessment of needs in this order be included as important elements to be taken into account, incorporating at this time the Specialists in this area may be those of the extension department, among others.

Starting from an adequate characterization of the context and of the students on the basis of collegiate criteria among the managers involved in the educational work, will favor the planning as a vital function of the institution through which the objectives, plans and programs will be designed necessary to achieve the goals, as an intelligent way of thinking, acting and working in the present and future in the predetermination of the course of actions.

It is considered that planning in this context should replace individual activity with joint effort, be concretized through the organization, determining the way in which the conceived purposes can be achieved, which implies thinking through objectives and actions in advance, based on methods, plans or logic, properly selecting the goals to be achieved, that is what to do, how to do, when to do and where.

It is proposed that this planning have a markedly strategic projection, which means that it is continuous, systematic, reflective, participatory, critical, flexible, and comprehensive, as a guiding process that promotes the change that precedes and presides over the action, from the ability to assimilate with greater agility the changes that occur in the environment.

It is necessary to define the goals and objectives of the educational work jointly among all the agents involved, to define responsibilities in the fulfillment of the actions oriented to these ends, with the intention of organizing in a rational and coherent way all the actions that will be executed subsequently by those involved in the process.

The execution should be revealed as the ability to adequately conduct the purposes of educational work in this context, through the successful guidance of the group of educational managers that promotes the development of university students from the promotion, orientation, and from their creative capacity.

For the authors' consideration, it is the implementation of the actions, methods and plans that will contribute to the achievement of objectives and goals, which includes among other important aspects the communication in the collective, its motivation and its commitment, for which it is It is important to establish relationships and interrelations with and between the members of the group, while cooperation overcomes the limitations of individual capacity.

From this vision, the execution of educational work in the university is carried out with a strategic perspective, which guarantees the deployment of the different elements of the planning from a coherent, anticipatory vision, attending at all times to the particularities of the context (as a space of coexistence) and the peculiarities of the students, according to the educational needs identified in the diagnosis.

The educational activities that are planned and executed must be structured by means of a set of actions and operations that are oriented to favor coexistence and socio-cultural development, promoting and facilitating the personal-social-professional development of the students.

These actions and operations should be projected to: personalized attention to students with the use of methods and procedures that promote the development of knowledge, ethical, aesthetic, humanistic, environmental and patriotic values, habits, attitudes that favor interpersonal relationships that occur in coexistence, health promotion and healthy lifestyles (prevention programs), from healthy recreation that must occur in the development of cultural, sports and other activities that enhance their comprehensive training.

It is recognized as a fundamental moment the evaluation of the educational work process, which aims to improve the student in all aspects of his personality, this should collect all the most significant elements found from the information obtained in the previous stages.

To understand the essence of this evaluation and to guide it properly, it has been essential to consult Cuban authors who have developed valuable works on this subject, from the systematized the value that is attached to the evaluation of the axiological training of young people is appreciated, which It is based on the cultural historical approach of (Vigotsky, SL, 1987).

From these criteria, the evaluation of the results in the formation of attitudes and values is recognized, so that the information derived from it can guide the process, refine it, rectify it if necessary, and provide feedback to the main subjects of their own training.

In this sense, the search for constant information is required to be able to perform a critical analysis of the strengths (achievements) and weaknesses (difficulties) expressed implicitly or explicitly in the process and its results, in order to project possible solutions to eliminate or compensate for difficulties in both the individual and group order.



1. The educational work in the university context is today a key element in the integral formation of the professional future; this requires systematic education work that is carried out in all scenarios in this context, for which it is necessary to focus the actions according to the particularities of each training process, from scientifically based proposals.

2. The process of educational work in the university is strengthened with the integration of all the agents involved in the integral formation of the university student, and the transit through stages that lead to the integral formation of the student from the use of specific methods, procedures and Psycho-pedagogical orientation in personalized attention.

3. The educational strategy to be implemented in the university context must be nourished by psycho-pedagogical actions aimed at promoting socio-cultural development and personalized attention to students, to achieve a better coexistence between the groups of students that converge in the different spaces of this context from their personal-social-professional development.



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