Mendive. Revista de Educación, april-june 2019; 17(2):293-309

Translated from the original in Spanish

Thematic progression and coherence as textual criteria in the construction of paragraphs


La progresión temática y la coherencia como criterios textuales en la construcción de párrafos


Teresa Delfina Iglesias Hernández1, Adaymí González Valdés1, Deisy Leidy Hernández Rivera2

University of Pinar del Río «Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca». Pinar del Río, Cuba. Email:
"Carlos Ulloa" Urban Basic High School. Pinar del Río, Cuba.


Received: November 11th, 2018. 
Approved: April 5th, 2019. 



Given the indirect and mediate nature of written communication, it is necessary to present the ideas accurately and unambiguously. This implies not only exposing them, but organizing them progressively and relating them through certain connectors and the use of punctuation marks, hence the objective of this article is to reflect on the theoretical criteria based on the grammar of the text, about the thematic progression and coherence, on which the construction of paragraphs is based. Methods of bibliographic analysis, induction-deduction and analysis-synthesis were used in its elaboration. The main result was a theoretical analysis on the subject that can serve as a basis for methodological proposals to reorganize the textual construction teaching processes and it was concluded that the text structure written in paragraphs constituted essentially the logical expression of the meaning, based on in the permanence or advancement of the theme and coherence, essential characteristics of any text.

Keywords: linguistic education; text construction; written communication.


Dado el carácter indirecto y mediato de la comunicación escrita , se hace necesario presentar las ideas de forma precisa y sin ambigüedades. Esto implica no sólo exponerlas, sino organizarlas de forma progresiva y relacionarlas mediante determinados conectores y el empleo de signos de puntuación, de ahí que el objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre los criterios teóricos basados en la gramática del texto, acerca de la progresión temática y la coherencia, en los que se sustenta la construcción de párrafos. Se emplearon en su elaboración los métodos de análisis bibliográfico, inducción-deducción y análisis-síntesis. Se obtuvo, como principal resultado un análisis teórico sobre la temática que puede servir de fundamento a propuestas metodológicas para reorganizar los procesos de enseñanza de la construcción textual y se concluyó que la estructuración del texto escrito en párrafos constituye esencialmente la expresión lógica del significado, basado en la permanencia o avance del tema y la coherencia, características esenciales de todo texto.

Palabras clave: educación lingüística; construcción de textos; comunicación escrita. 



The teaching of the mother tongue is a learning process that encompasses all school levels and implies providing the individual with the necessary and indispensable skills to express and interpret others.

The social responsibility of the mother tongue teachers is to ensure that students communicate better in different situations, which means mastering the following skills: speaking, listening, reading and writing correctly. The development of communicative competence is the essential objective of the subject. Castro and Páez (2015); Aijón (2017)

In particular, construction education involves the analysis of some differentiating characteristics of oral language and written language: in the oral language, the interlocutor is in front of the issuer; Communication is quick, spontaneous and immediate, so it occurs with relative ease. It also relies on other media such as intonation of the voice, gestures and expressiveness of the face that does not have written language. In the written communication, the sender does not have the receiver before him, so he only has the linguistic means and auxiliary signs to express himself, so that the inappropriate use of a preposition, of a conjunction, of a pronoun can vary the meaning of the message, because the text builder is not present to clarify and avoid a misunderstanding. García and Fierro (2015); Costa (2017)

When the child goes to school, he has been able to communicate for a long time even if there are inaccuracies and is forced, at five or six years, to learn to read and write. It is much easier to speak than write and the student suffers many times when he hears the order: Write a paragraph or a composition.

The ability to use written language does not develop spontaneously. It is subject to didactically conceived principles regarding its development; however, the way this is interpreted has led many teachers to think otherwise. González and Arévalo (2017)

Cassany (1994) distinguishes four basic approaches to the teaching of written expression, based on several aspects: learning objectives, type of exercises, programming, etc. Each approach emphasizes a particular aspect of the skill:

1. Grammar approach. You learn to write with the knowledge and mastery of the grammar of the language system

2. Functional approach. You learn to write through the understanding and production of different types of written texts.

3. Procedural approach or based on the composition process. The learner has to develop cognitive composition processes to be able to write good texts.

4. Focus based on content. The written language is a very powerful instrument that can be used to learn in other subjects, at the same time that the expression develops.

Meanwhile, Cantillo and Vargas (2015) state that,

«In the teaching-learning of the construction of scientific texts, the student's knowledge about the topic to be addressed is appealed, a basic tool for analyzing and reconstructing ideas in which multiple knowledge is integrated». (p. 6)

Which of these approaches is the most valid? It is clear that these four didactic lines are not exclusive, but complementary. Any act of writing, and therefore also of teaching, contains grammar, types of texts, composition and content processes, so that these four factors must be considered in some way, choosing one or the other approach is a matter of tendency or of emphasis: to highlight some aspects over others.

Taking into account the current situation, the approaches that can bring more renewal and improve the language class are functional and procedural, because they provide a global work of types of texts and procedures that may be currently the most neglected points.

Manuel Casado Velarde, when referring to the grammar of the text, defines it as "second form of linguistics of the text"; it deals with the text as a level of structuring a certain language. Its purpose is, therefore, the constitution of texts in certain languages, insofar as there are specifically idiomatic rules that refer to them.

For the grammar of the text, the text represents one of several levels with which this component of a particular language operates: text, sentence, phrase and word. The linguistics of the text, meanwhile, considers that the text represents the individual level of language in terms of concrete manifestation of speaking in general and of the historical language:

First level: speaking (or "language") in general.

Second level: historical language or language.

Third level: Married text, (1993, p.34.)

The level of the text is, in both cases, the same. What he does in each approach is to take it differently, in effect, it is one thing to produce a text based on the knowledge of a certain textual tradition (sonnet, novel, business letter, etc.) and another is to know how to build a text on the basis of idiomatic knowledge, that is, according to the rules of a historical language Co'eriu, (1981, p.57). Suárez (2017) believes that «(...) a text brings together the contents necessary for its own reading».

For many authors such as Iglecias, Hernández and Slisko (2017); Penhavel and Gomes (2017); Martínez and Santa María (2019) from a theoretical and methodological point of view, the distinction between textual function and idiomatic function is very important, a distinction on which the differentiation between linguistics of the text and grammar of the text is supported. With the expressions textual function and idiomatic function, we identify many other types of linguistic content. The textual function (also called meaning) designates the content of a text or a part of a text.

The idiomatic function or meaning in the strict sense designates the content provided by the idiomatic units of a particular historical language. This type of linguistic content is organized in a peculiar way in each language; two major classes of meaning are often distinguished: lexical and grammatical, without it being easy to establish a radical separation between one and another class. Pérez and Franco (2015)

The grammar of the text, on the other hand, deals with those functions or idiomatic contents oriented towards the constitution of texts. It is important, therefore, to maintain the distinction between language functions and textual functions. This distinction is manifested in the lack of correspondence between textual functions and categories of grammatical meaning. Quintero (2018)

From the foregoing, the grammar of the text does not represent anything other than the extension of the traditional idiomatic grammar beyond the sentence syntax. Its object, as already said, is constituted by the idiomatic procedures oriented towards the construction of texts.

However, it has revolutionized the approaches to teaching and learning languages, without implying any transformation in the way of communicating, hence the authors of this article have considered it appropriate that their objective is to reflect on the theoretical criteria based in the grammar of the text, about the thematic progression and coherence, on which the construction of paragraphs is based.



The grammar of the text does not represent a new specific type of grammar, in the sense of what we call a structural, generative-transformational, or functional grammar. In principle, each of these grammars could be adjective as "textual" insofar as they deal with describing the object we call text. Therefore, to the extent that linguists "recognize that among their tasks is to study the structures of discourse, it will no longer make sense to speak of grammar of the text or linguistics of the text: only grammar and linguistics will exist "TA Van Dyk, (1983: 18)

Marina Parra, referring to textual linguistics, points out «communication is not carried out with isolated words and sentences but through texts» Parra, (1991, p. 22), which highlights its importance as a fundamental communicative unit.

There are various text definitions Romeu (1985); Van Dijk (1983); Saldívar and Rodríguez (2018), but they all coincide in pointing out, in one way or another, that they are oral and written records in their various forms, bearers of meanings. It is everything that is said or written in a specific situational context and with a communicative intention. A text can be a sentence, a paragraph or a novel. What defines it as such is that it will always be a meaningful statement, which expresses a meaning, which has a certain intention and occurs in a given context, regardless of its extension.

In the act of constructing the text, all levels are interwoven: the semantic level or significance; the one of expression or linguistic formalization of the meaning and the phonological one (of sonorization or writing). In other words, the meaning is constructed linguistically and is materialized externally as oral or written expression. Considering the text as a fabric, several networks are present, which correspond to the language levels: first, a semantic network; second, a grammatical network and third, a phonological network.

All text that is constructed can be defined as such, as long as it has the following characteristics:

1. Communicative character. Its essential function is to communicate meanings in a specific situation.

2. Social character. It is given because it is used in the process of human social interaction; it is a fundamental linguistic unit.

3. Pragmatic character. The text responds to the intention and purpose of the issuer in a specific communicative situation.

4. Semantic closure. It is an independent semantic unit; it does not depend on other texts to be understood.

5. Consistency it is a logical sequence of propositions, expressed in sentences that are joined together by means of syntactic elements, which makes it perfectly understandable.

6. Structured character. It is given by the systemic nature of the text, that is, as this is a whole, whose parts are perfectly interrelated in two planes: that of the content (or semantic macrostructure) and that of the expression (or formal macrostructure). Romeu, (1985, p.77)

The content level is integrated by the meaning organized in hierarchical levels so that the upper level (theme) contains the lower levels that conform it (sub-themes, thematic propositions and concepts). To the extent that all levels are interrelated logically and understandably, the text is said to be consistent. This constitutes a semantic category that refers to the organization of the meaning of the text.

The meaning cannot be known if it is not externalized: it must be expressed through linguistic signs. The level of the expression, like that of the content, is organized into hierarchical levels that correlate with the corresponding ones of the content: the theme is expressed in the discourse; the subtopics, in paragraphs or segments; thematic propositions, in sentences and concepts, in phrases. To the extent that all the elements that make up the structure are perfectly interrelated, the text is said to have cohesion. This category is manifested in the expression plane and is revealed in the lexical-grammatical structure of the text.

At present, the criterion is sustained that the property that defines the text as such is textuality, understood as the integrity of the text, both formal and content, that is, cohesion (expression plan) and coherence (content plan). These categories therefore constitute the essential characteristics of any text. About them we will return in the epigraph

Thematic progression. Conceptualization

a) Angelina Roméu (1992 p. 68) when referring to the text construction process, highlights four essential stages:

1. Motivation. Communication arises because of the human need for mutual interaction. Every communicative act responds to an intention and purpose.

2. Planning. Once the goal is set, the man plans the actions and operations he must perform.

3. Realization. The message is elaborated and emitted, using the linguistic signs.

4. Achievement of the purpose. It constitutes the obtaining of the results according to the planned objectives. The correspondence of the results with the objective is checked.

Referring to the logical expression of meaning, he points out that it can be seen in four essential characteristics of the text:

a) The permanence or progress of the subject,     

b) Coherence,     

c) The relevance,     

d) The search for the finished text.    

The permanence or advance of the text is something instinctive based on the relationship between the known (theme) and its progress or progression with the new that is added (rema). Consistency is given by the compatibility of all ideas in the text. The relevance has to do with the gradual introduction of the new information, its explicitness and the adequate interrelationship between the causality and purpose of the facts. Finally, every finished text has a semantic closure, a conclusion. Romeu, (1992, p.44)

Magdalena Veramonte in «The new linguistics in secondary education», emphasizes that thematic progression is an essential condition for the semanticity of the text; the theme is developed (it is dynamic) by acquiring the informational charges that are being dosed and injected into its future through resources.

The sender "assembles" in his semantic consciousness the text he produces, with the pieces of information that is projecting his knowledge of the world and his sensitivity; but he cannot put all the information together, but he must distribute it throughout the production. Veramonte, (1993, p.14)

On the other hand, Rafael Núñez and Enrique del Teso in relation to the permanence and development in the text state that in every text there is a series of constants and reiterations in the allusion to certain individuals who hold a thematic unit of the whole. At the same time, in a text there must be some kind of progress or regeneration of the information. Simple repetition does not produce the sensation of textuality in a set. Moreover, the mere addition of information units that are structured so that some type of development is recognized in them does not confer textuality on a set of linguistic manifestations.

As the text progresses, the things that are known and those that are new are different. The set of shared knowledge is modified as the text progresses. Torres da Silva (2016)

So that the text has a certain unity. There must be a thematic record, which will mean, among other things, that the designation of certain individuals repeatedly. The construction of a text does not consist of accumulating predications and properties of one to a few individuals that always remain at the same point, as if the rems of the sentences were arrows that were going to affect the same target repeatedly.

The stylistic norm of not accumulating uses of the same word in a small space should lead us to look for different expressions, which say the same at the point of the text in which we are, whether or not they are synonymous. It is not exactly about synonyms, but about corresponding expressions (expressions that designate the same object or situation). Synonymy guarantees correferentiality, but there are correcting expressions that are not synonyms.

These authors agree that the use of corrective expressions with other previous expressions that involve using data previously introduced as new in the text, not only serves for thematic permanence, but also for the text to be presented as a development, as something that is constantly advancing the starting point. In addition, it means that the editor is producing his sentences according to the new context that the text is setting up.

Felipe Zayas in his work «Grammar activities from a textual perspective» defines the thematic progression as «the development of the informative structure of the text», referring to the types of thematic progression proposes that it follows three basic models:

a. Constant topic progression.

b. Linear progression.

c. Progression of derivative topics. Hernando, FZ (1994, p. 34).

In each of them, certain anaphoric procedures tend to appear preferentially in the subject position.

A. Constant theme progression: the same theme appears in successive sentences while the paddles are different. This type of thematic progression.

B. Linear progression: the row of a sentence, or part of it, is the subject of the next sentence.

C. Progression of derivative themes: the themes come from a hypertema that is found, either at the beginning of the passage, or in the preceding passage.

D. These different types of thematic progression will have to be taken into account in grammatical activities focused on anaphoric cohesion procedures.

Consistency. Conceptualization

Constructing a text correctly implies mastering both the semantic and formal macrostructure, as well as achieving coherence in terms of content and cohesion in terms of expression and knowing the semantic macrostructure of the text, which is called the schematic superstructure and that characterizes the global form of the text, determined by certain constructive rules of the format (macro- rules).

When highlighting the characteristics of the progression, in the previous section, coherence was indicated as an essential property, because thanks to it a succession of statements is presented as an exponent of a topic, the internal completeness of a text is achieved.

Manuel Casado Velarde, in his work «Introduction to the grammar of the Spanish text», considers coherence as one of the essential properties of any text and defines it as «the connection of the parts in a whole». Married, (1993, p.19)

He points out that this property therefore implies unity. For some authors such as Coseriu, coherence represents a particular step in what he calls congruence or conformity of linguistic activity with the universal norms of speaking. These universal norms of speaking constitute the called elocucional knowledge, integrated by the knowledge of the world, the requirement of clarity and non-repetition, not saying the obvious, the impossible or the extravagant, etc. In addition, among these principles is coherence.

Velarde concludes by highlighting that cohesion - another of the essential properties of the text - is made up of all those linguistic functions that indicate relationships between the elements of a text. This feature provides a link between the constituents of the text, but does not guarantee the coherence of such text alone.

For Co'eriu , (1981 p.219) "the texts are not only produced with linguistic means, but also - and to a different extent depending on the case - with the help of extralinguistic means". In other words: in the construction of a text comes into play not only a competence language of the speaker, but also what is called by different authors or schools, "expressive competence" and "know elocucional " Co'eriu (1981) , "Pragmatic competence" (Chomsky) or "communicative competence" ( Hymes ).

The cohesion of a text contributes multiple and varied procedures, such as the recurrence (total or partial) of the elements or structures, the paraphrase, the substitution (the use of proformas), the ellipsis, as well as a series of resources to establish relationships between events or situations in a given textual universe, such as tenses, appearance and what we call markers or discursive operators (particles). It also contributes to the constitution of the meaning of the text and its cohesion, the order of the constituents in the statements, depending on the importance or novelty of their contents; it is also about the "informative function" in oral texts, intonation is of decisive importance for textual cohesion.

Other authors agree that for a text can be considered well built one requirement is cohesion, ie successive statements are well worked by certain morfosintácticos

Moreover, lexicosemantic procedures: extrarational connectors or text organizers that ensure connection of the meanings of the sentences: the lexical and grammatical forms whose reference is in the text itself: the relationship between verb tenses.

A. Grammar procedures:

1) Substitution by proformas (third person pronouns, possessive, demonstrative, relative and indefinite: pro-adverbs or substitutes for adverbs or phrases with adverbial value) substitutes for sentences (that, it, this).     

2) Ellipsis or substitution by the zero substitute.     

3) Determination or opposition defined / undefined, determined / undetermined (article, determinants, demonstratives).     

B. Lexical procedures:

1. Synonymic lexical substitution or repetition of a lexical element with a different lexical element.

2. Semantic relations between lexemes; relationship between hyperonyms and hyponyms, between co-eponyms, between antonyms, between syntactic derivatives, etc.

Referring to the functions of the previous procedures, the following stand out:

At other times, the relative performs the same syntactic function as the names or proformas that have been replaced, which will allow the use of the relative within the prepositional phrases.

Consistency is a characteristic of the texts that makes us perceive all its parts as compatible in the same whole and that allows us to move forward without the interpretation of some parts having to be done at the expense of forgetting others. The incompatibility that could break the coherence of a text is the relationship between two sentences that cannot be simultaneously true, but the acceptance of one implies the negation of the other and vice versa.

Incoherence may be the most serious of textual construction errors because it directly threatens the possibility that the text is interpretable. Incoherence is sometimes the result of insufficient knowledge of the lexicon used, which causes the editor not to say what he thinks he is saying.

For these authors, coherence is the fact that two or more sentences say things compatible with each other.

In this regard, Rodríguez (2016) considers that «... the contextual environment of an expression configures its meaning and also forms its referent».

According to Van Dijk the semantic coherence can be:

a. Linear or sequential (between propositions or between propositions and sequences).

b. Global (determined by the macrostructures or content of the subject text).

Among the conditions of semantic coherence essential to analyze paragraphs and compositions, the following can be noted:

1. The concordance or adequacy between the meanings and the frames of reference of the chosen theme, so that the text does not derive to other thematic areas, without full conclusion of its semic intentions.

2. The coherent structuring of meanings according to the type of discourse and the demands of the topic. The knowledge of the relations of semantic organization and their use depending on the specific characteristics of the texts, whether descriptive, narrative or expository is important for the correct structuring of meanings, is an essential condition for the competent expression of information.

Among these relationships can be found:

a. Cause / reason - effect / consequence.

b. Simultaneity.

c. Contrast / Confrontation

d. Analogy / equality or similarity.

e. Parts all.

f. Possessed possessor.

g. Set / subset / elements.

h. Exterior Interior.

i. Disturbance.

j. Gradation.

k. Proximity.

l. Addition.

These forms of semantic organization are expression of the varied possibilities to structure written texts, adapted to different intentions and functions.

3. The relation of accessibility of the meanings with respect to the real situations of the world from which they are nourished, so that they express a level of sufficiency. The knowledge of the subject and the good use of the structures and relations of semantic organization influence this level. The sufficiency is given in the satisfaction that occurs in the recipient when reading the text.

4. The assignment of properties and characteristics consistent with each individual (or aspects of reality), whether human, social or natural; in which the parts are properly integrated with the whole, the possessor with the possessed, the inclusive and the included.

5. The structuring of accessibility relationships between the new information to be developed and the preceding information, the creation of logical links that allow one meaning to be spun so that the information changes go consistently throughout the textual warp.

As for the semantic transformations, Van Dijk describes the following basic operations:

1. Omission: when any proposition or part of it can be omitted.

2. Attachment: when deduction, explanation, association or valuation adds propositions.

3. Permutation: when the order is reversed, altered or changed, propositions.

4. Substitution: when propositions are replaced by lexically equivalent concepts. Van Dijk (1983, p. 79)

The paragraph, as an intermediate level of the text

Eugenio Co'eriu distinguishes explicitly between text and speech.

According to him, three «knowledge» are used for discursive activity:

1) Knowing how to speak (congruent, coherent, etc.)     

2) The idiomatic knowledge (the technique to speak)     

3) The expressive knowledge (of adaptation to the situation, subject, interlocutor). Co'eriu (1981 p.17)     

If the linearity of the discourse is taken into account, students are required to learn to express themselves first in sentences, then in paragraphs and then in texts called in the school environment compositions, to which the didactic formality conceived for a long time as a writing of three paragraphs on a subject imposed.

From the third grade and throughout the Secondary School, the student faces the task of writing paragraphs; however, he still does not master this ability when he leaves school.

Frequently - and this is the case in this pedagogical experience - teachers start from the budget that the student knows what a paragraph is, their theoretical and practical mastery is not verified and their writing is mechanically oriented. Then they conduct their review, often by hearing. In this case, they generally pay attention to the deep structure, to the content, without noticing the errors in the surface structure, which is to say in the form. Likewise, in the diagnostic tests, it has been detected that the students accept the subject acceptably; but, from the formal point of view, they present many difficulties. One of them consists in the organization of the paragraph.

The methodological treatment of written construction guides that to build on a given topic, it is necessary to break it down into its sub-themes and express ideas and concepts in this regard. Build from the lower units, through which the meaning is woven and takes verbal expression, to the upper ones until reaching the speech. The knowledge of structures of a lower level (phrases, sentences), gives us the possibility of building units of a higher level (paragraphs, speeches), which should be considered in the didactics of the written language.

There are several definitions that different authors have given about the concept of paragraph:

"The paragraph is a set of interrelated sentences, which develop a theme and end with a separate point." Romeu, (1985)

Ricardo Repilado (1966), in his work "Two writing topics", states:

"Define, argue, exemplify, compare, detail, and reiterate: they are basic operations of thought, from which some methods have naturally arisen to develop paragraphs" (p. 89).

This author analyzes essential aspects in the writing of paragraphs, such as their qualities:

These elements have a very diverse syntactic nature:

The echo consists in repeating a key word already mentioned in a previous sentence or the syntactic structure used to construct the preceding sentence or a part of it. The echo is divided into two classes.

1. The lexical echo, which is produced not only by repeating the original word, but also with a derivative, with a synonym, and even with an antonym.

2. The syntactic echo, which is achieved by repeating one or more consecutive times the syntactic structure of a complete sentence or only a part of it. It is what is usually called parallel construction or parallelism.

Echoes are simple repetitive devices, which establish a relationship between sentences, not through an interdependence of meanings, but by the similarity or identity of the meaning of a word or the form of a syntactic structure. Nevertheless, the echo unifies making the reader's attention turn back, because when the word or repeated structure is found, it inevitably recalls its previous appearance. Echoes can never be inept repetitions caused by poor vocabulary or style clumsiness. They must be used deliberately, taking into account the effect to be produced.

They function as precursor elements:

1) The question that really asks and gets an answer, which must be distinguished from the question that neither asks nor gets an answer and is only an indirect way of expressing the statement.     

2) The negative expression that through its context unequivocally announces the corresponding affirmative expression.     

3) The explicit statement that something is going to be related to the following as the announcement of enumerations, especially at a fixed limit.     

The unifying action of the suspension and the precursor elements differs from the action produced by the retrospective elements and the echoes. The difference is obvious. Retrospective resources exert their unifying action by establishing a relationship between two points of speech that the reader already knows. However, with the prospective reference it happens that now when the phenomenon occurs only one of those points, the first one has entered the reader's consciousness, with the result of the relationship established being less defined.

To be useful, all these unifying resources must be used with naturalness and parsimony, since the improper or excessive use of any of them is capable of producing even more unpleasant effects than those that cause them to ignore them completely.

The position of the topic in the paragraph

In the paragraph, there is a regular or direct order in the relative position of theme and development, very similar to the order of the words within the sentence. However, this position of the subject is not unalterable, since direct order can also be altered. In the paragraph, the alteration of the regular order is also not arbitrary, because it is due to reasons such as the type of development that has been given to the paragraph or the use of certain unifying resources. In those cases in which regular and direct order is maintained, theme and development can be separated and even in different paragraphs. However, it is not only that sometimes the thematic sentence remains from its normal position, but also it may even be totally lacking, since it is not essential that the subject be always explicitly formulated.

The form and structure of the sentences

In the paragraph, the long sentences are alternated with the short ones using a very simple one and there a very complex one, changing the order of the syntactic elements so that it begins with the subject while it carries a complement ahead, affirming here to deny there.

Paragraph extension

No one can dictate to the neighbor how many words he should write on a given topic. A paragraph is complete only when you have said everything you had to say in the minimum of words that allow you the maximum of clarity, correctness and even beauty. This extension can take precedence over extrinsic circumstances such as: the cultural level of the alleged readers; Your mental development among others.

These questions are retaken because of the undeniable value that thematic progression and coherence in the construction of discourse have, however, teachers forget about it in a good part of their classes and leave spontaneity learning the linguistic structures that Marina Parra very well considered a fabric, because if a single "point" escapes from it, the text is disfigured and does not fully fulfill its communicative function.



All of the above allows us to conclude that to achieve effectiveness in the construction of written texts in general and of the paragraph in particular, a scientifically and methodologically prepared teacher is required, with solid knowledge about the theoretical criteria posed by the grammar of the text in relation to the essential properties of the text on which the teaching of paragraph construction is based, that is, to maintain an arduous and constant improvement in this regard.

The structuring of the text written in paragraphs constitutes essentially the logical expression of the meaning, based on the permanence or advancement of the subject and the coherence, essential characteristics of every text. The permanence or advance of the text is something instinctive based on the relationship between the known (theme) and its progress or progression with the new that is added (rema). Consistency is given by the compatibility of all ideas in the text. Both, although they do not constitute the end of the communicative act, are essential to achieve it.



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